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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#1
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722635/early-life-inflammation-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-bangladeshi-infants-growing-up-in-adversity
#2
Nona M Jiang, Fahmida Tofail, Jennie Z Ma, Rashidul Haque, Beth Kirkpatrick, Charles A Nelson, William A Petri
Exposure to profound adversity can negatively affect the neurodevelopment of children, but biologic mechanisms that underlie this association remain unknown. We sought to determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in Bangladeshi children. A total of 422 infant-mother pairs from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth and followed prospectively. Inflammation was measured with sCD14, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 at 18 weeks, and CRP at 6, 18, 40, and 53 weeks...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718488/infectious-disease-morbidity-and-growth-among-young-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-jamaica
#3
Russell B Pierre, Toni-Anne Fulford, Kaye Lewis, Paulette Palmer, Christine Walters, Celia D C Christie
Objective: There is a growing body of data that demonstrates increased infectious disease outcomes for HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants as compared to their HIV-unexposed (HU) counterparts. We hypothesized that these HIV-EU infants are at greater risk for infectious morbidity and mortality when compared to the general childhood population. We therefore aimed to characterize infections and growth outcomes among HIV-EU infants in Jamaica during their first two years of life. By identifying these outcomes, specific interventions could be implemented to mitigate this risk of morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716072/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-maternal-cortisol-and-psychological-distress-on-infant-development-in-bengaluru-southern-india-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Anita Nath, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy, Giridhara R Babu, Gian Carlo Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: The mental health status of a pregnant woman and its consequent impact on foetal well being is not given much importance compared to the risk imposed by obstetric complications and medical conditions. Maternal psychological distress is a major public health problem and needs timely detection and intervention to prevent any adverse pregnancy outcome. There is ample evidence from literature that justifies the association of prenatal maternal mental stress and elevated cortisol with delayed infant motor and cognitive development; evidence from India being rather limited...
July 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715533/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ankyloglossia-in-newborns-and-infants-a-review
#5
Jonathan Walsh, David Tunkel
Importance: The influence of tongue tie, or ankyloglossia, on breastfeeding is the subject of growing debate. Restriction of tongue mobility from the frenulum varies greatly among newborns and infants (hereinafter referred to as infants). Controversies about whether an infant has ankyloglossia and which infants need treatment are evident with wide variations in medical practice and a lack of high-quality clinical studies that provide guidance. Observations: Diagnosis and management of ankyloglossia in infants can be a source of confusion and frustration for clinicians and families...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715310/discovering-ways-to-mend-growing-bodies-the-bioengineering-of-devices-for-the-youngest-patients-brings-unique-challenges-and-rewards
#6
David L Chandler
Some babies are born with a rare condition known as esophageal atresia, in which part of the connection between the throat and stomach is missing or nonfunctional. While this was once untreatable and fatal, in recent years surgeons have developed a method using traction to stretch the tissues out on each end until, over time, they are long enough to be sewn together and so substitute for the missing portion of the esophagus. The procedure has allowed many infant patients to go home with a full, normal life ahead of them...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714114/split-liver-transplantation-for-retroperitoneal-immature-teratoma-masquerading-as-hepatoblastoma
#7
Dongkyu Oh, Nam-Joon Yi, Sanghee Song, Ok Kyung Kim, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Sung Woo Ahn, Hyo-Sin Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Hyun-Young Kim, Hyoung Jin Kang, Myungsu Lee, Kyoung Bun Lee, Kwang-Woong Lee, Kyung Suk Suh
Extragonadal teratoma originating from the retroperitoneum represents less than 5% of all teratomas and accounts for less than 10% of all pediatric retroperitoneal neoplasms. To date, there has been no report of teratoma managed with LT. This study reports an infant aged 3 months with retroperitoneal immature teratoma involving the hepatic hilum, refractory to chemotherapy and treated with LT. The patient was referred to our hospital for management of a growing abdominal mass. Histopathology of a fine needle biopsy of the lesion suggested the possibility of a hepatoblastoma with teratoid features...
