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hepatitis B descriptive

Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
A G Spruijt, K R Wilting, G D Mithoe, W J M Niessen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of an intervention in which medical-microbiological laboratories alert general practitioners (GPs) in writing about patients with a chronic hepatitis B or C infection in their practice, urging them to bring these patients under medical surveillance again now that treatment options have improved and guidelines have been revised. DESIGN: Descriptive, prospective. METHOD: All patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B or C between 2003 and 2013 on the request of the GP, and for whom diagnostics by an internist, infectious diseases specialist or gastrointestinal/liver specialist had never been requested, were included...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Donald B Smith, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Thomas Monath, A Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Jack T Stapleton, Peter Simmonds
Proposals are described for the assignment of recently reported viruses, infecting rodents, bats and other mammalian species, to new species within the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera (Family Flaviviridae). Assignments into 14 Hepacivirus species (Hepacivirus A to N) and 11 Pegivirus species (Pegivirus A to K) are based on phylogenetic relationships and sequence distances between conserved regions extracted from complete coding sequences of each proposed taxon. We propose that the species hepatitis C virus is renamed Hepacivirus C in order to acknowledge its unique historical position and so as to minimise confusion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Karlen E Luthy, Sarah L Stocksdale, Janelle L B Macintosh, Lacey M Eden, Renea L Beckstrand, Katie Edmonds
BACKGROUND: All major hospital facilities in the state of Utah have employee vaccination policies. However, the presence of healthcare worker vaccination policies in outpatient oncology clinics was unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this article are to identify oncology outpatient employee vaccination policies in Utah and to identify what consequences, if any, are present for unvaccinated employees. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study design in which clinic managers from outpatient oncology clinics were asked, via questionnaire, to describe the clinic's employee vaccination policy and the consequences for refusing the policy...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
S Kuppachi, D Holanda, M Eberlein, B Alexiev, A J Tyler, M C Wissel, S B Kleiboeker, C P Thomas
We report a lung transplant recipient who developed BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) DNAemia and BKPyV nephropathy. With careful management of his immunosuppression he achieved significant reduction in BKPyV DNAemia and stabilization of his kidney function. He later developed a high-grade bladder cancer and shortly thereafter he experienced a major upsurge in the level of BKPyV DNAemia that coincided with the discovery of hepatic metastasis. Retrospectively, the bladder cancer and the hepatic secondary tumor stained uniformly for SV40 large T antigen, and the BKPyV DNA sequences identified in plasma corresponded to BKPyV DNA within hepatic tissue, indicating that the spike in BKPyV load was likely derived from the circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA following metastases of a BKV-associated cancer...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Wondemagegn Mulu, Yohannes Zenebe, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu
BACKGROUND: Young women aged 15-24 years are members of key populations at higher risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acquisition through sexual intercourse. In areas where unprotected sex is a common practice, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) commonly transmitted via sexual and parenteral routes. The study aimed at determining HIV and HBV infections prevalence in young women attending health institutions for abortion care in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross - sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2015...
2016: BMC Public Health
Zahra Ahmadinejad, Zahra Abdi Liae, Saideh Salehizadeh, Sedighe Mansori, Neda Alijani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection is a universal concern. This infection can lead to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers are at high risk of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, especially for HBeAg-positive mothers or neonates who have not received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) and HBV vaccines. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis in these infants to prevent infection...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Yue Yang, Ye-Ping Ma, Da-Peng Chen, Li Zhuo, Wen-Ge Li
Hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy (HBV-MN) is the most common renal extra-hepatic manifestation in patients with chronic HBV infection. In September 2015, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, and the reference lists of retrieved articles, to identify relevant studies. Descriptions of antiviral drugs used to treat HBV-MN were included in our review. Two authors independently screened all relevant articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Nine hundred and fifty-four papers have been considered after electronic and manual searching, only five relevant studies were identified...
