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John P Buchweitz, Douglas Mader, Andreas F Lehner
A case of canine intoxication and fatality with the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin is described. A 5-year-old female spayed Pit Bull Terrier was off leash and unsupervised at home for 15-20 min prior to discovery by her owner. The patient was in lateral recumbency, having what the owner described as a seizure. The patient was transported to an emergency veterinary hospital where she presented with tachycardia, tachypnea and intractable tremors/seizures. Despite aggressive medical intervention, the patient went into respiratory and cardiac arrest and died at 28 h after presentation...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gabriella Roda, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Michele Dei Cas, Valeria Ottaviano, Eleonora Casagni, Fausto Tregambe, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Fiorenza Farè, Rino Froldi, Veniero Gambaro
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Raf Aerts, Olivier Honnay, An Van Nieuwenhuyse
Introduction: Natural environments and green spaces provide ecosystem services that enhance human health and well-being. They improve mental health, mitigate allergies and reduce all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The presence, accessibility, proximity and greenness of green spaces determine the magnitude of their positive health effects, but the role of biodiversity (including species and ecosystem diversity) within green spaces remains underexplored. This review describes mechanisms and evidence of effects of biodiversity in nature and green spaces on human health...
July 10, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Ching-Po Lin, Chung-Kang Peng, Norden E Huang
The intrinsic composition and functional relevance of resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signals are fundamental in research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform to estimate high-resolution time-frequency spectra, we investigated the instantaneous frequency and amplitude modulation of resting-state fMRI signals, as well as their functional relevance in a large normal-aging cohort (n = 420, age = 21-89 years). We evaluated the cognitive function of each participant and recorded respiratory signals during fMRI scans...
June 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Maurice Chan, Seok Hwee Koo, Boran Jiang, Pei Qi Lim, Thean Yen Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are common reasons for hospital admission, and are associated with enormous economic burden due to significant morbidity and mortality. The wide spectrum of microbial agents underlying the pathology renders the diagnosis of respiratory infections challenging. Molecular diagnostics offer an advantage to the current serological and culture-based methods in terms of sensitivity, coverage, hands-on time, and time to results. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of three commercial kits for respiratory viral detection...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Bindiya Bagga, L Harrison, P Roddam, J P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms in RSV persist long after the virus is no longer detected by culture. Current concepts of RSV pathogenesis explain this by RSV inducing a long-lasting pathogenic immune cascade. We alternatively hypothesized that prolonged unrecognized RSV replication may be responsible and studied this possibility directly in a human wild-type RSV experimental infection model. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current report was to define the duration of true human RSV replication by studying it directly in immunocompetent adults experimentally infected with a clinical strain of RSV utilizing this previously established safe and reproducible model...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Jordan T Glicksman, Arjun K Parasher, Laurel Doghramji, David Brauer, Jeremy Waldram, Kristen Walters, Jeff Bulva, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Andrew A White, John V Bosso
BACKGROUND: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory sensitivity to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In addition to sensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs, the majority of patients with AERD have been reported to have respiratory intolerance associated with the consumption of alcohol. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was performed...
July 10, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Gláucia B Pereira-Neto, Márcio A Brunetto, Patrícia M Oba, Tatiana Champion, Cecilia Villaverde, Thiago H A Vendramini, Julio C C Balieiro, Aulus C Carciofi, Aparecido A Camacho
Canine obesity is a common medical disorder and a known risk factor for associated diseases; it can seriously influence various physiological functions, thereby limiting the longevity of the animal. In this study, we evaluated potential respiratory alterations in obese dogs before and after being subjected to caloric restriction to decrease their body weight by 20%, and compared those dogs with control dogs with ideal body condition score. The animals were divided into three experimental groups: GI (obese dogs; n = 11); GII (obese dogs after weight loss, same animals as in GI); GIII (control dogs; n = 11)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Li Hou, Ling Liu, Hongfei Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lan Zhang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Gao, Depei Wang
In this work, we constructed the aox1 disruption strains 3-4 and 4-10, as well as the aox1 overexpression strains 72 and 102 in Aspergillus niger. The energy metabolism, EMP, TCA pathways, and flux were investigated for the citric acid (CA) overproduction via the aox1 overexpression among them. As expected, the overexpression of the aox1 gene enabled a higher growth rate than that of the rate of its parent strain in medium with respiratory chain inhibitors. In liquefied corn starch medium supplemented with 0...
July 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Francesco Profili, Daniela Nuvolone, Fabio Barbone, Cristina Aprea, Letizia Centi, Riccardo Frazzetta, Stefano Belli, Fabio Voller
BACKGROUND: Studies on low-level As exposure have not found an association with cancer, while increased risks were reported for skin lesions, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and reproductive outcomes. Prospective observational studies with individual exposure measures are needed to study low-level As exposure effects. In a geothermal area in Southern Tuscany (Italy), characterized by a natural presence of As in drinking water (< 50 µg/l), As urinary concentrations were measured in a survey in 1998 and cohort members were followed to evaluate the effects on health...
July 13, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Marcel Sauvalle, Andrés Alvo
BACKGROUND: The respiratory epithelium is mainly constituted by caliciform (produces mucus, responsible of keeping moisture and trapping particles) and ciliated cells (transports mucus into the pharynx, by the movement of multiple cilia). For centuries, nasal lavages have been used for different rhinosinusal conditions. Some studies suggest not only a direct effect on the mobilisation of secretions, but also an improvement in mucociliary clearance rates. To our knowledge, the impact of temperature in nasal lavages has been scarcely studied...
