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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214925/missed-opportunities-in-neonatal-deaths-in-rwanda-applying-the-three-delays-model-in-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-neonatal-death
#1
Efua Wilmot, Marcel Yotebieng, Alison Norris, Fidele Ngabo
Objective Administered in a timely manner, current evidence-based interventions could reduce neonatal deaths from infections, intrapartum injuries and complications due to prematurity. The three delays model (delay in seeking care, in arriving at a health facility, and in receiving adequate care), which has been applied to understanding maternal deaths, may be useful for understanding neonatal deaths. We assess the main causes of neonatal deaths in Rwanda and their associated delays. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated data from 2012 from 40 facilities in which babies were delivered...
February 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214921/vitamin-d-administration-during-pregnancy-as-prevention-for-pregnancy-neonatal-and-postnatal-complications
#2
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis, Kalliopi Kotsa, Hana Fakhoury, Spyridon N Karras
Pregnancy represents a time of rapid bodily change, which includes physical proportions, physiology and responsibility. At this context, maternal vitamin D stores have been the objective of extensive scientific research during the last decades, focusing on their potential effects on maternal an neonatal health. A growing body of observational studies indicated that maternal hypovitaminosis D (as defined by maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l) is a significant risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes including asthma, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders...
February 18, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214914/the-impact-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genetics-on-culturable-bacteria-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#3
D I Rom, J M Christensen, R Alvarado, R Sacks, R J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Extra-oral bitter taste receptors have been associated with innate bacterial defence mechanisms. Genetic variation in T2R38 functionality has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We sought to independently assess the influence of bitter taste receptor genotype on the presence of culturable bacteria in the sinuses. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analysis of patients with CRS undergoing surgery was performed...
February 19, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214877/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Jo-Maree Courtney, Patricia L Spafford
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits that understanding EMT may bring to the field of chronic respiratory disease...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214832/the-burden-of-respiratory-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-changes-in-perinatal-care-and-outcomes-in-a-decade-in-spain
#5
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Antonio Losada Martínez, María Dolores Elorza Fernández, Julio Moreno Hernando, Josep Figueras Aloy, Máximo Vento Torres
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Much of this progress is related to the prevention and management of respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in perinatal care and its influence on respiratory morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants in Spain in 2 consecutive periods (2002-2006 and 2007-2011). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected of all VLBW infants included in the Spanish SEN1500 network...
February 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214758/comparative-analysis-of-viral-shedding-in-pediatric-and-adult-subjects-with-central-nervous-system-associated-enterovirus-infections-from-2013-to-2015-in-switzerland
#6
S Cordey, M Schibler, A G L'Huillier, N Wagner, A R Gonçalves, J Ambrosioni, S Asner, L Turin, K M Posfay-Barbe, L Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214712/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-in-epilepsy-in-a-spanish-population
#7
María Isabel Chamorro-Muñoz, Guillermina García-Martín, Francisco Pérez-Errazquin, Manuel Romero-Acebal, Antonio García-Rodríguez, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar
PURPOSE: Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. METHOD: We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries...
February 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214560/mitochondrial-genotype-modulates-mtdna-copy-number-and-organismal-phenotype-in-drosophila
#8
Tiina S Salminen, Marcos T Oliveira, Giuseppe Cannino, Päivi Lillsunde, Howard T Jacobs, Laurie S Kaguni
We evaluated the role of natural mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on mtDNA copy number, biochemical features and life history traits in Drosophila cybrid strains. We demonstrate the effects of both coding region and non-coding A+T region variation on mtDNA copy number, and demonstrate that copy number correlates with mitochondrial biochemistry and metabolically important traits such as development time. For example, high mtDNA copy number correlates with longer development times. Our findings support the hypothesis that mtDNA copy number is modulated by mtDNA genome variation and suggest that it affects OXPHOS efficiency through changes in the organization of the respiratory membrane complexes to influence organismal phenotype...
February 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214485/outcome-of-peripheral-venous-reconstructions-during-tumor-resection
#9
Philip Y Sun, Mark D Fleming, Kendall Stauffer, Manju Kalra, Gustavo Oderich, Thomas Bower, Peter Gloviczki, Randall R DeMartino
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral venous reconstruction surgery may be necessary for appropriate oncologic resection; however, the operative approach and surgical outcomes are not well described. We report our experience with these complex reconstructions to identify best practice. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients who underwent peripheral vein reconstruction for tumor resection at Mayo Clinic, Rochester (2000-2015). Patients were classified into three subgroups by the location: iliac (IL), lower extremity (LE), and upper extremity (UE)...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214483/systemic-thrombolysis-increases-hemorrhagic-stroke-risk-without-survival-benefit-compared-with-catheter-directed-intervention-for-the-treatment-of-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Nathan L Liang, Efthymios D Avgerinos, Michael J Singh, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
BACKGROUND: Systemic thrombolysis (ST) and catheter-directed intervention (CDI) are both used in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the comparative outcomes of these two therapies remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare short-term mortality and safety outcomes between the two treatments using a large national database. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute PE were identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2012...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214457/operative-fixation-of-rib-fractures-indications-techniques-and-outcomes
#11
David Galos, Benjamin Taylor, Toni McLaurin
Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214222/necessity-to-critically-review-the-automatic-results-of-the-xpert-flu-assay
#12
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Mouna Lazrek, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
While using the Xpert Flu assay we became aware of false-negative results. The study aimed to analyze the causes of these false-negative results. One hundred fifty-nine respiratory specimens were tested in the Xpert Flu assay and in multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) for respiratory viruses. Discordant specimens were tested in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. One hundred fifty-two (96%) and 151 (95%) specimens yielded concordant results for influenza A and B, respectively. Fifteen specimens tested negative in the Xpert Flu assay and positive in a multiplex RT-PCR...
