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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468696/i-introduction
#1
Caroline Floccia, Thomas D Sambrook, Claire Delle Luche, Rosa Kwok, Jeremy Goslin, Laurence White, Allegra Cattani, Emily Sullivan, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Andrea Krott, Debbie Mills, Caroline Rowland, Judit Gervain, Kim Plunkett
The majority of the world's children grow up learning two or more languages. The study of early bilingualism is central to current psycholinguistics, offering insights into issues such as transfer and interference in development. From an applied perspective, it poses a universal challenge to language assessment practices throughout childhood, as typically developing bilingual children usually underperform relative to monolingual norms when assessed in one language only. We measured vocabulary with Communicative Development Inventories for 372 24-month-old toddlers learning British English and one Additional Language out of a diverse set of 13 (Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hindi-Urdu, Italian, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Welsh)...
March 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466685/prolactin-regulates-liver-growth-during-postnatal-development-in-mice
#2
Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Marco Bravo-Manríquez, Arelí Baez, María G Ledesma-Colunga, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Pamela Reyes-Ortega, Ericka A De Los Ríos, Yazmín Macotela, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp
The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464395/temporal-trends-of-pediatric-dysphagia-in-hospitalized-patients
#3
Joshua Horton, Carlyn Atwood, Sharon Gnagi, Ronald Teufel, Clarice Clemmens
The objective of this study was to determine temporal trends of dysphagia diagnoses in hospitalized children. This is a retrospective observational study from the 1997-2012 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) conducted in the setting of weighted hospitalizations in a KID participating center. More than 6 million pediatric admissions were captured in each triennial KID report. Main outcomes included triennial rates of dysphagia diagnosis in hospitalized pediatric patients, and secondary outcomes included rates of dysphagia in premature and low-birthweight infants...
February 20, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460638/effectiveness-of-a-pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-prevention-program-among-spanish-speaking-mothers
#4
Sarah V Duzinski, Luis M Guevara, Amanda N Barczyk, Nilda M Garcia, Jane L Cassel, Karla A Lawson
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate participants' knowledge of and intent to share key messages of the Period of PURPLE Crying abusive head trauma prevention program among a majority Spanish-speaking population. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of a postintervention survey administered in the perinatal unit of a community birthing hospital. Surveys were administered to mothers of newborns by perinatal nurses as part of routine process evaluation prior to hospital discharge between May 30, 2014, and May 15, 2015...
January 1, 2018: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459062/cost-effectiveness-of-a-potential-vaccine-candidate-for-haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-a
#5
Affan Shoukat, Robert Van Exan, Seyed M Moghadas
The preceding decade has witnessed the emergence of severe community-acquired acute infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia), with alarming incidence rates in North America, particularly among indigenous populations. The remarkable success of Hib conjugate vaccine over the past 20 years signify the development of an Hia vaccine candidate as a prevention measure to reduce the incidence of invasive Hia disease. However, quantifications of the long-term epidemiologic and economic impacts of vaccination are needed to inform decision on investment in Hia vaccine development and immunization programs...
February 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457647/learning-of-hierarchical-serial-patterns-emerges-in-infancy
#6
David J Lewkowicz, Mark A Schmuckler, Diane M J Mangalindan
Recursive, hierarchically organized serial patterns provide the underlying structure in many cognitive and motor domains including speech, language, music, social interaction, and motor action. We investigated whether learning of hierarchical patterns emerges in infancy by habituating 204 infants to different hierarchical serial patterns and then testing for discrimination and generalization of such patterns. Results indicated that 8- to 10-month-old and 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited sensitivity to the difference between hierarchical and non-hierarchical structure but that 4- to 6-month-old infants did not...
February 19, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457481/selection-and-use-of-health-services-for-infants-needs-by-indigenous-mothers-in-canada-integrative-literature-review
#7
A Wright, O Wahoush, M Ballantyne, C Gabel, S M Jack
In Canada, Indigenous infants experience significant health disparities when compared to non-Indigenous infants, including significantly higher rates of birth complications and infant mortality rates. The use of primary health care is one way to improve health outcomes; however, Indigenous children may use health services less often than non-Indigenous children. To improve health outcomes within this growing population, it is essential to understand how caregivers, defined here as mothers, select and use health services in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456439/parent-training-and-skill-acquisition-and-utilization-among-spanish-and-english-speaking-latino-families
#8
Giovanni Ramos, Angela M Blizzard, Nicole E Barroso, Daniel M Bagner
In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial...
January 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456277/differential-attention-to-faces-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-associations-with-later-social-and-language-ability
#9
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Hana Moustapha, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD...
