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Pediatric neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892806/wisconsin-card-sorting-test-embedded-validity-indicators-developed-for-adults-can-be-extended-to-children
#1
Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Laszlo A Erdodi, Jaspreet K Rai, Anya Mazur-Mosiewicz, Lloyd Flaro
Past studies have examined the ability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to discriminate valid from invalid performance in adults using both individual embedded validity indicators (EVIs) and multivariate approaches. This study is designed to investigate whether the two most stable of these indicators-failures to maintain set (FMS) and the logistical regression equation S-BLRE-can be extended to pediatric populations. The classification accuracy for FMS and S-BLRE was examined in a mixed clinical sample of 226 children aged 7 to 17 years (64...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867960/is-a-short-anesthetic-exposure-in-children-safe-time-will-tell-a-focused-commentary-of-the-gas-and-panda-trials
#2
COMMENT
Gregory A Chinn, Jennifer M Sasaki Russell, Jeffrey W Sall
Early life exposure to general anesthesia in preclinical studies has consistently led to permanent cognitive deficits later in life. However, the extent to which this finding is translatable to humans is the subject of much debate as the results from clinical studies have been mixed. Recently two well-designed clinical trials have attempted to add clarity to our murky understanding. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) trial, was an international, prospective, randomized, multicenter, equivalence trial comparing infants undergoing herniorrhaphy receiving general anesthesia vs...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824638/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#3
Jennifer Lucarelli, Demetra Pappas, Leah Welchons, Marilyn Augustyn
Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796476/cognitive-and-fine-motor-deficits-in-a-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease-cohort-of-mixed-ethnic-origin
#4
Luise Burkhardt, Stephan Lobitz, Elisabeth Koustenis, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Pablo Hernáiz Driever
Cerebrovascular disease is an important feature of pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) and may lead to cognitive and motor impairment. Our cross-sectional study examined the incidence and severity of these impairments in a pediatric cohort without clinical cerebrovascular events from Berlin of mixed ethnic origin. Thirty-two SCD patients (mean age 11.14 years, range 7.0-17.25 years; males 14) were evaluated for full-scale intelligence (IQ) (German version WISC-III), fine motor function (digital writing tablet), and executive function (planning, attention, working memory, and visual-spatial abilities) with the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program and the Tower of London (ToL)...
October 29, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792211/the-effects-of-combined-application-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-language-training-on-children-with-language-retardation
#5
Aizhen Qiu, Xinjian Li, Zhongxiu Yang, Zhilin Li, Jiping Wang, Huanxia Yuan, Xin Jin
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present manuscript was to explore the effects of combined application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and language training on children with language retardation. METHODS: Forty-five children with language retardation were selected as subjects and randomly divided into the treatment group with 24 patients and the control group with 21 patients. The control group was treated with traditional language training, while the treatment group was treated with TMS combined with language training...
October 28, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784475/-application-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-microarray-and-target-gene-sequencing-in-the-study-of-genetic-etiology-of-children-with-unexplained-intellectual-disability-or-developmental-delay
#6
Z J Gao, Q Jiang, D Z Cheng, X X Yan, Q Chen, K M Xu
Objective: To evaluate the application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-microarray and target gene sequencing technology in the clinical molecular genetic diagnosis of unexplained intellectual disability(ID) or developmental delay (DD). Method: Patients with ID or DD were recruited in the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics between September 2015 and February 2016. The intellectual assessment of the patients was performed using 0-6-year-old pediatric examination table of neuropsychological development or Wechsler intelligence scale (>6 years)...
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770274/let-s-cut-it-short-italian-standardization-of-the-mmspe-mini-mental-state-pediatric-examination-a-brief-cognitive-screening-tool-for-school-age-children
#7
P Scarpa, A Toraldo, Valeria Peviani, G Bottini
A pediatric cognitive screening tool has been shaped in three versions according to school class to assess spatial and temporal orientation, language, reading, writing, drawing, number knowledge, memory, praxis and executive functions in children aged 6-13. It has been standardized on an Italian sample of 807 children. Raw scores were adjusted for critical variables (child's age and parents' education) and a cut-off for the resulting global cognitive score was made available for clinical practice. In line with previous research, adapting the Mini-Mental State Examination to pediatric neuropsychological assessment turned out to be useful in estimating global cognitive functioning in children...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737310/development-of-the-brazilian-version-of-the-child-hayling-test
#8
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728901/the-role-of-executive-functioning-in-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-intractable-epilepsy
#9
Christina Eguizabal Love, Frank Webbe, Gunha Kim, Ki Hyeong Lee, Michael Westerveld, Christine M Salinas
OBJECTIVE: Children with epilepsy are vulnerable to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy is not fully delineated. This exploratory study elucidated the relationship between ecological EF and QOL in pediatric intractable epilepsy. METHOD: Fifty-four consecutively referred pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and their parents were administered IQ measures, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation...
