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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#2
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938331/postoperative-respiratory-complications-after-cleft-palate-closure-in-patients-with-pierre-robin-sequence-operative-considerations
#3
Yasmin Opdenakker, Gwen Swennen, Lies Pottel, Johan Abeloos, Krisztián Nagy
BACKGROUND: In cleft palate surgery, there is currently no consensus on the management of patients with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS). The authors aimed to evaluate the treatment strategy of cleft palate in our centers, with emphasis on patients with PRS, as the authors noted some patients with severe respiratory distress. Moreover, the authors aimed to investigate the prevalence of postoperative respiratory complications, using a modified-Furlow palatoplasty in combination with intravelar veloplasty in both patients with PRS and patients with non-PRS...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938289/discussing-benefits-and-risks-of-tracheostomy-what-physicians-actually-say
#4
Lauren M Hebert, Anne C Watson, Vanessa Madrigal, Tessie W October
OBJECTIVES: When contemplating tracheostomy placement in a pediatric patient, a family-physician conference is often the setting for the disclosure of risks and benefits of the procedure. Our objective was to compare benefits and risks of tracheostomy presented during family-physician conferences to an expert panel's recommendations for what should be presented. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective review of 19 transcripts of audio-recorded family-physician conferences regarding tracheostomy placement in children...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938276/anesthesia-with-dexmedetomidine-and-low-dose-isoflurane-increases-solute-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-in-rat-brain-when-compared-with-high-dose-isoflurane
#5
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Fengfei Ding, Qian Sun, Ehab Al-Bizri, Rany Makaryus, Stephen Probst, Maiken Nedergaard, Elliot A Stein, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938254/antibiotic-prophylaxis-immunoglobulin-substitution-and-supportive-measures-prevent-infections-in-mecp2-duplication-syndrome
#6
Michael Bauer, Renate Krüger, Uwe Kölsch, Nadine Unterwalder, Christian Meisel, Volker Wahn, Horst von Bernuth
Respiratory infections are the main cause of early death in patients with MECP2 duplication syndrome. We report on a 20-year-old patient with MECP2 duplication syndrome, IgG2/IgG4/IgA/IgM-deficiency and polysaccharide-specific-antibody-deficiency, who had 46 episodes of pneumonia in his first 13 years of life. Immunoglobulin substitution, daily antibiotic prophylaxis with two agents and supportive measures reduced occurrence of pneumonia to 4 episodes in the following 6 years of life.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938253/guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-in-critically-ill-patients-part-i-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm-2017
#7
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Bram Rochwerg, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients. PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of 16 international experts in critical care medicine, endocrinology, and guideline methods, all of them members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and/or the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DESIGN/METHODS: The recommendations were based on the summarized evidence from the 2008 document in addition to more recent findings from an updated systematic review of relevant studies from 2008 to 2017 and were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937837/lung-function-functional-capacity-and-respiratory-symptoms-at-discharge-from-hospital-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Jenny S Danielsbacka, Monika Fagevik Olsén, Per-Olof Hansson, Kaisa Mannerkorpi
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a cardiovascular disease with symptoms including respiratory associated chest pain (RACP) and dyspnea. No previous studies exist focusing on lung function, functional capacity, and respiratory symptoms at discharge after PE. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine and describe lung function, functional capacity, and respiratory symptoms at discharge in patients with PE and compare to reference values. PATIENTS/METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with PE admitted to the Acute Medical Unit, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, were included...
September 22, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937774/selective-non-steroidal-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulators-for-the-inhaled-treatment-of-pulmonary-diseases
#9
Martin Hemmerling, Stinabritt Nilsson, Karl Edman, Stefan Eirefelt, Wayne Russell, Ramon Hendrickx, Eskil Johnsson, Carina Kärrman-Mårdh, Markus Berger, Hartmut Rehwinkel, Anna Abrahamsson, Jan Dahm Eacute N, Anders R Eriksson, Balint Gabos, Krister Henriksson, Nafizal Hossain, Svetlana Ivanova, Anne-Helene Jansson, Tina J Jensen, Anders Jerre, Henrik Johansson, Tomas Klingstedt, Matti Lepistö, Martin Lindsjö, Irene Mile, Grigorios Nikitidis, John Steele, Ulrika Tehler, Lisa Wissler, Thomas Hansson
A class of potent, non-steroidal, selective indazole ether based glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SGRMs) was developed for the inhaled treatment of respiratory diseases. Starting from an orally available compound with demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in rat, a soft drug strategy was implemented to ensure rapid elimination of drug candidates and minimize systemic GR activation. The first clinical candidate 1b (AZD5423) displayed potent inhibition of lung edema in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation following dry powder inhalation combined with a moderate systemic GR-effect, assessed as thymic involution...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937571/practice-bulletin-no-183-postpartum-hemorrhage
#10
(no author information available yet)
Maternal hemorrhage, defined as a cumulative blood loss of greater than or equal to 1,000 mL or blood loss accompanied by signs or symptoms of hypovolemia within 24 hours after the birth process, remains the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide (1). Additional important secondary sequelae from hemorrhage exist and include adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, loss of fertility, and pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome).Hemorrhage that leads to blood transfusion is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity in the United States closely followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (2)...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937566/practice-bulletin-no-183-summary-postpartum-hemorrhage
#11
(no author information available yet)
