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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166670/age-related-differences-in-the-respiratory-microbiota-of-chickens
#1
Laura Glendinning, Gerry McLachlan, Lonneke Vervelde
In this era of next generation sequencing technologies it is now possible to characterise the chicken respiratory microbiota without the biases inherent to traditional culturing techniques. However, little research has been performed in this area. In this study we characterise and compare buccal, nasal and lung microbiota samples from chickens in three different age groups using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Buccal and nasal swabs were taken from birds aged 2 days (n = 5), 3 weeks (n = 5) and 30 months (n = 6). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were also collected alongside reagent only controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166668/interleukin-36%C3%AE-and-il-36-receptor-signaling-mediate-impaired-host-immunity-and-lung-injury-in-cytotoxic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection-role-of-prostaglandin-e2
#2
Tetsuji Aoyagi, Michael W Newstead, Xianying Zeng, Yuta Nanjo, Marc Peters-Golden, Mitsuo Kaku, Theodore J Standiford
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166654/therapeutic-efficacy-of-equine-botulism-antitoxin-in-rhesus-macaques
#3
Shantha Kodihalli, Andrew Emanuel, Teresa Takla, Yi Hua, Charles Hobbs, Ross LeClaire, Denise C O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. BAT® (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)-(Equine)) has been developed and its therapeutic efficacy evaluated against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in Rhesus macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166423/exhaled-and-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-with-nasal-polyps-in-primary-care
#4
M Frendo, K Hakansson, S Schwer, A T Ravn, H Meteran, C Porsbjerg, V Backer, C von Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with lower airway disease. However, only few studies of CRSwNP from outside secondary/tertiary care centres have been published. We recently reported an asthma frequency of 44% and 65% in primary and secondary care patients respectively. Therefore, we hypothesise that inflammation of the lower airways could be present in all CRSwNP patients, even without asthma. Here, we assessed the degree of lower and upper airway inflammation using exhaled and nasal nitric oxide (NO) in primary care CRSwNP patients with and without asthma...
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166367/smoke-free-policies-in-the-world-s-50-busiest-airports-august-2017
#5
Michael A Tynan, Elizabeth Reimels, Jennifer Tucker, Brian A King
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes premature death and disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer among nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, exacerbated asthma, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in children (1,2). The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke (1). Previous CDC reports on airport smoke-free policies found that most large-hub airports in the United States prohibit smoking (3); however, the extent of smoke-free policies at airports globally has not been assessed...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166205/pregnant-women-with-heart-disease-placental-characteristics-and-their-association-with-fetal-adverse-events
#6
Fabio V Lima, Paraskevi Koutrolou-Sotiropoulou, Puja B Parikh, Cecilia Avila, Javed Butler, Kathleen Stergiopoulos
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with heart disease (HD) have higher rates of adverse fetal outcomes. We describe placental pathologic characteristics and their association with fetal events. METHODS: In pregnant women, known HD were categorized into: (1) cardiomyopathy (CM) or (2) other HD (congenital, coronary, arrhythmia, or valvular). Outcomes were maternal major adverse cardiac events (MACE), fetal adverse clinical events (FACE), a composite of infant death, prematurity, underweight status, intracranial hemorrhage, and respiratory distress...
November 22, 2017: Acute Cardiac Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166200/effect-of-audiovisual-distraction-on-distress-and-oxygenation-status-in-children-receiving-aerosol-therapy
#7
Ni Luh Putu Shinta Devi, Nani Nurhaeni, Happy Hayati
Aerosol therapy, a treatment for children with disorders of the respiratory system, often causes distress, especially in young children. Distress during aerosol therapy can decrease the effectiveness of the treatment. This study aimed to determine the effect of audiovisual distraction on distress levels and oxygenation status (measured by oxygen saturation and respiratory frequency) in children who receive aerosol therapy for disorders of the respiratory system. A quasi-experimental design was employed, specifically a non-equivalent control group, pre-test-post-test design...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166194/the-effects-of-music-therapy-on-the-physiological-response-of-asthmatic-children-receiving-inhalation-therapy
#8
Riau Roslita, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
The clinical manifestation of asthma in children can interfere with their daily activities. Music therapy may become one of the alternative approaches to making children feel comfortable during inhalation therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of music therapy on the physiological response of asthmatic preschool and school-age children receiving inhalation therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group with a pre-test-post-test design. The 44 respondents consisted of preschool and school-age children assigned to intervention and control groups...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166184/the-quarter-prone-position-increases-oxygen-saturation-in-premature-infants-using-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#9
Yossy Utario, Yeni Rustina, Fajar Tri Waluyanti
A primary problem that occurs in premature infants is oxygenation disorders, thus requiring respiratory support, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The effectiveness of CPAP can be improved by adjusting the body's position, so the aim of this study was to examine the effect of the quarter prone position on the oxygenation status of preterm infants using CPAP. This study used a randomized controlled trial with a crossover design. A group of 15 preterm infants receiving CPAP was selected, and randomization of allocation was done to divide the respondents into the intervention group (quarter prone) or the control group (supine)...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#10
