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Acute glomerulonephritis in adults

Mieke L van Driel, An Im De Sutter, Hilde Habraken, Sarah Thorning, Thierry Christiaens
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics provide only modest benefit in treating sore throat, although effectiveness increases in participants with positive throat swabs for group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). It is unclear which antibiotic is the best choice if antibiotics are indicated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence on the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing relapse; and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis)...
September 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mohd Ashraf, Virender Kumar, Rifat Ara Bano, Khursheed Ahmed Wani, Javed Ahmed, Kaisar Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Definite paucity of data pertaining to spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in our state and in various parts of India forms the basis of this study. Available data has emphasized more on specific clinical syndromes and chronic renal diseases rather than over all spectrums of renal and urinary tract diseases, that too in adult population. AIM: The present study a retrospective analysis, forms one of the basic data of paediatric nephrology and urology related disorders in our state...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections cause substantial worldwide morbidity and mortality, mostly associated with suppurative complications such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and non-suppurative immune syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Deaths occur mostly in children, adolescents, and young adults in particular pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries. GAS strains are highly variable, and a GAS vaccine would need to overcome the issue of multiple strains...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Can Huzmeli, Ferhan Candan, Ayse Seker, Esin Yildiz, Hatice Terzi, Mansur Kayatas
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia. In C3 mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, an increase in mesangial cell proliferation without thickening in the glomerular capillary wall can be seen under light microscopy, but the definitive diagnosis is made with the immunohistologic demonstration of isolated C3 deposits in the mesangium. C3 glomerulonephritis may be detected in childhood; however, in this case report we describe the first case of isolated C3 glomerulonephritis together with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in an adult patient...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ahmed Ibrahim, Momina M Ahmed, Seman Kedir, Delayehu Bekele
BACKGROUND: The first government funded and sustainable dialysis unit was established in Ethiopia at Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC). This has led to the development of a unique cohort of patients about which very little is known. This study was conducted to describe the clinical profile and outcome of adult Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) patients treated with intermittent haemodialysis at the dialysis center of SPHMMC. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical records of cases of AKI who required haemodialysis support during the time period from August 1, 2013 to February 1, 2015 was conducted...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Beth Vogt
Although kidney disease is much less common in children than in adults, clinicians must remain alert for the renal conditions that occur in this population because prompt diagnosis and management are essential. Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis occurs as an uncommon sequela of streptococcal and other infections. Management is focused on providing supportive measures, including management of fluid-electrolyte imbalance and hypertension, until the patient recovers. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is a primary glomerulonephritis related to abnormal IgA glycosylation...
May 2016: FP Essentials
Sriram Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Subramanian Mahadevan, P S Priyamvada, Nachiappa Ganesh Rajesh
Renal involvement in infective endocarditis (IE) may manifest with different clinical patterns, including diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis, which may lead to haematuria and/or proteinuria. However, severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases is extremely uncommon and is reported mostly in adults. Two children with rheumatic heart disease and a peri-membranous ventricular septal defect, respectively, who developed haematuria, proteinuria and severe AKI in association with IE are reported...
January 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Ganesh Ramanathan, Asanga Abeyaratne, Madhivanan Sundaram, David Kiran Fernandes, Basant Pawar, Greg John Perry, Sajiv Cherian, Sandawana William Majoni
AIM: Acute post infectious glomerulonephritis is common in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is a major risk factor for the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, pathological spectra, treatment and outcomes of biopsy-proven acute post infectious glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all adult patients (≥18 years) who were diagnosed with acute post infectious glomerulonephritis on native renal biopsies from 01/01/2004 to 31/05/2014...
April 9, 2016: Nephrology
Abimbola Adike, Mariyam Cherry, Melina Awar
IgM nephropathy is a relatively rare cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.1 It was initially described by van de Putte,2 then by Cohen and Bhasin in 1978, as a distinctive feature of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis.2 It is typically characterized by diffuse IgM deposits on the glomeruli and diffuse mesangial hypercellularity. Little is known about the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.1,3 We describe a patient who presented with nonspecific symptoms of epigastric pain, nausea, and early satiety...
October 2015: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
I M Onwubuya, K A Adelusola, D Sabageh, K N Ezike, O O Olaofe
Although various patterns of renal diseases have been reported from different renal biopsy registries worldwide, data from Nigeria remain scanty. A 10-year retrospective review of renal biopsies was conducted in our tertiary health care facility. All cases were reclassified based on their light microscopic features after the application of standard histochemical stains. A total of 165 cases were reviewed with a male:female ratio of 1.8:1 and a mean age of 15.4 ± 12.0 years. About 69.7% of the cases were below the age of 16 years, while only 2...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Julie Ho, David N Rush, Oleg Krokhin, Mihaela Antonovici, Ang Gao, Jennifer Bestland, Chris Wiebe, Brett Hiebert, Claudio Rigatto, Ian W Gibson, John A Wilkins, Peter W Nickerson
BACKGROUND: The urinary CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 detects renal transplant inflammation noninvasively, but has limited sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we performed urinary proteomic analysis to identify novel biomarkers that may improve the diagnostic performance of urinary CXCL10 for detecting alloimmune inflammation in renal transplant patients. METHODS: In preliminary studies, adult renal transplant patients with normal histology (n = 5), interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (n = 6), subclinical (n = 6) and clinical rejection (n = 6), underwent in-depth urine protein compositional analysis with LC-MS/MS, and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) were identified as a potential candidate for the diagnosis of renal allograft inflammation...