July 13, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Stefan Kuhle, Adam Muir, Christy G Woolcott, Mary M Brown, Sarah D McDonald, Mohamed Abdolell, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and adverse child health outcomes is well described, but there are few data on the relationship with offspring health service use. We examined the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring health care utilization and costs over the first 18 years of life. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of children (n = 35,090) born between 1989 and 1993 and their mothers, who were identified using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and linked to provincial administrative health data from birth through 2014...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Chloé Michaudel, Louis Fauconnier, Yvon Julé, Bernhard Ryffel
Environmental air pollutants including ozone cause severe lung injury and aggravate respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD. Here we compared the effect of ozone on respiratory epithelium injury, inflammation, hyperreactivity and airway remodeling in mice upon acute (1ppm, 1 h) and chronic exposure (1.5ppm, 2 h, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Acute ozone exposure caused respiratory epithelial disruption with protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the broncho-alveolar space, leading to lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yasunori Enomoto, Sayomi Matsushima, Kiyoshi Shibata, Yoichiro Aoshima, Haruna Yagi, Shiori Meguro, Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Naoki Inui, Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda, Toshihide Iwashita
Although differentiation of lung fibroblasts into α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive myofibroblasts is important in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), few biomarkers reflecting the fibrotic process have been discovered. We performed microarray analyses between FACS-sorted steady-state fibroblasts (lineage [CD45, TER-119, CD324, CD31, LYVE-1, and CD146]-negative and PDGFRα-positive cells) from untreated mouse lungs and myofibroblasts (lineage-negative, Sca-1-negative, and CD49e-positive cells) from bleomycin-treated mouse lungs...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Melanie J Harriff, Curtis McMurtrey, Cara A Froyd, Haihong Jin, Meghan Cansler, Megan Null, Aneta Worley, Erin W Meermeier, Gwendolyn Swarbrick, Aaron Nilsen, Deborah A Lewinsohn, William Hildebrand, Erin J Adams, David M Lewinsohn
MR1-restricted T cells (MR1Ts) are a T cell subset that recognize and mediate host defense to a broad array of microbial pathogens, including respiratory pathogens (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Streptococcus pyogenes , and Francisella tularensis ) and enteric pathogens (e.g., Escherichia coli and Salmonella species). Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a subset of MR1Ts, were historically defined by the use of a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and recognition of small molecules derived from the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway presented on MR1...
July 13, 2018: Science Immunology
Manasawee Indrabhinduwat, Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Joseph P Colgan, Hector R Villarraga
SummaryThirty-seven-year-old male presented with cough, dyspnea, significant weight loss (20 kg) and subacute fever for the past 2 months. Physical examination revealed inspiratory and expiratory wheezing bilaterally. A normal S1, S2 and a 3/6 systolic ejection murmur at the left upper parasternal border with respiratory variation were found during cardiac auscultation. Kidney and bone marrow biopsy reported a high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Echocardiography and cardiac CT findings consisted of multiple intracardiac masses affecting the right ventricular (RV) outflow track, RV apex, medial portion of the right atrium and posterior left atrium, as well as mild impairment of the RV systolic function...
September 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Sara Invitto, Antonio Calcagnì, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Michela Balconi, Marina De Tommaso, Domenico Maurizio Toraldo
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is characterized by snoring associated with repeated apnea and/or obstructive hypopnea. The nasal airways of OSA patients, measured via acoustic rhinometry, are significantly narrower than healthy subjects and this narrow nasal structure can reduce olfactory function. The relationship between nasal structure and olfactory function, assessed via behavioral test results, indicates that there is a high prevalence of nasal airflow problems. Based on these assumptions, the purpose of this study was to carry out an assessment of olfactory perception in OSA patients through the Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials (CSERP), investigating the N1 component and the Late Positive Component (LPC)...
July 10, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Hisanori Kurosaki, Keisuke Ohta, Yukihiro Wato, Akira Yamashita, Hideo Inaba
AIMS: Japanese emergency medical services (EMS) personnel providing advance life support confirm the absence of a carotid pulse before initiating chest compressions (CCs) in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a new protocol facilitating early CCs before definitive cardiac arrest in enhancing the outcomes of OHCA. METHODS: The 2011 new protocol facilitated EMS to initiate CCs when the carotid pulse was weak and/or <50/min in comatose adult patients with respiratory arrest (apnoea or agonal breathing) and loss of the radial pulse...
July 10, 2018: Resuscitation
Sujogya Kumar Panda, Raju Das, Pieter Leyssen, Johan Neyts, Walter Luyten
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge on the use of plants for different ailments by the tribals of the Chirang Reserve Forest (CRF, Northeast India) was used to assess the potential of these plants for treating viral, bacterial and fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fieldwork in the CRF documented the use of plants for the treatment of various human ailments. The ethnobotanical data were analyzed using different quantitative indices viz. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Relative Frequency Citation (RFC), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J A Dawson, G M Schmölzer, J Wyllie
Resuscitation algorithms and guidelines highlight the importance of heart rate (HR) in determining interventions and assessing their effect. However, the actual HR values used are historical based upon normal physiology, and HR at birth may be affected by mode of delivery and timing of cord clamping as well as respiratory status and condition at delivery. Furthermore, the most accurate and effective ways to assess and monitor HR in the newborn infant are only now becoming established. This article examines the importance of HR values and the most widely used methods of estimation as well as some newer modalities which are being developed...
July 6, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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