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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545473/defining-disrespect-and-abuse-of-newborns-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-an-expanded-typology-of-respectful-maternity-care
#1
REVIEW
Emma Sacks
Amid increased attention to quality of obstetric care and respectful maternity care globally, insufficient focus has been given to quality of care and respectful care for newborns in the postnatal period. Especially in low and middle income countries, where low utilisation of obstetric and neonatal services is of concern, it is plausible that poor quality of care or mistreatment of newborns or stillborn infants will influence future care seeking, both for the health care needs of the growing infant and for subsequent pregnancies...
May 25, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#3
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514223/hematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-infants-and-children-imaging-of-a-changing-disease
#4
Diego Jaramillo, John P Dormans, Jorge Delgado, Tal Laor, Joseph W St Geme
In children, hematogenous osteomyelitis is an infection that primarily affects the most vascularized regions of the growing skeleton. The disease has increased in frequency, virulence, and degree of soft-tissue involvement. The change in clinical manifestations and management over the past 2 decades should be reflected in the current imaging approach to the disease. Imaging of infection must depict the location of a single focus or of multiple foci of involvement and the presence of drainable collections. This review provides an overview of the imaging implications directed by the changing epidemiology, the newer insights of anatomy and pathophysiology, the imaging characteristics with emphasis on specific locations and disease complications, and the differential diagnosis considerations...
June 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498932/from-cntnap2-to-early-expressive-language-in-infancy-the-mediation-role-of-rapid-auditory-processing
#5
Valentina Riva, Chiara Cantiani, April A Benasich, Massimo Molteni, Caterina Piazza, Roberto Giorda, Ginette Dionne, Cecilia Marino
Although it is clear that early language acquisition can be a target of CNTNAP2, the pathway between gene and language is still largely unknown. This research focused on the mediation role of rapid auditory processing (RAP). We tested RAP at 6 months of age by the use of event-related potentials, as a mediator between common variants of the CNTNAP2 gene (rs7794745 and rs2710102) and 20-month-old language outcome in a prospective longitudinal study of 96 Italian infants. The mediation model examines the hypothesis that language outcome is explained by a sequence of effects involving RAP and CNTNAP2...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496296/a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-on-parenting-of-young-children-with-visual-impairments-and-the-adaptions-for-video-feedback-intervention-to-promote-positive-parenting-vipp
#6
REVIEW
Ellen G C van den Broek, Ans J P M van Eijden, Mathilde M Overbeek, Sabina Kef, Paula S Sterkenburg, Carlo Schuengel
Secure parent-child attachment may help children to overcome the challenges of growing up with a visual or visual-and-intellectual impairment. A large literature exists that provides a blueprint for interventions that promote parental sensitivity and secure attachment. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP) is based on that blueprint. While it has been adapted to several specific at risk populations, children with visual impairment may require additional adjustments. This study aimed to identify the themes that should be addressed in adapting VIPP and similar interventions...
2017: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495101/maternal-and-child-health-in-israel-building-lives
#7
REVIEW
Lisa Rubin, Ilana Belmaker, Eli Somekh, Jacob Urkin, Mary Rudolf, Mira Honovich, Natalya Bilenko, Zachi Grossman
Israel is home to a child-oriented society that values strong family ties, universal child benefits, and free education for all children from 3 years of age to school grade 12. Alongside the universal health-care services that are guaranteed by the National Health Insurance Law and strong, community-based primary and preventive care services, these values have resulted in good maternal and child health. In 2015, infant and maternal mortality (3·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths and 2·0 deaths per 100 000 livebirths, respectively) were lower than the mean infant and maternal mortality of countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development...
May 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493272/khat-use-and-related-addiction-mental-health-and-physical-disorders-the-need-to-address-a-growing-risk
#8
REVIEW
Michael Odenwald, Mustafa al'Absi
Khat use is a drug problem characteristic of the Eastern Mediterranean Region, which is a widespread culturally accepted practice in some countries and is becoming more prevalent in others. Although limited use may not be accompanied by serious consequences, prolonged exposure could lead to dependence, psychosis and other psychiatric disorders and physical conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular complications, sexual dysfunction, hepatoxicity and reduced birth weight of infants born to khat-chewing mothers...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482927/the-developmental-effects-of-hiv-and-alcohol-a-comparison-of-gestational-outcomes-among-babies-from-south-african-communities-with-high-prevalence-of-hiv-and-alcohol-use
#9
Kirsten A M Donald, Anne Fernandez, Kasey Claborn, Caroline Kuo, Nastassja Koen, Heather Zar, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants. METHODS: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473474/unpasteurized-shared-human-milk-use-in-pediatric-inpatients-health-and-ethical-implications
#10
Kimberly H Barbas, Karen Sussman-Karten, Daniel Kamin, Susanna Y Huh
Growing evidence supporting the health benefits of human milk, particularly in the preterm population, has led to rising demand for donor human milk in NICUs and pediatric hospitals. There are no previous reports describing the use of unpasteurized shared human milk (USHM) in the hospital setting, but the use of USHM solicited from community donors through social networks appears to be common. Many pediatric hospitals permit inpatients to receive breast milk that has been screened and pasteurized by a human milk banking organization and will provide pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) only to infants who are preterm or have specific medical conditions...