October 8, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724157/neuropsychological-functioning-in-preschool-aged-children-undergoing-evaluation-for-organ-transplant
#10
Tanya N Antonini, Stacey S Beer, Tamir Miloh, William J Dreyer, Susan E Caudle
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the current literature on neuropsychological functioning in two groups of children requiring organ transplants (liver or heart) and present recent clinical data collected through the liver and cardiac transplantation programs at a large pediatric academic medical center. METHOD: Data included in this study came from 18 patients who completed evaluations for heart transplant (n = 8) or liver transplant (n = 10) between the ages of 2 and 6 years (inclusive)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722087/left-hemisphere-structural-connectivity-abnormality-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus-patients-following-surgery
#11
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705087/measurement-of-neurodevelopmental-changes-in-children-treated-with-radiation-for-brain-tumors-what-is-a-true-baseline
#12
M Douglas Ris, Maria Grosch, Jack M Fletcher, Paras Metah, Lisa S Kahalley
OBJECTIVE: To review the various ways in which baseline neuropsychological functioning is measured in the extant literature on pediatric brain tumors, describe the pros and cons of each approach, and increase the awareness of researchers as to the implications of each. METHOD: We reviewed the literature from 1993 to 2013, and classified studies by baseline approach and explicitness of selection of approach. RESULTS: There are multiple approaches to operationalizing baseline levels of ability and to assess change from baseline...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684724/neuropsychology-in-finland-over-30%C3%A2-years-of-systematically-trained-clinical-practice
#13
Laura Hokkanen, Taina Nybo, Erja Poutiainen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. METHOD: Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683026/-childhood-absence-epilepsy-an-update
#14
P Garzon, L Lemelle, S Auvin
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric epilepsy syndrome accounting for 10% of all pediatric epilepsies. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of this epilepsy syndrome to pediatricians. Most of the patients can be initially managed in private practice or in general pediatric settings. Absence seizures are the only seizure type observed at the time of diagnosis in these patients. An electroencephalogram recording and a clinical evaluation lead to the diagnosis. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
September 24, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676192/neuropsychological-assessment-of-executive-functions-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
K Drorit Gaines, Henry V Soper
Assessment of executive functions in the adult is best captured at the stage where full maturation of brain development occurs. Assessment of executive functions of children, however, is considerably more complicated. First, assessment of executive functioning in children represents a snapshot of these developing functions at a particular time linked stage, which may have implications for further development. Second, neuropsychological measures available to assess executive functions in children are limited in number and scope and may not be sensitive to the gradual developmental changes...
September 27, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572867/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-cognition-and-mood
#16
Maria Pia Amato, Lauren B Krupp, Leigh E Charvet, Iris Penner, Christine Till
In comparison with the large body of evidence on cognitive functioning in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information on cognition in pediatric-onset MS (POMS). Unique vulnerabilities in POMS can derive from having a disease that occurs during key periods of age-expected brain growth, active myelination in the CNS, and maturation of neural networks during the learning curve and key formative years in the academic career of the patient. Therefore, the consequences of MS on developing cognitive faculties can be assessed only in the pediatric population and cannot be simply extrapolated from studies carried on in the adult population...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571577/a-prospective-study-of-cerebral-frontal-lobe-and-temporal-lobe-volumes-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-children-with-primary-brain-tumors-treated-with-cranial-radiation
#17
Harold Agbahiwe, Arif Rashid, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone, Doris Lin, Todd McNutt, Kenneth Cohen, Kristin Redmond, Moody Wharam, Stephanie Terezakis
BACKGROUND: Cranial radiation therapy (RT) is an important component in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. However, it can result in long-term effects on the developing brain. This prospective study assessed the effects of cranial RT on cerebral, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes and their correlation with higher cognitive functioning. METHODS: Ten pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy children serving as controls were evaluated...
August 29, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566994/the-neurological-predictor-scale-a-predictive-tool-for-long-term-core-cognitive-outcomes-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors
#18
Zinat Taiwo, Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated the reliability and validity of the Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS) in relation to intelligence and adaptive functioning in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. To extend these findings, this study examined the relationship between the NPS and core neurocognitive skills hypothesized to underlie broad outcome measures of IQ and adaptive functioning. METHOD: Sixty-one adulthood survivors of childhood brain cancers (Mage = 24 years, SD = 6) on average 16 years after diagnosis completed neuropsychological assessments examining attention (Wechsler Memory Scale Digit Span Forward), processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and working memory (Auditory Consonant Trigrams)...
August 27, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564560/what-next-after-gas-and-panda
#19
Caleb Ing, Virginia A Rauh, David O Warner, Lena S Sun
On April 16 and 17, 2016, the Fifth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia & Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) symposium was convened at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York at Columbia University Medical Center. During the symposium, experts in the fields of anesthesiology, neuropsychology, and epidemiology were convened in a small group session to determine the level of confidence in the current clinical evidence and the next steps in anesthetic neurotoxicity clinical research. Among the participants in the discussion, there remained a lack of consensus on whether anesthetic exposure causes long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in children based on the current evidence...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471904/neuropsychological-functioning-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-liver-disease-the-sum-of-our-perspectives-is-greater-than-each-alone
#20
Lisa G Sorensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review will discuss current data on neuropsychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in children with liver disease. Research has trickled in over the past 30 years, mostly in small, single-center studies with observational or retrospective design. As medical treatment has advanced, survival has improved dramatically, with the majority now living into adulthood. The focus is shifting toward more systematic exploration of functional outcomes...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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