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hepatitis B descriptive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241726/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-attending-the-three-main-tertiary-hospitals-in-libya
#1
Abdel-Naser Elzouki, Saleh M Bashir, Omar Elahmer, Islam Elzouki, Fathi Alkhattali
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Globally, More than 350 million individuals are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and >20 million of them are co-infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of HDV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 162 patients with chronic hepatitis B positive for more than six months) who were followed up at hepatitis clinics of the three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli city (88 patients from Tripoli Medical Centre and Tripoli Central Hospital) and Benghazi city (74 patients from Aljomhoria Hospital) during the period from January 2010 to June 2012...
December 11, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241647/safety-of-currently-licensed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-vaccines-in-the-united-states-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-2005-2015
#2
Penina Haber, Pedro L Moro, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Beth Hibbs, Sarah F Schillie, Noele P Nelson, Rongxia Li, Brock Stewart, Maria V Cano
INTRODUCTION: Currently four recombinant hepatitis B (HepB) vaccines are in use in the United States. HepB vaccines are recommended for infants, children and adults. We assessed adverse events (AEs) following HepB vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of AEs following single antigen HepB vaccine and HepB-containing vaccines (either given alone or with other vaccines), from January 2005 - December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190726/socio-demographic-health-related-and-individual-correlates-of-diagnostic-self-testing-by-lay-people-results-from-a-representative-survey-in-germany
#3
Pinar Kuecuekbalaban, Silke Schmidt, Manfred Beutel, Kerstin Weidner, Martina de Zwaan, Elmar Braehler, Holger Muehlan
INTRODUCTION: A broad range of self-tests (testing for e.g. HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C) have become available and can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the prevalence of self-testing, (b) identify the most frequently used self-tests, and (c) explore the associations between socio-demographic, health-related and individual factors with self-testing. METHODS: A face-to-face plus paper-pencil cross-sectional survey was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181140/foetal-haemoglobin-and-disease-severity-in-nigerian-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#4
Oluwagbemiga O Adeodu, Morenike A Akinlosotu, Samuel A Adegoke, Saheed B A Oseni
Background: Foetal haemoglobin (HbF) is a major modifying factor influencing sickle cell disease (SCD) severity. Despite this, HbF estimation is not routinely done in Nigeria. The relationship between HbF and SCD severity among affected children is also poorly studied. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we determined the relationship between steady state HbF levels and disease severity of Nigerian children aged 1 - 15 years with homozygous SCD. For each child, the socio-demographic characteristics and SCD clinical severity were determined...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173103/social-norm-family-communication-and-hbv-screening-among-asian-americans
#5
Hee-Soon Juon, Rajiv N Rimal, Ann Klassen, Sunmin Lee
Individuals' behaviors are influenced by those of others in their social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as by how individuals perceive they should behave in that environment (e.g., injunctive norms). Although social norms are thought to play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening, limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. In addition, norms are social phenomena that are spread through family discussion about the importance of getting HBV screening...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165125/nurses-willingness-to-care-for-patients-infected-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-c-in-vietnam
#6
Tomohiro Ishimaru, Koji Wada, Huong Thi Xuan Hoang, Anh Thi My Bui, Hung Dinh Nguyen, Hung Le, Derek R Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the factors associated with nurses' willingness to care for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C virus (HBV/HCV) in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-section of 400 Vietnamese nurses from two hospitals were selected using stratified random sampling, to whom a self-administered questionnaire was administered which included demographic items, previous experience with patients infected with HIV or HBV/HCV, and their attitudes toward these patients...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158854/current-condition-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cuban-adults
#7
Castellanos Fernández Marlen Ivón, Dorta Guridi Zaily, Da Silva Conde-Eduardo Leda Patricia, Galbán García Enrique, Arús Soler Enrique, Martinez Pérez Yadina
Background: The reduction of the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Cuba can be attributed to the effectiveness of the national immunization program. However, the number of patients with chronic HBV observed in clinical practice is not negligible. Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the main clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Methods: A total of 146 patients who had at least a 6-month history of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity were recruited between 2013 and 2015...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156870/a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccination-of-healthy-turkish-infants-and-toddlers
#8
Mehmet Ceyhan, İnci Yıldırım, Hasan Tezer, İlker Devrim, Emmanuel Feroldi
Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146216/-nisch-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-neonatal-cholestasis-a-case-report
#9
S Szepetowski, C Lacoste, S Mallet, B Roquelaure, C Badens, A Fabre
NISCH syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease. It is characterized by scalp hypotrichosis, scarring alopecia, ichthyosis, and neonatal sclerosing cholangitis. It is caused by mutations in the CLDN1 gene encoding the claudin-1 protein, which is located at tight junctions. Fifteen cases have been reported to date and three different mutations have been identified. We report on the case of a 2-year-old boy from a consanguineous Moroccan family, presenting with NISCH syndrome and carrying the so-called Moroccan homozygous mutation (c...
