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Pediatric neuropsychology

P Scarpa, A Toraldo, Valeria Peviani, G Bottini
A pediatric cognitive screening tool has been shaped in three versions according to school class to assess spatial and temporal orientation, language, reading, writing, drawing, number knowledge, memory, praxis and executive functions in children aged 6-13. It has been standardized on an Italian sample of 807 children. Raw scores were adjusted for critical variables (child's age and parents' education) and a cut-off for the resulting global cognitive score was made available for clinical practice. In line with previous research, adapting the Mini-Mental State Examination to pediatric neuropsychological assessment turned out to be useful in estimating global cognitive functioning in children...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Christina Eguizabal Love, Frank Webbe, Gunha Kim, Ki Hyeong Lee, Michael Westerveld, Christine M Salinas
OBJECTIVE: Children with epilepsy are vulnerable to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy is not fully delineated. This exploratory study elucidated the relationship between ecological EF and QOL in pediatric intractable epilepsy. METHOD: Fifty-four consecutively referred pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and their parents were administered IQ measures, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation...
October 8, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Tanya N Antonini, Stacey S Beer, Tamir Miloh, William J Dreyer, Susan E Caudle
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the current literature on neuropsychological functioning in two groups of children requiring organ transplants (liver or heart) and present recent clinical data collected through the liver and cardiac transplantation programs at a large pediatric academic medical center. METHOD: Data included in this study came from 18 patients who completed evaluations for heart transplant (n = 8) or liver transplant (n = 10) between the ages of 2 and 6 years (inclusive)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
M Douglas Ris, Maria Grosch, Jack M Fletcher, Paras Metah, Lisa S Kahalley
OBJECTIVE: To review the various ways in which baseline neuropsychological functioning is measured in the extant literature on pediatric brain tumors, describe the pros and cons of each approach, and increase the awareness of researchers as to the implications of each. METHOD: We reviewed the literature from 1993 to 2013, and classified studies by baseline approach and explicitness of selection of approach. RESULTS: There are multiple approaches to operationalizing baseline levels of ability and to assess change from baseline...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Laura Hokkanen, Taina Nybo, Erja Poutiainen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. METHOD: Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
P Garzon, L Lemelle, S Auvin
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric epilepsy syndrome accounting for 10% of all pediatric epilepsies. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of this epilepsy syndrome to pediatricians. Most of the patients can be initially managed in private practice or in general pediatric settings. Absence seizures are the only seizure type observed at the time of diagnosis in these patients. An electroencephalogram recording and a clinical evaluation lead to the diagnosis. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood...
September 24, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
K Drorit Gaines, Henry V Soper
Assessment of executive functions in the adult is best captured at the stage where full maturation of brain development occurs. Assessment of executive functions of children, however, is considerably more complicated. First, assessment of executive functioning in children represents a snapshot of these developing functions at a particular time linked stage, which may have implications for further development. Second, neuropsychological measures available to assess executive functions in children are limited in number and scope and may not be sensitive to the gradual developmental changes...
September 27, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Maria Pia Amato, Lauren B Krupp, Leigh E Charvet, Iris Penner, Christine Till
In comparison with the large body of evidence on cognitive functioning in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information on cognition in pediatric-onset MS (POMS). Unique vulnerabilities in POMS can derive from having a disease that occurs during key periods of age-expected brain growth, active myelination in the CNS, and maturation of neural networks during the learning curve and key formative years in the academic career of the patient. Therefore, the consequences of MS on developing cognitive faculties can be assessed only in the pediatric population and cannot be simply extrapolated from studies carried on in the adult population...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Harold Agbahiwe, Arif Rashid, Alena Horska, E Mark Mahone, Doris Lin, Todd McNutt, Kenneth Cohen, Kristin Redmond, Moody Wharam, Stephanie Terezakis
BACKGROUND: Cranial radiation therapy (RT) is an important component in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. However, it can result in long-term effects on the developing brain. This prospective study assessed the effects of cranial RT on cerebral, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes and their correlation with higher cognitive functioning. METHODS: Ten pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy children serving as controls were evaluated...
August 29, 2016: Cancer
Zinat Taiwo, Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated the reliability and validity of the Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS) in relation to intelligence and adaptive functioning in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. To extend these findings, this study examined the relationship between the NPS and core neurocognitive skills hypothesized to underlie broad outcome measures of IQ and adaptive functioning. METHOD: Sixty-one adulthood survivors of childhood brain cancers (Mage = 24 years, SD = 6) on average 16 years after diagnosis completed neuropsychological assessments examining attention (Wechsler Memory Scale Digit Span Forward), processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and working memory (Auditory Consonant Trigrams)...
August 27, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Caleb Ing, Virginia A Rauh, David O Warner, Lena S Sun
On April 16 and 17, 2016, the Fifth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia & Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) symposium was convened at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York at Columbia University Medical Center. During the symposium, experts in the fields of anesthesiology, neuropsychology, and epidemiology were convened in a small group session to determine the level of confidence in the current clinical evidence and the next steps in anesthetic neurotoxicity clinical research. Among the participants in the discussion, there remained a lack of consensus on whether anesthetic exposure causes long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in children based on the current evidence...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Lisa G Sorensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review will discuss current data on neuropsychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in children with liver disease. Research has trickled in over the past 30 years, mostly in small, single-center studies with observational or retrospective design. As medical treatment has advanced, survival has improved dramatically, with the majority now living into adulthood. The focus is shifting toward more systematic exploration of functional outcomes...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
S L Lambert, D Aviles, V M Vehaskari, I F Ashoor
West Nile Virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread throughout the United States since the first case was described in Queens, New York in 1999. There has been increasing reports of both community-acquired and organ-derived infections in renal transplant recipients. In immunocompromised individuals, WNV infection is a life-threatening disease with significant neurological morbidity. We report the only pediatric case of community-acquired WNV disease in a renal transplant recipient to undergo detailed long-term neuropsychological assessment...
September 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Cory Pierson, Erin Waite, Ben Pyykkonen
BACKGROUND: Long-term neuropsychological deficits associated with pediatric cancers and the related treatments have been consistently reported. Whole brain cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with neurocognitive impairment. As a result, physicians are reticent to use CRT in favor of systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy, which have a less clear impact on cognition. PROCEDURE: The current meta-analysis examined post-treatment neuropsychological performance of children diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy to better understand the impact of chemotherapy upon cognition...
November 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, Mark R Scudder, John DeLuca
Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Anita Freeman
There has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) following the introduction of effective treatment in 1990s. The care for children living with PHIV is now focused on more accurately understanding the effects of both HIV and HIV treatment on the developing body and brain. An evaluation of current HIV neuroimaging, and neurocognitive research, when combined with clinical experience in the area of HIV, could help to inform United Kingdom (UK) PHIV service provision...
July 18, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
William G Kronenberger, Irina Castellanos, David B Pisoni
Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning...
July 13, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Cynthia A Riccio, Stephanie M Vidrine, Morris J Cohen, Delmaris Acosta-Cotte, Yong Park
This is a retrospective study of 14 cases of children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), the most prominent feature of which is acquired aphasia. These children were followed at a tertiary care pediatric epilepsy center. From the research data base, all LKS cases with neuropsychological evaluation were extracted. Children ranged in age from 6 to 13 years (M = 9.12; SD = 2.19) at the time of assessment (1 to 10 years post-onset). The majority of the children were white males, and all but one continued to experience seizure activity...
June 29, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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