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165854/mmp-3-1171-5a-6a-lys45glu-variants-affect-serum-levels-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp-3-and-correlate-with-severity-of-copd-a-study-of-mmp-3-mmp-7-and-mmp-12-in-a-tunisian-population
#11
Sarra Bchir, Hela Ben Nasr, Abdelhamid Garrouch, Amel Ben Anes, Ammar Abbassi, Zouhair Tabka, Karim Chahed
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the role of MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A; Lys45Glu (A/G)), MMP-7 (-181) A/G and MMP-12 (-82 A/G; Asn357Ser (A/G)) variants in the development and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Tunisians. METHODS: Plethysmography was performed in all participants to measure FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC parameters. Genotyping of MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-12 polymorphisms was carried out in 138 patients with COPD and 216 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165766/clinical-analysis-of-59-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-diseases-due-to-enterovirus-ev71-and-concomitant-viral-encephalitis
#12
M-G Wang, H-M Sun, X-M Liu, X-Q Deng
OBJECTIVE: To analyzed the clinical features of children with HFMD and viral encephalitis and to summarize some treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 59 children with HFMD were included in this study. All children underwent complete blood count, blood biochemical test cerebrospinal fluid examination, chest X-ray and brain MRI. RESULTS: One child died 24 hours after admission due to central respiratory failure with myocardial damage...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165752/the-clinical-effects-of-combined-use-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-at-early-stage-to-cure-severe-respiratory-failure-in-neonates
#13
W Wang, Z-G Li, G Liu, L Xue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects of combined use of inhaled nitric oxide at the early stage to cure severe respiratory failure in neonates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 45 cases of neonates with severe respiratory failure, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of XuZhou Children's Hospital from November 2014 to February 2016, were selected as objects of study, namely the iNO treatment group. On the basis of conventional treatment and mechanical ventilation, all of them were treated with the combined use of iNO at the early stage...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165683/systematic-review-occupational-illness-in-the-waste-and-recycling-sector
#14
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165576/timing-of-first-respiratory-virus-detections-in-infants-a-community-based-birth-cohort-study
#15
Mohinder Sarna, Robert S Ware, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood
Background: Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort, and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165575/respiratory-viruses-in-babies-important-insights-from-down-under
#16
Gregory Storch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165509/-evaluation-of-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-technique-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-detection-in-extra-respiratory-specimens
#17
Patricia García, M Elvira Balcells, Claudia Castillo, Carolina Miranda, Enrique Geoffroy, Juan C Román, Aniela Wozniak
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) represents the 26.2% of total TB cases in Chile. Culture is the gold standard method, but the process is extremely slow. Xpert®MTB/RIF technique detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) through real time PCR in less than 3 h. However, it has been validated only for respiratory specimens. We aimed to determine the performance of Xpert®MTB/RIF test in detecting MTBc in extra-respiratory specimens compared with a combined gold standard consisting in a positive (liquid and solid) mycobacterial culture and/or a positive validated molecular method (q-RPC, Cobas®TaqMan®-MTB)...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165103/occupation-exposed-to-road-traffic-emissions-and-respiratory-health-among-congolese-transit-workers-particularly-bus-conductors-in-kinshasa-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Etongola Papy Mbelambela, Ryoji Hirota, Masamitsu Eitoku, Sifa Marie Joelle Muchanga, Hidenori Kiyosawa, Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell, Ontshick Leader Lawanga, Narufumi Suganuma
OBJECTIVES: Road-traffic emissions (RTE) induce adverse health effects, notably respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases, as a result of pollutants deposited into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupation groups of Congolese transit workers exposed to RTE, particularly bus conductors and respiratory health, in Kinshasa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 April 20(th) to May 14(th), whose participants were bus conductors (n = 110), bus drivers (n = 107), taxi-motorcyclists (n = 102) and high school teachers (control group; n = 106)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165006/effect-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-postoperative-respiratory-and-heart-rate-in-cats-subjected-to-ovariohysterectomy
#19
Odd V Höglund, Barbara Dyall, Victoria Gräsman, Anna Edner, Ulf Olsson, Katja Höglund
Objectives The use of physiological parameters such as respiratory rate and heart rate to assess pain has long been discussed. The aim of the study was to compare postoperative respiratory rate and heart rate in cats subjected to flank ovariohysterectomy treated with a preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or no NSAID, and determine whether these parameters are suitable for postoperative pain assessment in cats. We hypothesised that cats without an NSAID would experience more postoperative pain, which may increase heart rate and respiratory rate...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164915/establishment-of-a-bordetella-avium-challenge-model-in-turkeys
#20
Rebecca Knab, Henning Petersen, Silke Rautenschlein, Arne Jung
Despite the importance of Bordetella avium (BA) as a respiratory pathogen of young turkeys, no infection model for the evaluation of BA-vaccine efficacy is available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of route and dose of infection on the establishment of a BA-challenge model. In our first experiment, 28-day-old turkeys were either inoculated oculonasally with 10(5), 10(7) or 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of BA per animal or exposed to BA by aerosol with 10(5)-10(8) CFU/m(3). The respiratory tract of all inoculated animals was BA-colonised, which was confirmed by choanal swabs and samples of trachea and lung, showing the highest prevalence in the aerosol inoculated group...
November 22, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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