May 4, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471500/assessing-parenting-in-the-context-of-reunification-of-infants-toddlers-and-their-families-how-to-face-the-challenges
#11
Anne-Fleur W K Vischer, Hans Grietens, Erik J Knorth, Hans Mulder
Since a substantial portion of infants and toddlers reenter care after reunification, the question of whether family reunification is feasible needs to be answered very cautiously. How parenting is assessed is of major importance in answering this question, but the quality of these assessments is often poor. With an eye to improving current practice, we conducted an integrative review, in which we analyzed the challenges related to the assessment of parenting vis-à-vis reunification and linked relevant knowledge from research with significant know-how from practice...
May 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457717/infantile-hemangioma-predicting-proliferation-by-infrared-thermography
#12
Arūnas Strumila, Vytis Kazlauskas, Gintas Pošiūnas, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Virgilijus Beiša
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are benign lesions found in infants. Predicting the cosmetic outcome of these lesions is very difficult. Therefore, in this prospective study, we assessed whether using an infrared thermometer (IRT) to measure the surface temperature of IHs would help to predict their proliferative potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and March 2014, we prospectively investigated 103 children up to 6 months of age with a diagnosis of IH...
April 20, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451777/infantile-cranial-fasciitis-case-based-review-and-operative-technique
#13
Oliver E Flouty, Anthony J Piscopo, Marshall T Holland, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Leslie Bruch, Arnold H Menezes, Brian J Dlouhy
BACKGROUND: Cranial fasciitis (CF) is an uncommon benign primary lesion of the skull that typically affects the pediatric age group. Due to the rarity of CF, no prospective studies exist. Earliest description of this condition dates to 1980. The limited scientific and clinical literature regarding CF is dominated by case reports. For these reasons, questions pertaining to the true incidence, genetic risk factors, prognosis, and long-term outcome remain unanswered. DISCUSSION: Clinically, CF presents as a firm, painless, growing scalp mass that is typically not considered in the differential diagnosis...
April 27, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449912/infant-night-sleep-trajectory-from-age-3-24-months-evidence-from-the-singapore-gusto-study
#14
Shaun K Y Goh, Elaine K H Tham, Daniel Y T Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Seang Mei Saw, Fabian Yap, Yap-Seng Chong, Anqi Qiu, Birit F P Broekman
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal studies on night sleep trajectories throughout infancy are sparse. Moreover, most studies have examined samples in Caucasian individuals, although cultural differences in sleep habits have been described. To expand on the current literature, we aimed to determine night sleep trajectories in an Asian population from age 3-24 months. METHODS: Night sleep duration from a subset of 893 infants within the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study was determined using the caregiver-reported Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#15
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#16
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443254/perfluoroalkyl-substances-exposure-and-thyroid-hormones-in-humans-epidemiological-observations-and-implications
#17
REVIEW
Jung Eun Lee, Kyungho Choi
Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in normal neurodevelopment of fetus and child. Many chemicals can affect control and homeostasis of thyroid hormones, and eventually lead to various adverse health effects including neurodevelopmental disorders. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are among the thyroid disrupting chemicals that can be encountered among general human population. Due to their unique physicochemical characteristics, PFASs have been used as surfactants and surface coating materials in many applications...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441512/a-historical-perspective-on-the-transport-of-premature-infants
#18
Shannon E Perry
A premature newborn was first transported via helicopter from place of birth to a specialty nursery 50 years ago. Since that time, the care of high-risk and premature newborns has evolved, but specialized services are not always available at the birth site. As a result, the demand for newborn transfer continues to grow. Today, neonates are transported to tertiary centers via ground ambulances, helicopters, and airplanes by highly trained personnel using sophisticated incubators and equipment.
April 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431989/live-birth-miscarriage-and-abortion-among-u-s-women-with-and-without-disabilities
#19
Willi Horner-Johnson, Sheetal Kulkarni-Rajasekhara, Blair G Darney, Mekhala Dissanayake, Aaron B Caughey
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found that women with disabilities who give birth are more likely to have preterm deliveries and low birthweight infants. However, it is not known what proportion of pregnant women with disabilities experience live birth, versus miscarriage or abortion. OBJECTIVE: To compare proportions of live birth, miscarriage, and abortion among women with basic action difficulties, women with complex activity limitations, and women without disabilities in a nationally representative sample...
April 6, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430075/considerations-in-the-management-of-congenital-cranial-dermoid-cysts
#20
Syed Khalid, John Ruge
OBJECTIVE Congenital dermoid cysts (CDCs) develop from the entrapment of the surface ectoderm along the lines of embryonic fusion and have a capacity to grow. Given this capacity for continual expansion, the timing of removal and anticipation of possible epidural extension is important. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed records of patients with the diagnosis of dermoid cyst presenting over a period of 10 years. Baseline characteristics, histological reports, and surgical records were collected and analyzed...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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