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Scientific entertainer

Romain Grandchamp, Arnaud Delorme
Recent theoretical and technological advances in neuroimaging techniques now allow brain electrical activity to be recorded using affordable and user-friendly equipment for nonscientist end-users. An increasing number of educators and artists have begun using electroencephalogram (EEG) to control multimedia and live artistic contents. In this paper, we introduce a new concept based on brain computer interface (BCI) technologies: the Brainarium. The Brainarium is a new pedagogical and artistic tool, which can deliver and illustrate scientific knowledge, as well as a new framework for scientific exploration...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Milton Packer
New heart failure guidelines have been issued during the past several months, both in the United States and in Europe, in response to recent advances in and the approval of new drugs for the treatment of heart failure. Although guidelines documents are often viewed as authoritative and purely evidence-based, there are replete with meaningful (and inexplicable) inconsistencies, which derive from a review of the same body of scientific data by different groups. This satirical review highlights several examples of the entertaining foolishness of recent guideline documents in the good-natured hope that physicians will understand what the guidelines are, and more importantly, what they are not...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Kilian Semmelmann, Marisa Nordt, Katharina Sommer, Rebecka Röhnke, Luzie Mount, Helen Prüfer, Sophia Terwiel, Tobias W Meissner, Kami Koldewyn, Sarah Weigelt
New technological devices, particularly those with touch screens, have become virtually omnipresent over the last decade. Practically from birth, children are now surrounded by smart phones and tablets. Despite being our constant companions, little is known about whether these tools can be used not only for entertainment, but also to collect reliable scientific data. Tablets may prove particularly useful for collecting behavioral data from those children (1-10 years), who are, for the most part, too old for studies based on looking times and too young for classical psychophysical testing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Evan Szu, Jonathan Osborne, Alexis D Patterson
Popular media influences ideas about science constructed by the public. To sway media productions, public policy organizations have increasingly promoted use of science consultants. This study contributes to understanding the connection from science consultants to popular media to public outcomes. A science-based television series was examined for intended messages of the creator and consulting scientist, and received messages among middle school and non-science university students. The results suggest the consulting scientist missed an opportunity to influence the portrayal of the cultural contexts of science and that middle school students may be reading these aspects uncritically-a deficiency educators could potentially address...
June 23, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
Kimberly Page, Ellen S Stein, Adam W Carrico, Jennifer L Evans, Muth Sokunny, Ean Nil, Song Ngak, Chhit Sophal, Charles McCulloch, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION: HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS...
2016: BMJ Open
Kristin Shrader-Frechette
Week-old embryos are considered the richest source of stem cells usable in medical treatments. Because the embryos are destroyed when the stem cells are removed, the debate over the embryo's legal, moral, political, and scientific status has exploded. In this debate, Sheldon Krimsky's Stem Cell Dialogues: A Philosophical and Scientific Inquiry into Medical Frontiers (Columbia UP, 2015) is the single best book. Evenhanded, eminently readable, up to date, educational, scientifically precise, powerfully researched, and very entertaining, Krimsky's slim volume is one that no scientist, policy-maker, ethicist, or intelligent reader should miss...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Jill A Fisher, Marci D Cottingham
Fictional television shows and films convey cultural assumptions about scientists and the research enterprise. But how do these forms of entertainment portray medical research participants? We sampled 65 television shows and films released between 2004 and 2014 to determine the ways in which medical research and human participants are represented in popular media. We found that research participants are largely represented as White, male, and lower or working class and that 40% of the participants depicted in these fictional accounts were seeking financial compensation, 34% were hoping for a therapeutic benefit, and 15% were coerced into participation...
April 5, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
Qiannan Fang, Dazhi Lu, Haohai Yu, Huaijin Zhang, Jiyang Wang
A watt-level self-frequency-doubled yellow laser at the 570 nm wavelength was realized by taking advantage of the vibronic emission of a Yb3+ doped calcium yttrium oxoborate (Yb:YCOB) crystal cut along the optimized direction out of the principal planes with the maximum effective nonlinear coefficient. Fluorescence spectroscopic properties of Yb:YCOB were studied, which showed that it had broad and anisotropic vibronic emission with a small peak at ∼1130  nm. By suppressing the electronic emission, the polarized vibronic Yb:YCOB radiation was realized with the fundamental wavelength shifting from 1130 nm to 1140 nm...