2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438126/sonographic-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-pneumoperitoneum-after-air-enema-reduction-for-intussusception
#10
Amy Z Zhou, Amy Toporowski, James W Tsung
Abdominal radiography and computed tomography scans are standard tests to diagnose pneumoperitoneum. With the growing availability of point-of-care ultrasound, pneumoperitoneum may be diagnosed in settings without easy access to radiography or computed tomography, such as in overcrowded emergency departments or resource-poor environments. The use of point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose or monitor pneumoperitoneum has been described in adult but not pediatric patients. We present a case of point-of-care ultrasound detection of pneumoperitoneum and monitoring for tension pneumoperitoneum, after failed air enema reduction for intussusception in an infant...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433993/scar-acceptance-after-pediatric-urologic-surgery
#11
Mary K Wang, Yi Li, Rachel E Selekman, Thomas Gaither, Anne Arnhym, Laurence S Baskin
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergo pediatric urologic surgery as infants and young children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the evolution of surgical scars over several years in order to inform parents and surgeons on the true cosmetic impact of pediatric surgery and evaluate patient scar satisfaction. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study where patients who have undergone urologic surgery at a young age are evaluated years later for scar satisfaction via an abbreviated validated questionnaire...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432217/prematurity-and-future-kidney-health-the-growing-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Michelle C Starr, Sangeeta R Hingorani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role prematurity plays in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to discuss potential reasons for this association including decreased nephron mass, as well as postnatal insults such as neonatal acute kidney injury (nAKI). RECENT FINDINGS: New observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animal models have strengthened the association between prematurity, low birth weight and CKD...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428389/allergenicity-reduction-of-bovine-milk-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-by-proteolytic-activity-of-lactococcus-lactis-bmc12c-and-bmc19h-isolated-from-iranian-dairy-products
#13
Rezvan Kazemi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Ahmad Motahari, Reihane Kordesedehi
Nowadays health benefits of bioactive food constituents, known as probiotic microorganisms, are a growing awareness. Cow's milk is a nutritious food containing probiotic bacteria. However, milk allergenicity is one of the most common food allergies. The milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), is in about 80% of all main cases of milk allergies for children and infants. With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated new proteolytic strains of cocci lactic acid bacteria from traditional Iranian dairy products...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426965/decisional-control-preferences-in-the-hispanic-population-in-the-bronx
#14
Jhosselini Cardenas, Pamela Infante, Abel Infante, Elizabeth Chuang, Peter Selwyn
Hispanic Americans are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA, and understanding their preferences for medical decision-making and information sharing is imperative to provide high quality end of life care. Studies exploring these decision control preferences (DCPs) are limited and found inconsistent results. (1) To measure DCPs of Hispanic patients in the Bronx. (2) To measure disclosure of information preferences of Hispanic patients in the Bronx. This is a cross-sectional survey. One hundred nineteen cancer patients who self-identified as Hispanic and were waiting at the oncology clinic at Montefiore Medical Center Cancer Center...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422205/the-intergrowth-21-st-fetal-growth-standards-toward-the-global-integration-of-pregnancy-and-pediatric-care
#15
REVIEW
Aris T Papageorghiou, Stephen H Kennedy, Laurent J Salomon, Douglas G Altman, Eric O Ohuma, William Stones, Michael G Gravett, Fernando C Barros, Cesar Victora, Manorama Purwar, Yasmin Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Ruyan Pang, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Ann Lambert, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, José Villar
The purpose of the INTERGROWTH-21st project was to develop international, prescriptive standards for fetal growth assessed by ultrasound and fundal height, preterm postnatal growth, newborn size and body composition, maternal weight gain, and infant development at the age of 2 years. Hence, we have produced, based on World Health Organization recommendations, the first comprehensive set of international standards of optimal fetal and newborn growth that perfectly match the existing World Health Organization child growth standards...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420701/cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-term-and-very-preterm-born-infants
#16
Charlotte S Herzmann, Abraham Z Snyder, Jeanette K Kenley, Cynthia E Rogers, Joshua S Shimony, Christopher D Smyser
Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. We acquired non-sedated rs-fMRI data in the first week of life in 57 healthy, term-born infants and at term-equivalent postmenstrual age in 20 very preterm infants (mean birth gestational age 27 ± 2 weeks) without significant cerebral or cerebellar injury...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419960/-fibrous-hamartoma-in-childhood-a-case-description-of-large-size-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
B Berenguer, C Lorca-García, C Agra, A Lancharro, E Tomás
INTRODUCTION: Fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a rare soft tissue tumour that usually appears before 2 years of age, typically in the upper extremities of male infants. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 2 year old boy with a large and rapidly growing tumour in the upper extremity. COMMENTS: We describe the case, its differential diagnosis and the immunhistological characteristics, and we discuss the non-aggressive surgical treatment, based on the benign behaviour of this tumour...
February 1, 2018: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#18
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410012/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-ribotype-risk-factors-hospital-and-intensive-care-unit-outcomes-and-current-and-emerging-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Monica Dhawan, Fareeza Mustafa, James Gasperino, Madhavi Reddy
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological landscape of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past 30 years. AIM: To review studies of CDI in the community setting. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies performed between 2000 and 2017 that assessed the epidemiology, risk factors, ribotypes, hospital and intensive care unit outcomes, and management of community-acquired CDI...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406971/the-growing-threat-of%C3%A2-antibiotic-resistance-in%C3%A2-children
#20
REVIEW
Rachel L Medernach, Latania K Logan
Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health threat and a danger that continues to escalate. These menacing bacteria are having an impact on all populations; however, until recently, the increasing trend in drug-resistant infections in infants and children has gone relatively unrecognized. This article highlights the current clinical and molecular data regarding infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in children, with an emphasis on transmissible resistance and spread via horizontal gene transfer...
March 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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