November 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143609/survey-of-programmatic-experiences-and-challenges-in-delivery-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Azumi Ishizaki, Julie Bouscaillou, Niklas Luhmann, Stephanie Liu, Raissa Chua, Nick Walsh, Sarah Hess, Elena Ivanova, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on programmatic experience of viral hepatitis testing and treatment in resource-limited settings. To inform the development of the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) viral hepatitis testing guidance and in particular the feasibility of proposed recommendations, we undertook a survey across a range of organisations engaged with hepatitis testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to describe current hepatitis B and C testing practices across a range of settings in different countries, as well as key barriers or challenges encountered and proposed solutions to promote testing scale-up...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118562/obstetricians-and-gynecologists-knowledge-education-and-practices-regarding-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#11
Bolin Niu, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Steven K Herrine
Background: In pregnant women with high viral loads, third-trimester initiation of antiviral agents can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. We aimed to assess obstetricians' and gynecologists' (OB-GYN) knowledge and clinical practice when treating pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: All program directors (PDs) from 250 US OB-GYN residency programs were invited to anonymously complete an 18-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102991/beyond-the-diagnosis-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-experiences-of-persons-with-hepatitis-b-in-the-accra-metropolis-ghana
#12
Charles Ampong Adjei, Florence Naab, Ernestina S Donkor
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the experiences of people with hepatitis B in the Accra metropolis. DESIGN: The study employed qualitative exploratory descriptive design with purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through face-to-face interview and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using content analysis. SETTINGS: Participants were recruited from one government and one mission hospital in Ghana. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen individuals aged between 26 and 45 years with hepatitis B infection were interviewed...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036415/transfusion-transmissible-infections-among-walk-in-blood-donors-at-kisumu-regional-blood-transfusion-centre-kisumu-county-kenya-2015
#13
Dominic Wamamba, Dickens Onyango, Elvis Oyugi, Evalyne Kanyina, Mark Obonyo, Jane Githuku, James Ransom
Background: Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) are threats to blood safety. This study investigated TTIs among volunteer blood donors at the Kisumu Regional Blood Transfusion Centre (KRBTC) in Kenya. Methods: We performed a retrospective record review of blood donor registers at KRBTC, 2015. Walk-in donors accepted for donation were analyzed to determine prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and syphilis...
November 8, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#14
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977233/chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-prognosis-according-to-child-pugh-score
#15
Marcelo Siqueira de Oliveira, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva, Suiane da Costa Negreiros do Valle, Elisabeth Níglio de Figueiredo, Dayana Fram
Objective: compare chronic hepatitis B patients to those superinfected with hepatitis D virus, according to Child-Pugh score regarding disease severity. Method: retrospective descriptive study, performed with 59 patients followed in the ambulatory, of which 22 (37.3%) were chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (Group HBV) and 37 (62.7%) superinfected with Delta virus (Group HBV+HDV); variables of sex, age and items of Child-Pugh score were collected by consulting medical records...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967816/endovascular-treatment-of-a-high-flow-hepatic-arteriovenous-malformation-with-secondary-portal-hypertension-in-a-dog
#16
J Brad Case, Sarah E Boston, Erin P Porter, Beau B Toskich
CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old neutered female Labrador Retriever with a 3- to 4-month history of abdominal distention was referred for evaluation and treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS Evaluation of a peritoneal fluid specimen collected by the referring veterinarian indicated a pure transudate. At admission, transabdominal ultrasonography revealed microhepatica, dilation of the intrahepatic and mesenteric vasculature, peritoneal effusion, and multiple aberrant blood vessels. A large, high-flow hepatic arteriovenous malformation (HAVM) with secondary portal hypertension, peritoneal effusion, multiple acquired portosystemic shunts, and microhepatica was evident on CT angiography...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949280/childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-in-tropical-africa-then-and-now
#17
Wasiu A Olowu, Adebowale Ademola, Adebukola B Ajite, Yauba M Saad
This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0.35-1.34% of hospital admissions. Median age at onset of NS ranged between 4.0 and 12.0 years while the mean (SD) age range was 5.8 (3...
September 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948365/genotypes-and-subgenotypes-of-hepatitis-b-virus-circulating-in-an-endemic-area-in-peru
#18
Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto, Maria Alma Bracho, Fernando González-Candelas, Milagros Huichi-Atamari
Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still endemic in Abancay, Peru, two decades after vaccination against hepatitis B started in the area, little is known about the diversity and circulation of genotypes and subgenotypes of the virus. To identify the genotypes and subtypes of HBV circulating in Abancay, complete genome sequences of 11 treatment-naive HBV-infected patients were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted with these and additional sequences from GenBank. Genotyping revealed the presence of genotype F in all the samples from Abancay...
September 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891541/inequity-in-access-to-childhood-immunization-in-enugu-urban-southeast-nigeria
#19
B S Uzochukwu, C C Okeke, E Envuladu, C Mbachu, C Okwuosa, O E Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: The Nigerian National Programme on Immunization aims at increasing the immunization coverage of children under 1 year of age. However, there is still a gap between the national immunization targets and the immunization coverage rates, and data are rarely disaggregated according to socioeconomic status. As a result, there is a dearth of information about the coverage of subgroups, especially at the local level. This study determined the socioeconomic differentials in immunization coverage for children under 5 years and under 1 year in Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887164/type-a-viral-hepatitis-a-summary-and-update-on-the-molecular-virology-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Stanley M Lemon, Jördis J Ott, Pierre Van Damme, Daniel Shouval
Although epidemic jaundice was well known to physicians of antiquity, it is only in recent years that medical science has begun to unravel the origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the unique pathobiology underlying acute hepatitis A in humans. Improvements in sanitation and the successful development of highly efficacious vaccines have markedly reduced the worldwide prevalence and incidence of this enterically-transmitted infection over the past quarter century, yet the virus persists in vulnerable populations and remains a common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks in economically-advantaged societies...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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