March 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Dominique de Andrade, Ross Homel, Michael Townsley
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The lockout intervention has become embedded in Australian alcohol policy with little scientific evidence of its effectiveness in reducing violence and disorder. This paper reports an evaluation of the Queensland lockout pilot in Surfers Paradise. Patrons could not enter or re-enter licensed venues after 3 am, while patrons inside at this time could stay until close. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using police and ambulance data, time series analyses examined the impact of tourism seasons and the lockout on rates of crime, violence, injury and intoxication...
September 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Audrey Verma, René van der Wal, Anke Fischer
Wildlife conservation-related organisations increasingly employ new visual technologies in their science communication and public engagement efforts. Here, we examine the use of such technologies for wildlife conservation campaigns. We obtained empirical data from four UK-based organisations through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Visual technologies were used to provide the knowledge and generate the emotional responses perceived by organisations as being necessary for motivating a sense of caring about wildlife...
November 2015: Ambio
Laura Veneroni, Andrea Ferrari, Stefania Acerra, Maura Massimino, Carlo Alfredo Clerici
WhatsApp is an instant messaging application developed in 2009 and quickly spread among users of all ages, for personal relationships, as entertainment, as an aid to the study and as a virtual place of contact with their group. The international scientific literature on the use of this application in the health sector, identified by the major database on-line reports only a small number of publications. Although its impact in the clinical setting has been poorly investigated, WhatsApp is among the most widely used communication tools, which may also be valuable in favoring the communication and relationship between patients and physicians...
July 2015: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Craig A Anderson, Leonard Berkowitz, Edward Donnerstein, L Rowell Huesmann, James D Johnson, Daniel Linz, Neil M Malamuth, Ellen Wartella
Research on violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. The effects appear larger for milder than for more severe forms of aggression, but the effects on severe forms of violence are also substantial (r = .13 to .32) when compared with effects of other violence risk factors or medical effects deemed important by the medical community (e.g., effect of aspirin on heart attacks)...
December 2003: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Blanca San José Montano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
Louise Bezuidenhout
In recent months months the hashtag #overlyhonestmethods has steadily been gaining popularity. Posts under this hashtag--presumably by scientists--detail aspects of daily scientific research that differ considerably from the idealized interpretation of scientific experimentation as standardized, objective and reproducible. Over and above its entertainment value, the popularity of this hashtag raises two important points for those who study both science and scientists. Firstly, the posts highlight that the generation of data through experimentation is often far less standardized than is commonly assumed...
December 2015: Science and Engineering Ethics
Ole Bjørn Rekdal
Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon a remarkable case in which a decimal point error appears to have misled millions into believing that spinach is a good nutritional source of iron...
August 2014: Social Studies of Science
Robert A Harrington, Ross Arena, Jean-Pierre Després, Amy Ciarochi, Elizabeth Croll, Kenneth D Bloch
In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2...
January 2015: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Erik C Nisbet, Kathryn E Cooper, Morgan Ellithorpe
Does the relationship between media use and learning about climate change depend more on audiences' scientific literacy on their ideological biases? To answer this question, we evaluate both the knowledge gap and belief gap hypotheses as they relate to climate change. Results indicate belief gaps for news and entertainment content and a knowledge gap for edutainment content. Climate change knowledge among conservatives decreased with greater attention to political news, but increased with greater attention to science news...
April 2015: Public Understanding of Science
Gerhard Müller-Strahl
This study analyzes the logical structure of classical cell theory (CCT) by pointing out that CCT conceives the properties of organic cellular matter as supervenient to successively emerging states of quasi-crystalline atoms. This concept supports the design of a metaphorical space the intelligible components of which display an explanatory structure in accordance with the contemporary complex-systems approach of mechanisms. These findings support the thesis of an explanatory turn within the life-sciences due to a conflict between anti-classificatory (Buffon), analogous (Wolff, Reil, Weber), and causal-mechanical (Kepler) strategies of explanation...
December 2014: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Celiane Camargo-Borges, Murilo Santos Moscheta
Traditional approaches in healthcare have been challenged giving way to broader forms of users' participation in treatment. In this article we present the Health 2.0 movement as an example of relational and participatory practices in healthcare. Health 2.0 is an approach in which participation is the major aim, aspiring to reshape the system into more collaborative and less hierarchical relationships. We offer two illustrations in order to discuss how Health 2.0 is related and can contribute to a positive uptake of patient's knowledge, which implies challenging healthcare practices exclusively focused on scientific expertise...
July 17, 2014: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Malinda Larkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2014: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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