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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108592/social-class-variation-the-effect-of-the-economic-recession-and-childhood-obesity-at-3-years-of-age-in-ireland
#1
Samira Barbara Jabakhanji, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot, Fiona Boland, Regien Biesma
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported a social class gradient within overweight prevalence (1-4). Additionally, cross-country comparisons report high overweight trends and a change in food consumption patterns in countries affected by an economic crisis (5-11). The aim of this study was to assess the association between social class and recession on obesity levels in 3-year-old Irish children. METHODS: The population-based infant cohort of the national Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study was used...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107805/effectiveness-of-an-sms-based-maternal-mhealth-intervention-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women
#2
Jesse Coleman, Kate C Bohlin, Anna Thorson, Vivian Black, Patricia Mechael, Josie Mangxaba, Jaran Eriksen
We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the effectiveness of an mHealth messaging intervention aiming to improve maternal health and HIV outcomes. Maternal health SMSs were sent to 235 HIV-infected pregnant women twice per week in pregnancy and continued until the infant's first birthday. The messages were timed to the stage of the pregnancy/infant age and covered maternal health and HIV-support information. Outcomes, measured as antenatal care (ANC) visits, birth outcomes and infant HIV testing, were compared to a control group of 586 HIV-infected pregnant women who received no SMS intervention...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074999/-predictive-value-of-cerebellar-growth-and-general-movements-assessments-for-neurodevelopment-of-very-preterm-infants-at-18-24-months-corrected-age
#3
M Cunha, F Correa, A Cadete, A Oliveira, H Figueiredo, P Valerio, R Barroso, H Carreiro
INTRODUCTION: Fidgety movements assessments is very sensitive predicting long-term outcome or cerebral palsy of preterm, disrupted cerebellar growth has been reported in these patients. AIM: To compare the predictive value of cerebellar ultrasound growth and fidgety movements assessments, for neurodevelopment outcome of very preterm at 18-24 month's corrected age (CA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of 88 infants cohort (<= 32 weeks' gestation), transverse cerebellar diameter was obtained by ultrasound via mastoid fontanel, in a weekly basis, until 40 weeks CA...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073985/population-based-pertussis-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-infants-less-than-6-months-in-nepal
#4
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark Steinhoff, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is estimated to cause 2 percent of childhood deaths globally and is a growing public health problem in developed countries despite high vaccination coverage. Infants are at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy may be effective to prevent pertussis in young infants, but population-based estimates of disease burden in infants are lacking, particularly in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age in Sarlahi District, Nepal...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068965/dietary-diversity-and-associated-factors-among-children-6-23-months-of-age-in-gorche-district-southern-ethiopia-cross-sectional-study
#5
Dalecha Dangura, Samson Gebremedhin
BACKGROUND: Dietary diversity (DD) is useful indicator of dietary quality and nutrient adequacy. In developing countries limited evidence is available regarding predictors of DD during the critical complementary feeding period. The purpose of the study is to assess DD and predictors among children 6-23 months of age in rural Gorche district, Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 children aged 6-23 months in Gorche district...
January 9, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058206/zika-virus-disease-for-neurologists
#8
REVIEW
Daniel E Smith, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Daniel M Pastula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) was not initially thought to be an important cause of neurologic disease, but with the recent epidemic in the Western Hemisphere, there is a growing body of evidence for possible neurologic complications. This review discusses these in addition to what is known about modes of transmission, testing for the virus, as well as future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV disease has been associated with microcephaly and congenital eye disease in infants, as well as with Guillain-Barré syndrome, uveitis, myelitis, and meningoencephalitis in adults...