July 16, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711131/care-of-special-populations-in-an-observation-unit-pediatrics-and-geriatrics
#8
REVIEW
Sharon E Mace
Infants and children and the elderly comprise a large and growing (especially the elderly) segment of the US population. The benefits of observation medicine have been documented in these two age groups: Based on the success of observation medicine, and recognizing the growth of these special populations, it is likely that observation medicine will be expanding in the future, especially within the pediatric and geriatric populations. Future studies should be able to provide further evidence regarding the value of observation medicine in these two diverse population age groups...
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709949/pulmonary-hypoplasia
#9
REVIEW
C Michael Cotten
To survive the transition to extrauterine life, newborn infants must have lungs that provide an adequate surface area and volume to allow for gas exchange. The dynamic activities of fetal breathing movements and accumulation of lung luminal fluid are key to fetal lung development throughout the various phases of lung development and growth, first by branching morphogenesis, and later by septation. Because effective gas exchange is essential to survival, pulmonary hypoplasia is among the leading findings on autopsies of children dying in the newborn period...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709101/the-impact-of-prenatal-perfluoroalkyl-substances-exposure-on-neonatal-and-child-growth
#10
Mei-Huei Chen, Sharon Ng, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ching-Chun Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are wildly distributed environmental pollutants. Laboratory mice exposed prenatally to PFASs develop smaller birth weight but are more likely to become obese in adulthood. The evidences in human studies are still inconclusive. METHODS: The participants were 429 mother-infant pairs from Taiwan Birth Panel Study. These children were followed serially and growth data were collected through face to face interviews and records in Child Healthcare Handbooks until 108months of age...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708453/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-healthy-breastfed-infants
#11
José M Landete, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués, Eva Rodríguez-Mínguez
Pathogenic ability has been extensively studied in clinical enterococci, but to a lesser extent in community-derived ones. Most studies to date in enterococci from healthy infants have been focused on Enterococcus faecalis, despite the growing concern about nosocomial infections caused by E. faecium. In this work, we studied the antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants of 26 E. faecalis and 15 E. faecium intestinal isolates from Spanish healthy breastfed infants. Overall, commensal enterococci studied contained antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, although their patterns were not according to those described for antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated enterococci...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697746/nursing-parental-perceptions-of-neonatal-care-in-central-vietnam-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study
#12
Katie Gallagher, Colin Partridge, Hoang T Tran, Suzanna Lubran, Duncan Macrae
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality accounts for nearly three quarters of all infant deaths in Vietnam. The nursing team are the largest professional group working with newborns, however do not routinely receive neonatal training and there is a lack of research into the impact of educational provision. This study explored changes in nursing perceptions towards their role following a neonatal educational intervention. Parents perceptions of nursing care were explored to determine any changes as nurses gained more experience...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696420/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-maternal-cyp2d6-genetic-testing-to-guide-treatment-for-postpartum-pain-and-avert-infant-adverse-events
#13
M E Moretti, D F Lato, H Berger, G Koren, S Ito, W J Ungar
Mothers with a CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype may expose their infants to risk of adverse events when taking codeine while breastfeeding, by producing more of the active metabolite, morphine. Pharmacogenetic testing may be a valuable tool to identify such mothers, but testing can be costly. The objective of the study was to determine the incremental costs of genotyping to avert neonatal adverse events during maternal pharmacotherapy. A cost-effectiveness analysis, using a decision model, was performed with a hypothetical cohort of prenatal subjects...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695375/rigor-of-non-dairy-galactose-restriction-in-early-childhood-measured-by-retrospective-survey-does-not-associate-with-severity-of-five-long-term-outcomes-quantified-in-231-children-and-adults-with-classic-galactosemia
#14
Allison B Frederick, David J Cutler, Judith L Fridovich-Keil
