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Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Nasir Mehmood, Ranim Alayoubi, Eric Husson, Cédric Jacquard, Jochen Büchs, Catherine Sarazin, Isabelle Gosselin
Imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment and allow the achievement of higher ethanolic yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermentation. However, residual ILs entrapped in pretreated biomass are often toxic for fermentative microorganisms, but interaction mechanisms between ILs and cells are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO₂] on Kluyveromyces marxianus , a thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Daniela Calzia, Greta Garbarino, Federico Caicci, Mario Pestarino, Lucia Manni, Carlo Enrico Traverso, Isabella Panfoli, Simona Candiani
Previous studies on purified bovine rod outer segments (OS) disks pointed to Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as being the most likely mechanism involved in ATP production, as yet not fully understood, to support the first phototransduction steps. Bovine and murine rod OS disks, devoid of mitochondria, would house respiratory chain complexes I to IV and ATP synthase, similar to mitochondria. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is a well-suited animal model to study vertebrate embryogenesis as well as the retina, morphologically and functionally similar to its human counterpart...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Jian-Chao Zhao, Juan Cheng, Qi Zhang, Zi-Wei Gao, Meng-Yue Zhang, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and elongated rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SYP-B1015T , was isolated from the rhizosphere of Artemisia annua L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-B1015T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavobacterium compostarboris JCM 16527T (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium procerum JCM 30113T (97.2 %). The predominant respiratory quinone for the strain was MK-6, and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Rosa Margesin, De-Chao Zhang, Luciana Albuquerque, Hugo J C Froufe, Conceição Egas, Milton S da Costa
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated AM20-91T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain AM20-91T was related to the genus Lysobacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lysobacter novalis THG-PC7T (97.8 %), Luteimonas tolerans UM1T (97.7 %) and Lysobacter ximonensis XM415T (97.0 %). The strain contained ubiquinone 8 as the predominant respiratory quinone; its polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified aminophospholipids...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sarah Herzog, Wendy D'Andrea, Jonathan DePierro, Vivian Khedari
There is need for further work clarifying attention-physiology interactions by degree of exposure to early victimization, as it is clear that cumulative trauma in childhood, that is, polyvictimization, may have lasting effects on the stress response that differ from those of acute traumatization. The present study examined relationships between baseline and task-related physiology (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and heart rate [HR], respectively), and attention biases (via the dot probe task), in 63 community-dwelling adult women stratified on the basis of self-reported exposure to multiple types of childhood interpersonal victimization (i...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Iván José Ardila Gómez, Diana Alejandra Ruiz Rodríguez, María Rosalba Pardo Carrero
INTRODUCTION: The Mardini-Nyhan or LACHT association is a clinical condition of low prevalence that presents with pulmonary, cardiac and limb abnormalities, in which genetic etiology is not clearly documented to date. OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a 4-month-old child and the literature review of cases reported on this association, with the purpose of exposing the alterations found and thus gui de the early diagnosis of this entity. CLINICAL CASE: 4 months old girl, who admitted to intensive care in mixed respiratory failure, with pulmonary, cardiac and limb disorders that meet criteria for LACHT association, additionally documents hypoplasia of the upper airway, which worsens the evolution, increases the difficulty in mechanical ventilation and favors the fatal outcome at 7 days of hospita lization...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Daniel Zenteno, Aldo Bancalari, Ximena Navarro, Valentina Díaz, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Pablo Brockmann
INTRODUCTION: Night Continuous Saturometry (CSO2) is used in Neonatal Units to detect events of hypoxemia in Newborns (NB) with apnea episodes. Polygraphy (PG) has a larger number of measuring channels. Our goal was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CSO2 compared to Polygra phy in NB with suspected sleep apneas. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Results of CSO2 and PG performed simultaneously in RN with suspected apneas were retrospectively analyzed over a three-year period...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Latinka Basara, Nataša Jokić Begić, Sanja Popović Grle, Marko Jakopović, Miroslav SamarŽija
Dyspnea or breathlessness is a term primarily used in respiratory medicine. Nevertheless, in the last fifteen years, studies from other fields focus on the affective component of this complex phenomenon due to the frequent observation that psychological states can cause or be caused by dyspnea. Research so far shows that besides the biological component, dyspnea has a strong emotional and psychosocial determinant. This means that apart from its biological factors, dyspnea and its intensity are affected by emotions, personality, anxiety and depression, etc...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Paween Mahinthichaichan, Robert B Gennis, Emad Tajkhorshid
Cytochrome aa3 is the terminal respiratory enzyme of all eukaryotes and many bacteria and archaea, reducing O2 to water and harnessing the free energy from the reaction to generate the transmembrane electrochemical potential. The diffusion of O2 to the heme-copper catalytic site, which is buried deep inside the enzyme, is the initiation step of the reaction chemistry. Our previous molecular dynamics (MD) study with cytochrome ba3 , a homologous enzyme of cytochrome aa3 in Thermus thermophilus, demonstrated that O2 diffuses from the lipid bilayer to its reduction site through a 25-Å long tunnel inferred by Xe-binding sites detected by X-ray crystallography$ ...
March 16, 2018: Biochemistry
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Yu Onodera, Ryo Akimoto, Hiroto Suzuki, Masayuki Okada, Masaki Nakane, Kaneyuki Kawamae
BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies of the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its effect on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been done, the washout effect has not been well evaluated. Therefore, we made an experimental respiratory model to evaluate the respiratory physiological effect of HFNC. METHODS: An airway model was made by a 3D printer using the craniocervical 3D-CT data of a healthy 32-year-old male. CO2 was infused into four respiratory lung models (normal-lung, open- and closed-mouth models; restrictive- and obstructive-lung, open-mouth models) to maintain the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) at 40 mmHg...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alban Ramette, Ben D Spycher, Jingying Wang, Myrofora Goutaki, Caroline S Beardsmore, Claudia E Kuehni
We examined temporal dependencies between repeated assessments of respiratory infections and asthma in children in the Leicester Respiratory Cohort, Leicestershire, UK. Asthma (doctor diagnosis, health care visits, wheeze frequency) and respiratory infections (cold duration and frequency, cough with colds, ear infections) in the previous 12 months were assessed repeatedly at ages 1, 4, and 6 years for children born between April 1996 and April 1997. We determined associations between contemporaneous and lagged measures of asthma and respiratory infections using structural equation modelling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
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