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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684671/public-health-and-multiple-phase-mortality-decline-evidence-from-industrializing-japan
#1
Kota Ogasawara, Yukitoshi Matsushita
A growing body of literature shows the mitigating effects of water-supply systems on the mortality rates in large cities, yet the heterogeneities in the effects have been understudied. This study fills in the gap in existing knowledge by providing evidence for non-linearity in the effects of clean water using semiparametric fixed effects approach with city-level nationwide longitudinal dataset between 1922 and 1940, which covers 91% of total city population. According to our baseline estimate, the clean water accounts for approximately 27% of the decrease in the crude death rate in this period...
April 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681945/white-matter-damage-in-4-725-term-born-infants-is-determined-by-head-circumference-at-birth-the-missing-link
#2
Arne Jensen, Bert Holmer
Background: White matter damage (WMD) is a prime risk factor for cerebral palsy, in part occurring unexplained. Though primarily a problem of preterm infants, there is growing evidence that in large newborns cephalopelvic disproportion and prolonged labor are involved. Objective: To explore both incidence of and morphometric risk factors for WMD in term-born infants. Study Design: We related growth variables and risk factors of term-born infants to WMD (61/4,725) using odds ratios of z -score bands...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678409/phototherapy-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-and-childhood-eczema-rhinitis-and-wheeze
#3
Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Bee Wah Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of allergic diseases in childhood may be attributed to influences of early environmental stimuli on fetal and neonatal immune regulation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is common in the Asian population and up to 20% of infants require phototherapy. We examined the hypothesis that phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia modulates the infant's risk of developing eczema, rhinitis and wheeze in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort...
March 24, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674313/key-lessons-and-impact-of-the-growing-healthy-mhealth-program-on-milk-feeding-timing-of-introduction-of-solids-and-infant-growth-quasi-experimental-study
#4
Rachel A Laws, Elizabeth A Denney-Wilson, Sarah Taki, Catherine G Russell, Miaobing Zheng, Eloise-Kate Litterbach, Kok-Leong Ong, Sharyn J Lymer, Rosalind Elliott, Karen J Campbell
BACKGROUND: The first year of life is an important window to initiate healthy infant feeding practices to promote healthy growth. Interventions delivered by mobile phone (mHealth) provide a novel approach for reaching parents; however, little is known about the effectiveness of mHealth for child obesity prevention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an mHealth obesity prevention intervention in terms of reach, acceptability, and impact on key infant feeding outcomes...
April 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#5
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659347/social-justice-at-the-core-of-breastfeeding-protection-promotion-and-support-a-conceptualization
#6
Paige Hall Smith
Despite widespread awareness of the health benefits for both mothers and babies we are far from achieving universal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates globally are lower than recommended levels and there are concerns that some global breastfeeding efforts have stalled (1, 2). In addition, we see persistent disparities in breastfeeding rates by race, ethnicity, class and status (3). A growing literature documents how a range of injustices, including gender inequality (7), racism (8), poverty (9), and violence (10, 11) shape whether, how exclusive, and for how long mothers and others will be able to breastfeed or feed their infants human milk...
May 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657964/vive-la-persistence-engineering-human-microbiomes-in-the-21st-century
#7
Katrine L Whiteson
I imagine a future in which children grow up with healthy microbial communities. Engineering human microbiomes might actually be achievable in the near future, as we enter an era of hunting for human-adapted bacterial strains and phages. Furthermore, breath metabolites could allow us to track whether a probiotic colonizes persistently or a phage has knocked down a microbe of interest. Recent successes with probiotics, such as bifidobacteria that can break down human milk oligosaccharides, are making a future in which infants are intentionally colonized with health-promoting strains seem less unlikely...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655624/post-immunization-leucocytosis-and-its-implications-for-the-management-of-febrile-infants
#8
Sarah Prentice, Zephyrian Kamushaaga, Stephen B Nash, Alison M Elliott, Hazel M Dockrell, Stephen Cose
AIMS: Clinical guidelines for management of infants with fever but no evident focus of infection recommend that those aged 1-3 months with a white cell count >15 × 109 /l have a full septic screen and be admitted for parenteral antibiotics. However, there is limited information about leucocyte changes following routine immunization, a common cause of fever. We investigated white cell counts shortly after routine immunization in Ugandan infants under 3 months of age. METHODS: White cell counts were measured in 212 healthy infants following routine immunizations (DTwP-HepB-Hib, oral polio and pneumococcal conjugate 7 vaccines) received prior to 3 months of age...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653068/variation-in-birth-outcomes-by-mother-s-country-of-birth-among-hispanic-women-in-the-united-states-2013
#9
Carla L DeSisto, Jill A McDonald
OBJECTIVES: Despite knowledge that the Hispanic population is growing in the United States and that birth outcomes may vary by maternal country of birth, data on birth outcomes by maternal country of birth among Hispanic women are scant. We compared the rates of 3 birth outcomes for infants born in the United States-preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age-between foreign-born Hispanic women and US-born Hispanic women, and then we examined these birth outcomes by mother's country of birth for foreign-born Hispanic women...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649977/development-of-fine-motor-skills-is-associated-with-expressive-language-outcomes-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Boin Choi, Kathryn A Leech, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642400/iron-and-the-breastfed-infant
#11
REVIEW
James Friel, Wafaa Qasem, Chenxi Cai
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother's milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron content and iron transport from the mammary gland as well as when and what foods should be added to the solely breastfed infant. We examine these topics in light of new molecular biology findings in the mammary gland.