Maternal hemorrhage, defined as a cumulative blood loss of greater than or equal to 1,000 mL or blood loss accompanied by signs or symptoms of hypovolemia within 24 hours after the birth process, remains the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide (1). Additional important secondary sequelae from hemorrhage exist and include adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, loss of fertility, and pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome).Hemorrhage that leads to blood transfusion is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity in the United States closely followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (2)...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937240/baroreflex-sensitivity-in-premature-infants-relation-to-the-parameters-characterizing-intrauterine-and-postnatal-condition
#12
K Haskova, M Javorka, B Czippelova, M Zibolen, K Javorka
At present, there are insufficient information about baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and factors that determine BRS in premature newborns. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between BRS and the characteristics that reflecting the intrauterine development (gestational age and birth weight), as well as postnatal development (postconception age and the actual weight of the child at the time of measurement). We examined 57 premature infants, who were divided into groups according to gestational age and postconception age as well as birth weight, and weight at the time of measurement...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937239/nasal-nitric-oxide-in-healthy-adults-reference-values-and-affecting-factors
#13
M Antosova, D Mokra, I Tonhajzerova, P Mikolka, P Kosutova, M Mestanik, L Pepucha, J Plevkova, T Buday, V Calkovsky, A Bencova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous mediator with significant role in the respiratory system. Many endogenous and exogenous factors influence the synthesis of NO and its level is significantly changed during the inflammation. Analysis of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is not validated so far as the diagnostic method. There is a lack of reference values with possible identification of factors modulating the nNO levels. In healthy adult volunteers (n=141) we studied nasal NO values by NIOX MINO® (Aerocrine, Sweden) according to the recommendations of the ATS & ERS...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937238/effects-of-roflumilast-a-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-on-the-lung-functions-in-a-saline-lavage-induced-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#14
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Rezakova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937237/selective-inhibition-of-nf-kappab-and-surfactant-therapy-in-experimental-meconium-induced-lung-injury
#15
J Kopincova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, P Kosutova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in newborns is characterized mainly by respiratory failure due to surfactant dysfunction and inflammation. Previous meta-analyses did not prove any effect of exogenous surfactant treatment nor glucocorticoid administration on final outcome of children with MAS despite oxygenation improvement. As we supposed there is the need to intervene in both these fields simultaneously, we evaluated therapeutic effect of combination of exogenous surfactant and selective inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IKK-NBD peptide)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937234/experimental-models-of-acute-lung-injury-in-the-newborns
#16
D Mokra, A Calkovska
Acute lung injury in the preterm newborns can originate from prematurity of the lung and insufficient synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. This situation is known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In the term neonates, the respiratory insufficiency is related to a secondary inactivation of the pulmonary surfactant, for instance, by action of endotoxins in bacterial pneumonia or by effects of aspirated meconium. The use of experimental models of the mentioned situations provides new information on the pathophysiology of these disorders and offers unique possibility to test novel therapeutic approaches in the conditions which are very similar to the clinical syndromes...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937232/physiology-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-respiratory-system
#17
M Antosova, D Mokra, L Pepucha, J Plevkova, T Buday, M Sterusky, A Bencova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous neurotransmitter and mediator. It participates in regulation of physiological processes in different organ systems including airways. Therefore, it is important to clarify its role in the regulation of both airway and vascular smooth muscle, neurotransmission and neurotoxicity, mucus transport, lung development and in the. surfactant production. The bioactivity of NO is highly variable and depends on many factors: the presence and activity of NO-producing enzymes, activity of competitive enzymes (e...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937231/pulmonary-surfactant-and-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-the-interaction-and-its-functional-consequences
#18
M Kolomaznik, Z Nova, A Calkovska
The respiratory system is constantly exposed to pathogens which enter the lungs by inhalation or via blood stream. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also named endotoxin, can reach the airspaces as the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and lead to local inflammation and systemic toxicity. LPS affects alveolar type II (ATII) cells and pulmonary surfactant and although surfactant molecule has the effective protective mechanisms, excessive amount of LPS interacts with surfactant film and leads to its inactivation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937056/serum-cystatin-c-as-an-earlier-predictor-of-acute-kidney-injury-than-serum-creatinine-in-preterm-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#19
Noha Ahmed Abdelaal, Sherein Abdelhamid Shalaby, Abdelmoneim Kassem Khashana, Amina Mohamed Abdelwahab
In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum cystatin C (sCysC) as an early predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Sixty preterm neonates diagnosed with RDS and 40 healthy controls (28-36 weeks) admitted to the neonatal Intensive Care Unit were investigated. AKI was defined on the 3rd day of life (DOL-3) as an increase in serum creatinine (sCr) of >0.3 mg/dL from baseline (the lowest previous sCr). sCysC levels were measured on DOL-1, -3 and -7. Of the 60 neonates with RDS, 24 (40%) developed AKI...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937031/a-novel-agrn-mutation-leads-to-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-only-affecting-limb-girdle-muscle
#20
Ying Zhang, Yi Dai, Jing-Na Han, Zhao-Hui Chen, Li Ling, Chuan-Qiang Pu, Li-Ying Cui, Xu-Sheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by impaired neuromuscular transmission. The defect of AGRN was one of the causes of CMS through influencing the development and maintenance of neuromuscular transmission. However, CMS reports about this gene mutation were rare. Here, we report a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.5302G>C) of AGRN in a Chinese CMS pedigree. METHODS: We performed a detailed clinical assessment of a Chinese family with three affected members...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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