March 2016: Transplantation
Annette Bruchfeld, Mårten Wendt, Edmund J Miller
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, plaque instability, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. MIF in plasma and urine is significantly elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and elevated MIF in serum is associated with markers of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and markers of myocardial damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Claudia Yuste, Francisco Rivera, Juan Antonio Moreno, Juan Manuel López-Gómez
Recent studies suggest a pathogenic role for glomerular haematuria among renal function. However, there is no data on the prevalence of haematuria from a large renal biopsy registry. We analysed the prevalence of gross (GH) and microscopic (mH) haematuria in 19,895 patients that underwent native renal biopsies from the Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis. Haematuria's overall incidence was 63% (GH 8.6% and mH 55.1%), being more frequent in males (64.7% vs. 62.4%). GH was more prevalent in patients <18 years (21...
2016: Scientific Reports
Etsu Suzuki, Daishi Fujita, Masao Takahashi, Shigeyoshi Oba, Hiroaki Nishimatsu
Kidney regeneration is a challenging but promising strategy aimed at reducing the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and improving the quality of life of patients with ESRD. Adult stem cells are multipotent stem cells that reside in various tissues, such as bone marrow and adipose tissue. Although intensive studies to isolate kidney stem/progenitor cells from the adult kidney have been performed, it remains controversial whether stem/progenitor cells actually exist in the mammalian adult kidney. The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the recovery of kidney function has been demonstrated in animal nephropathy models, such as acute tubular injury, glomerulonephritis, renal artery stenosis, and remnant kidney...
January 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Guan Wee Wong, Michael A Heneghan
For many patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), the presence of extrahepatic features is well recognised both at the time of presentation and during long-term follow-up. Concomitant 'autoimmune disorders' have been described in 20-50% of patients with AIH, both in adults and children. Indeed, the presence of these associated phenomena has been incorporated into both the original and revised International AIH group scoring systems as an aid to codifying the diagnosis. In acute index presentations, non-specific joint pains sometimes flitting in nature have been reported in 10-60% of patients, and while joint swelling is uncommon, rheumatoid arthritis and mixed connective tissue disease have been reported in 2-4% of patients with AIH...
2015: Digestive Diseases
Xinghua Chen, Wanwen Xu, Juan Du, Huiming Wang
Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis has various pathological changes and relatively poor prognosis. It often occurs in children, barely in adults. Currently, no clear treatment guidelines have been established for its treatment using glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive. In this study, we report an adult who admitted to our hospital due to fever and gross hematuria. The patient presented with nephritic syndrome and renal failure and confirmed to have M. pneumoniae infection by serum detection and acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis with a large number of crescents by renal biopsy...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
S Khakurel, R K Agrawal, R Hada
Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in Nepal. The aim of the present study is to determine the clinical presentation and histological pattern of GN with and without immunofluorescence (IF). It is a retrospective analysis of all GN patients with kidney biopsy at the Bir Hospital from January 2000 to April 2009. The clinical presentation, blood pressure, urine analysis, 24-h urinary protein, biochemistry, hemoglobin, antinuclear antibody, anti-ds DNA, light microscopy (LM) and IF findings of kidney biopsies were computed from hospital records...
July 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Shatha Hussain Ali, Fadhil Shanan Hussien, Haider Abd Al-Amer
Renal disease in hospitalized children can be difficult to diagnose early as it may exhibit few symptoms, unlike in adults. This study reports the epidemiological data, percentages and types of renal disorders in children seen at the pediatric nephrology center of the AlKadhymia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. A retrospective review of the charts of all patients, aged between one month and 14 years, who were admitted and followed-up for a period of three years from January 2009 till January 2012 were studied...
May 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Kunal Chaudhary, Ji-Young Shin, Georges Saab, Alan M Luger
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) frequently occurs in children under 15 years of age but is quite rare in adults. Most children who develop HSP nephritis completely recover from the illness, whereas up to 40% of adults have persistent hematuria and 10% develop chronic renal failure. Plasma exchange alone has been shown to be beneficial in children who have HSP nephritis. Adults have been treated using immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide but effects are not certain. Here, we present a case of a 59-year-old white male who developed HSP nephritis while undergoing treatment with steroids...
October 2008: NDT Plus
Elżbieta Mazur, Ewa Czerwińska, Aneta Grochowalska, Maria Kozioł-Montewka
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for 5-15% and 20-30% of acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis in adults and children, respectively. It not only causes acute illness but also can give rise to local suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess as well as trigger the postinfectious syndromes of glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. Here, we report a case of a young healthy adult in whom both peritonsillar abscess and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis developed as a complication of acute streptococcal tonsillitis...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
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