2016: PloS One
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Abdul Rauf Memon, Sadia Tanveer, Asif Ali, Pyar Ali, Khalid Imran, Hussain Haroon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) on histopathology in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with duration of more than 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Dow Medical College, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from November 2013 to April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 5 years duration having raised alanine transaminases level and fatty liver on ultrasonography were selected...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Maryam Dafei, Shiv K Sarin, Anjur T Kannan, Kamal Agrawal, Suneela Garg, Kieert Agrawal, Ali Dehghani
BACKGROUND & AIM: Occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), poses a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs), especially in developing countries, due to the high prevalence of these pathogens and fewer safety precautions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections and to measure the vaccination practices in HCWs at three tertiary care hospitals in Delhi, India...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Adebola T Olayinka, Akin Oyemakinde, Muhammad S Balogun, Anthonia Ajudua, Patrick Nguku, Moses Aderinola, Abiodun Egwuenu-Oladejo, Simeon W Ajisegiri, Samuel Sha'aibu, Bolanle O P Musa, Saheed Gidado, Abdulsalami Nasidi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for about 1 million deaths worldwide annually. This study was to determine the prevalence, distribution of HBV, and factors associated with infection in an apparently healthy population in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study among the general population was conducted employing a multistage sampling technique. Data on demographic, social, and behavioral indicators were collected using questionnaires and blood samples tested for HBV seromarkers. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Daniel Melese Desalegn, Serebe Abay, Bineyam Taye
BACKGROUND: Provision of quality laboratory services is an essential aspect of a promoting safe motherhood and better outcomes for newborn. Therefore; this study was intended to assess status of focused antenatal care (FANC) laboratory services at public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2015. The study included 13 randomly selected health facilities and 13 purposively selected laboratory service providers...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Adel Eftekhari, Khadijeh Nasiriani, Samaneh Mirzaei, Somayeh Azimpour Ardakani
INTRODUCTION: The restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic disorder suffering the hemodialysis patients. Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome remains unknown yet, an investigation of the parameters pertinent to it may help to develop the related medical knowledge and to improve the therapeutic-care interventions in this regard. OBJECTIVES: The correlation between the RLSs on individual, clinical, and laboratory indices in patients undergoing hemodialysis...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Abdulrahman Ahmad, Lye Munn Sann, Hejar Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of hepatitis B and C has been reported to be low among respondents in different studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to ascertain their levels of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hepatitis B and C and its associated factors. METHODS: Six hundred and sixty two (662) international students participated in this study. A cluster sampling method was employed and data was generated using self-administered questionnaire, which was validated and its reliability checked...
2016: BMC Public Health
Flávia Fonseca Fernandes, Victor Oliveira Alves, Tarquino Erastides Gavilanes Sánchez, Wagner Diniz de Paula, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana
A previously healthy, 52-year-old woman presented with a nine months history of low fever and weight loss (> 30 kg). Physical examination disclosed generalized lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, abdominal distension, mild tachypnea and a left breast mass. Laboratory tests showed anemia; (prerenal) kidney injury, low serum albumin level; and negative serology for HIV and viral hepatitis. Computed tomography (neck/chest/abdomen) showed generalized lymph node enlargement, splenomegaly, pleural effusion and ascites...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Karoline Aebi-Popp, Christian Kahlert, Andri Rauch, Beatrice Mosimann, David Baud, Nicola Low, Daniel Surbek
QUESTION: Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. METHODS: We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Farnaz Vahidnia, Susan L Stramer, Debra Kessler, Thelma T Gonçalez, Beth H Shaz, German Leparc, David E Krysztof, Roger Y Dodd, Simone A Glynn, Brian Custer
BACKGROUND: Differences in motivating factors that contribute to the decision to donate blood between infected and uninfected donors may help to identify areas for improving donor education. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of a risk factor study, confirmed-positive donors (cases) based on serology-only (human T-lymphotropic virus [HTLV]) or serology and nucleic acid testing (NAT) or NAT-only (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], hepatitis C virus [HCV]), and serology-unconfirmed, NAT-negative false-positive donors (controls) were asked about motivations and opinions toward blood donation...
August 2016: Transfusion
Tariq Rashid, Asma Naheed, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Iqbal, Najeeb Barkat
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is getting popularity in developing countries especially in Pakistan. Conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy is also common. This study intends to evaluate the causes of conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy and to establish the efficacy and safety of the procedure. METHODS: This descriptive case series was conducted in the department of General Surgery at Social Security Teaching Hospital Islamabad from November 2012 to October 2015...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, Adebukola Bola Agunbiade, Kabir Bolarinwa Badmos, Adenike Olufunmilayo Lesi, Abdulrazzaq Oluwagbemiga Lawal, Quadri Olatunji Alli
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus, a highly infectious blood-borne virus poses a major threat to public health globally due to its high prevalence rate and grave consequence in causing liver cirrhosis and hepatocelullar carcinoma, the third cause of cancer death worldwide. The aim is determine the prevalence of HBsAg, knowledge, and vaccination practices against viral hepatitis B infection among doctors and nurses in a health care facility. METHODS: Study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study among all the doctors and nurses in the health care facility...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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