One of many vexing decisions faced by parents of an infant with classic galactosemia (CG) is how carefully to restrict non-dairy galactose from their growing child's diet. Until recently, many experts recommended vigorous lifelong dietary restriction of milk and all high-galactose dairy products as well as some non-dairy sources of galactose such as legumes and specific fruits and vegetables. Recently, experts have begun to relax their recommendations. The new recommendations, that restrict only high galactose dairy products, were made in the face of uncertainty, however, because no sufficiently powered study had been reported testing for possible association between rigor of non-dairy galactose restriction and severity of long-term outcomes in CG...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692693/landscape-context-and-the-biophysical-response-of-rivers-to-dam-removal-in-the-united-states
#15
Melissa M Foley, Francis J Magilligan, Christian E Torgersen, Jon J Major, Chauncey W Anderson, Patrick J Connolly, Daniel Wieferich, Patrick B Shafroth, James E Evans, Dana Infante, Laura S Craig
Dams have been a fundamental part of the U.S. national agenda over the past two hundred years. Recently, however, dam removal has emerged as a strategy for addressing aging, obsolete infrastructure and more than 1,100 dams have been removed since the 1970s. However, only 130 of these removals had any ecological or geomorphic assessments, and fewer than half of those included before- and after-removal (BAR) studies. In addition, this growing, but limited collection of dam-removal studies is limited to distinct landscape settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692578/turning-1-year-of-age-in-a-low-socioeconomic-environment-a-portrait-of-disadvantage
#16
Hallam Hurt, Laura M Betancourt
In the United States today, 16 million children are growing up poor. Few studies report multiple environmental factors associated with poverty during the first year of life and effects on infant development. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate maternal, home, and neighborhood environment of low and higher socioeconomic status (SES) infants from birth to 1 year and to evaluate the impact of SES and environment on infant developmental outcome at 1 year. METHODS: Low (n = 30) and higher SES (n = 30) African-American mothers and their healthy term gestation female infants were prospectively compared for environmental characteristics and infant developmental outcome...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685155/parenting-the-crying-infant
#17
Debra M Zeifman, Ian St James-Roberts
Crying conveys evidence about an infant's state and neurological health which, when carefully assessed, can provide diagnostic information for parents and clinicians. When crying is inconsolable or judged to be excessive, it can stress parents, disrupt parenting and, in rare cases, place an infant at risk for abuse. Research has revealed physiological and neural responses to crying that may predispose some adults to maltreat infants. Although this work suggests that parental vulnerabilities contribute to insensitive or aggressive reactions, there is a growing recognition that exposure to large doses of crying may be a challenge for all adults...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682317/a-management-strategy-that-reduces-nicu-admissions-and-decreases-charges-from-the-front-line-of-the-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-epidemic
#18
S Loudin, J Werthammer, L Prunty, S Murray, J I Shapiro, T H Davies
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a specialized needs-based management model for a high volume of babies born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) while controlling costs and reducing neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) bed usage. STUDY DESIGN: Data were analyzed from inborn neonates >35 weeks' gestational age with the diagnosis of NAS (ICD9-CM 779.5), requiring pharmacologic treatment and discharged from 2010 through 2015. Significance was determined using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney as well as χ(2) for trend...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676134/infant-and-young-child-feeding-patterns-in-kuwait-results-of-a-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Manuel Carballo, Noureen Khatoon, Elizabeth Catherine Maclean, Nawal Al-Hamad, Anwar Mohammad, Rehab Al-Wotayan, Smitha Abraham
OBJECTIVE: The beneficial role of breast-feeding for maternal and child health is now well established. Its possible role in helping to prevent diabetes and obesity in children in later life means that more attention must be given to understanding how patterns of infant feeding are changing. The present study describes breast-feeding profiles and associated factors in Kuwait. Design/Setting/Subjects Interviews with 1484 recent mothers were undertaken at immunisation clinics across Kuwait...
July 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673080/enteral-nutrition-for-preterm-infants-by-bolus-or-continuous-an-update
#20
Valentina Bozzetti, Paolo E Tagliabue
Optimization of nutritional management of preterm infants is crucial for achievement of their long-term health. Enteral nutrition is preferred to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) because the former avoids complications related to vascular catheterization, sepsis, adverse effects of TPN, and fasting. Due to the lack of ability of preterm infants to coordinate suckling, swallowing, and breathing, tube feeding is necessary for most infants less than 1500 g to ensure sufficient feeding tolerance, to support optimal growth and to reduce the risk of aspiration...
June 28, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
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