December 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057307/drosophila-melanogaster-models-of-galactosemia
#9
J M I Daenzer, J L Fridovich-Keil
The galactosemias are a family of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from impaired function of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Type I, or classic galactosemia, results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type II galactosemia results from profound deficiency of galactokinase, the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type III galactosemia results from partial deficiency of UDP galactose 4'-epimerase, the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052185/early-administration-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-preventing-chronic-lung-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#10
REVIEW
Vibhuti S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Michael Dunn
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049149/rela-mutant-enterococcus-faecium-with-multiantibiotic-tolerance-arising-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#11
Erin S Honsa, Vaughn S Cooper, Mohammed N Mhaissen, Matthew Frank, Jessica Shaker, Amy Iverson, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Randall T Hayden, Richard E Lee, Charles O Rock, Elaine I Tuomanen, Joshua Wolf, Jason W Rosch
: Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041866/-management-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants-an-evidence-based-approach
#12
V Gournay
A patent ductus arteriosus, very common in the preterm infant (incidence up to 70% in infants less than 28 weeks gestational age), causes a left-to-right shunt leading to overload of the pulmonary circulation and low systemic blood flow. These hemodynamic anomalies are associated with a higher incidence of respiratory, neurological, and digestive complications of prematurity, as well as a higher mortality rate. Although growing knowledge about the natural history, the pathophysiology, and the mechanisms of closure of the ductus arteriosus has resulted in therapeutic progress, management of the patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm infant is still a subject of intense controversy...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008784/therapeutic-interventions-for-gut-dysbiosis-and-related-disorders-in-the-elderly-antibiotics-probiotics-or-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#13
R C Vemuri, R Gundamaraju, T Shinde, R Eri
Ageing and physiological functions of the human body are inversely proportional to each other. The gut microbiota and host immune system co-evolve from infants to the elderly. Ageing is accompanied by a decline in gut microbial diversity, immunity and metabolism, which increases susceptibility to infections. Any compositional change in the gut is directly linked to gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and metabolic diseases. Increase in opportunistic pathogen invasion in the gut like Clostridium difficile leading to C...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008749/insight-responsive-parenting-intervention-is-associated-with-healthier-patterns-of-dietary-exposures-in-infants
#14
Emily E Hohman, Ian M Paul, Leann L Birch, Jennifer S Savage
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention affects infant dietary patterns. METHODS: Primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) were randomized to the Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) RP intervention or control. Curricula were delivered at nurse home visits at ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks. RP group feeding guidance advised responsive feeding, delayed introduction of solids, repeated exposure to novel foods, and age-appropriate portion sizes...
January 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002856/-the-changing-value-of-mother-s-milk-feeding-premature-and-sick-newborns-since-the-late-19th-century
#15
A Sunder-Plaßmann
In the 1960s/early 70s there was a widespread conviction in West Germany that mother's milk was no longer essential even for premature infants given the availability of improved industrial milk products. But today the superiority of human milk is again undisputed, and progress in neonatology has created a growing target group of extremely premature infants who show clear benefits from being fed with human milk, particularly regarding improved outcomes. Currently there is a revival of donor milk banks (FMB)...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999114/improved-management-of-harlequin-ichthyosis-with-advances-in-neonatal-intensive-care
#16
REVIEW
Jaimie B Glick, Brittany G Craiglow, Keith A Choate, Hugo Kato, Robert E Fleming, Elaine Siegfried, Sharon A Glick
Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe phenotype of the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses. HI is caused by mutations in the lipid transporter adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A 12 (ABCA12). Neonates are born with a distinct clinical appearance, encased in a dense, platelike keratotic scale separated by deep erythematous fissures. Facial features are distorted by severe ectropion, eclabium, flattened nose, and rudimentary ears. Skin barrier function is markedly impaired, which can lead to hypernatremic dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, increased metabolic demands, and increased risk of respiratory dysfunction and infection...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995607/longchain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-preterm-infants
#17
REVIEW
Kwi Moon, Shripada C Rao, Sven M Schulzke, Sanjay K Patole, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants. The main areas of interest were the effects of supplementation on the visual function, development and growth of preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989884/association-between-titanium-and-silver-concentrations-in-maternal-hair-and-risk-of-neural-tube-defects-in-offspring-a-case-control-study-in-north-china
#18
Zhenjiang Li, Wenhua Huo, Zhiwen Li, Bin Wang, Jingxu Zhang, Aiguo Ren
Increasing uses of titanium and silver in various products raise concerns for their potential adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to examine the associations between titanium and silver concentrations in maternal hair growing during the periconception period and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Our case-control study recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 261 women delivering healthy infants. Metal concentrations in maternal hair were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
October 29, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989374/functional-quality-of-life-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Megan L Ringle, Gil Wernovsky
Throughout the past few decades, advances in cardiology, neonatal intensive care, and surgical techniques have resulted in a growing cohort of thriving school-aged children with previously lethal complex congenital heart diseases. While survival has increased, there remains significant morbidity following repair including neurodevelopmental sequelae. Compared to children with a structurally normal heart, these infants and children have a higher frequency of abnormalities in tone, feeding, and delayed developmental milestones, as well as challenges with speech and learning disabilities, while a higher proportion of adolescents suffer from problems with processing speed, executive function, and a unique set of medical hardships related to exercise intolerance and obesity, medication burden, and mental health comorbidities...
December 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977549/infant-respiratory-tract-infections-or-wheeze-and-maternal-vitamin-d-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#20
Nikolas Christensen, Jens Sondergaard, Niels Fisker, Henrik Thybo Christesen
: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and can be associated with wheeze. Vitamin D can have a protective role against RTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library was performed. Titles and abstracts were evaluated and selected articles were reviewed by two authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on RTIs or wheeze in children of 5 years of age or younger...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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