February 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#13
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214160/laboratory-based-surveillance-of-hospital-acquired-respiratory-virus-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#14
Hye-Suk Choi, Mi-Na Kim, Heungsup Sung, Jeong-Young Lee, Hee-Youn Park, Sun-Hee Kwak, Young-Ju Lim, Min-Jee Hong, Sun-Kyung Kim, So-Yeon Park, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Kyu-Ri Kim, Hye-Ran Choi, Jae Sim Jeong, Sang-Ho Choi
Of 7,772 laboratory-confirmed cases of respiratory viral infection among hospitalized patients, 22.8% were categorized as having hospital-acquired infection. The overall incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.1) cases per 1,000 admitted patients. Rhinovirus was the most common virus (30.3%), followed by influenza virus (17.6%) and parainfluenza virus (15.6%).
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214151/association-of-types-of-dyspnea-including-bendopnea-with-cardiopulmonary-disease-in-primary-care
#15
Diana María Martínez Cerón, Maria Luiza Garcia Rosa, Antônio Jose Lagoeiro Jorge, Wolney de Andrade Martins, Evandro Tinoco Mesquita, Monica Di Calafriori Freire, Dayse Mary da Silva Correia, Hye Chung Kang
INTRODUCTION: Dyspnea is the symptom most commonly reported by patients with heart failure (HF) and/or pulmonary disease, the obese and the elderly. Recently 'bendopnea' (shortness of breath when bending forward) has been described in patients with HF. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and bendopnea with chronic disease, especially heart failure, and their phenotypes in primary care. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 633 individuals aged between 45 and 99 years enrolled in a primary care program in Niteroi, Brazil...
February 14, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213989/the-post-mortem-examination-in-ruminants-and-its-possible-benefit-to-ruminant-clinical-medicine
#16
K Wäsle, A Pospischil, M Hässig, C Gerspach, M Hilbe
To highlight the important role of post-mortem examination of ruminants and to identify possible benefits for modern ruminant medicine, a comparison of clinical and pathological diagnoses was conducted and influencing factors were identified. For this purpose, results from 2,000 ruminants that had undergone necropsy examination at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, were analysed retrospectively. Both clinical and pathological diagnoses were available for 81.40% of cattle, 80.22% of sheep and 66.66% of goats; no diagnoses were available for 3...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213975/lab-in-a-tube-real-time-molecular-point-of-care-diagnostics-for-influenza-a-and-b-using-the-cobas%C3%A2-liat%C3%A2-system
#17
Willem Jg Melchers, Judith Kuijpers, Joanna Sickler, Janette Rahamat-Langendoen
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(®) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(®) Liat® System (cobas(®) Liat® Influenza A/B assay), generated a PCR result in less than 20 minutes, was evaluated for the detection of influenza A and B. METHOD OF THE STUDY: 121 retrospectively collected respiratory specimens, previously analyzed with a routine influenza A/B test (Diagenode) were tested using the cobas(®) Liat® Influenza A/B assay...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213974/molecular-characterization-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hrsv-a-and-b-in-hospitalized-children-southern-brazil
#18
F B Moreira, C S Rosario, J S Santos, V M Avanzi, M B Nogueira, L R Vidal, S M Raboni
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years) 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213960/association-of-rhinovirus-with-exacerbations-in-young-children-affected-by-cystic-fibrosis-preliminary-data
#19
Sacha Stelzer-Braid, Nancy Liu, Michael Doumit, Russell D'Cunha, Yvonne Belessis, Adam Jaffe, William D Rawlinson
Rhinovirus (RV) is a common respiratory viral infection linked to worsening of chronic respiratory diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF) and asthma. RV was tested by RT-PCR in samples (n = 465) collected from the upper (nasal swab, oropharyngeal suction and sputum) and lower (bronchoalveolar washings) respiratory tract of 110 children with CF. Air samples (n = 52) collected from the operating theatres and outpatient clinics were tested for RV. RV was found in 43% of children <5 years suffering an exacerbation, and 12% of older children (5-17 years)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#20
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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