April 6, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624910/skeletal-growth-dysregulation-in-australian-male-infants-and-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Cherie C Green, Cheryl Dissanayake, Danuta Z Loesch, Minh Bui, Josephine Barbaro
Recent findings suggest that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are larger in size for head circumference (HC), height, and weight compared to typically developing (TD) children; however, little is known about their rate of growth, especially in height and weight. The current study aimed to: (a) confirm and extend upon previous findings of early generalized overgrowth in ASD; and (b) determine if there were any differences in the rate of growth between infants and toddlers with ASD compared to their TD peers...
April 6, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623454/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-fpies-review-of-recent-guidelines
#13
REVIEW
Sheeba Cherian, Pooja Varshney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To increase understanding of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), a non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction to food, by reviewing a growing body of literature, including recently published international consensus guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: FPIES primarily affects infants and young children and is characterized by the delayed onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, predominantly repetitive vomiting, in response to a trigger food...
April 6, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610158/lung-volume-reduction-surgery-for-respiratory-failure-in-infants-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#14
Bongyeon Sohn, Samina Park, In Kyu Park, Young Tae Kim, June Dong Park, Sung-Hye Park, Chang Hyun Kang
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can be performed in patients with severe emphysematous disease. However, LVRS in pediatric patients has not yet been reported. Here, we report our experience with 2 cases of pediatric LVRS. The first patient was a preterm infant girl with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The emphysematous portion of the right lung was removed via sternotomy and right hemiclamshell incision. The patient was discharged on full-time home ventilator support for 3 months after the surgery...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593941/dynamics-of-zika-virus-outbreaks-an-overview-of-mathematical-modeling-approaches
#15
Anuwat Wiratsudakul, Parinya Suparit, Charin Modchang
Background: The Zika virus was first discovered in 1947. It was neglected until a major outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia, in 2007. Teratogenic effects resulting in microcephaly in newborn infants is the greatest public health threat. In 2016, the Zika virus epidemic was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Consequently, mathematical models were constructed to explicitly elucidate related transmission dynamics. Survey Methodology: In this review article, two steps of journal article searching were performed...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588872/preventing-peanut-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Meng Chen, Michael Welch, Susan Laubach
The rising prevalence of food allergy and specifically peanut allergy has had significant implications for affected patients, families, and society. The current standard of care remains strict avoidance and the use of emergency medications for accidental ingestions. There is recent evidence-based information to suggest that one approach to preventing peanut allergy lies in early introduction of peanut. This represents a paradigm shift from previous recommendations and has led to updated guidelines in the United States, Europe, and Australasia on the introduction of potentially allergenic foods in the infant diet...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587887/excess-free-fructose-high-fructose-corn-syrup-and-adult-asthma-the-framingham-offspring-cohort
#17
Luanne R DeChristopher, Katherine L Tucker
There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice - a high-fructose 100 % juice - are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort...
March 28, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584624/sex-specificity-of-oxidative-stress-in-newborns-leading-to-a-personalized-antioxidant-nutritive-strategy
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Claude Lavoie, André Tremblay
Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress...
March 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578894/comparison-of-placental-and-neonatal-admission-complete-blood-cell-count-and-blood-cultures
#19
Desi M Newberry
BACKGROUND: The utilization of placental blood for neonatal admission laboratory tests, specifically the complete blood cell (CBC) count and blood culture, has the potential to delay the onset of anemia of prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage, frequency of blood transfusions and associated complications, and painful procedures related to laboratory sampling. PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of drawing neonatal admission laboratory tests from the placenta rather than the neonate and to compare CBC count and blood culture results...
March 23, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576908/rare-case-of-a-rapidly-enlarging-symptomatic-arachnoid-cyst-of-the-posterior-fossa-in-an-infant-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Nobuyuki Takeshige, Tomoko Eto, Shinji Nakashima, Kiyohiko Sakata, Hisaaki Uchikado, Toshi Abe, Motohiro Morioka
Background: Intracranial arachnoid cysts are space-occupying lesions that typically remain stable or decrease in size over time. Cysts in infants younger than 1 year of age are remarkably different from those in older children and adults in terms of cyst localization and enlargement. Arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa (PFACs) are very rare in infants and do not typically grow or present with clinical symptoms, such that surgical treatment is generally considered to be unnecessary...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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