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hepatitis B descriptive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053931/combined-evaluation-of-afp-ca15-3-ca125-ca19-9-and-cea-tumor-markers-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-and-c
#1
Mehdi Assmar, Sara Yeganeh, Fariborz Mansourghanaei, Nour Amirmozafari
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the role of tumor markers AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with hepatitis B and C. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. Serum samples of 129 patients with hepatitis B and C referred to Guilan Liver and Digestive Disease Research Center in Rasht, Iran were collected and checked for the existence of the listed tumor markers by ELISA. RESULTS: No increase in serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9, CEA and CA15-3 were seen in patients with hepatitis (P>0...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050366/practices-of-health-care-personnel-regarding-occupational-exposure
#2
Manisha Jain, Ekadashi Rajni Sabharwal, Dhirendra Srivastava
INTRODUCTION: With advancing health care sciences, the prevalence of Accidental Exposure to Patient's Blood (AEBP) amongst Health Care Personnel (HCP) is bound to increase. The only means of preventing such accidental exposure is safe working practices. It is the responsibility of the teachers to inculcate these practices amongst their students. AIM: To evaluate the knowledge, practice and attitude regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) immunization amongst faculty and undergraduate students and to assess the frequency of these occupational exposure with the objective of inculcating safe working practices in the teaching curriculum...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018873/restrictions-for-reimbursement-of-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-canada-a-descriptive-study
#3
Alison D Marshall, Sahar Saeed, Lisa Barrett, Curtis L Cooper, Carla Treloar, Julie Bruneau, Jordan J Feld, Lesley Gallagher, Marina B Klein, Mel Krajden, Naglaa H Shoukry, Lynn E Taylor, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: In Canada, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens are costly. This presents challenges for universal drug coverage of the estimated 220 000 people with chronic HCV infection nationwide. The study objective was to appraise criteria for reimbursement of 4 HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada. METHODS: We reviewed the reimbursement criteria for simeprevir, sofosbuvir, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the 10 provinces and 3 territories...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008343/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-honiara-solomon-islands-2015
#4
Aneley Getahun, Margaret Baekalia, Nixon Panda, Alice Lee, Elliot Puiahi, Sabiha Khan, Donald Tahani, Doris Manongi
AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled...
December 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008291/knowledge-and-attitude-of-health-care-professionals-regarding-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-its-vaccination-university-of-gondar-hospital-ethiopia
#5
Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Boressa Adugna Horssa, Nardose Getachew, Sitotaw Amare, Ashenafi Getnet
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting approximately 10% of the world population. Health care professionals (HCPs) are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection due to occupational exposure. Having enough knowledge and proper attitudes toward the infection and its vaccination is crucial in preventing the infection. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as its vaccination among HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#6
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956157/ibrutinib-for-patients-with-rituximab-refractory-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinaemia-innovate-an-open-label-substudy-of-an-international-multicentre-phase-3-trial
#7
Meletios A Dimopoulos, Judith Trotman, Alessandra Tedeschi, Jeffrey V Matous, David Macdonald, Constantine Tam, Olivier Tournilhac, Shuo Ma, Albert Oriol, Leonard T Heffner, Chaim Shustik, Ramón García-Sanz, Robert F Cornell, Carlos Fernández de Larrea, Jorge J Castillo, Miquel Granell, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Veronique Leblond, Argiris Symeonidis, Efstathios Kastritis, Priyanka Singh, Jianling Li, Thorsten Graef, Elizabeth Bilotti, Steven Treon, Christian Buske
BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread rituximab use for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, new treatment options for patients with rituximab-refractory disease are an important clinical need. Ibrutinib has induced durable responses in previously treated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in a population with rituximab-refractory disease. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label substudy was done at 19 sites in seven countries in adults aged 18 years and older with confirmed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, refractory to rituximab and requiring treatment...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#8
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799960/trends-in-the-incidence-rates-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-poland-in-the-years-2005-2013
#9
Barbara Stawinska-Witoszynska, Monika Zysnarska, Małgorzata Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Paulina Wojtyła-Buciorab, Alicja Krzyzaniak, Barbara Wieckowska
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. METHODS: The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i...
August 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787680/identification-of-a-new-hepatitis-b-virus-recombinant-d2-d3-in-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#10
Luiz Claudio Santana, Nathalia Pena Mantovani, Maira Cicero Ferreira, Rafael Arnold, Rodrigo Lopes Sanz Duro, Paulo Roberto Abrão Ferreira, James Richard Hunter, Élcio Leal, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis
Two hundred forty million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. The rise of globalization has facilitated the emergence of novel HBV recombinants and genotypes. We evaluated HBV genotypes and recombinants, mutations associated with resistance to antivirals (AVs), progression of hepatic illness, and inefficient hepatitis B vaccination responses in chronically infected individuals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Forty-five full-length and 24 partial-length sequences were obtained...
October 27, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746337/hepatitis-delta-associated-mortality-in-hiv-hbv-coinfected-patients
#11
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique L Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive hepatitis B surface antigen test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734775/-tracing-patients-with-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#12
A G Spruijt, K R Wilting, G D Mithoe, W J M Niessen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of an intervention in which medical-microbiological laboratories alert general practitioners (GPs) in writing about patients with a chronic hepatitis B or C infection in their practice, urging them to bring these patients under medical surveillance again now that treatment options have improved and guidelines have been revised. DESIGN: Descriptive, prospective. METHOD: All patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B or C between 2003 and 2013 on the request of the GP, and for whom diagnostics by an internist, infectious diseases specialist or gastrointestinal/liver specialist had never been requested, were included...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708682/hepatic-adaptations-to-maintain-metabolic-homeostasis-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-mice
#13
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692039/proposed-update-to-the-taxonomy-of-the-genera-hepacivirus-and-pegivirus-within-the-flaviviridae-family
#14
Donald B Smith, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Thomas Monath, A Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Jack T Stapleton, Peter Simmonds
Proposals are described for the assignment of recently reported viruses, infecting rodents, bats and other mammalian species, to new species within the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera (family Flaviviridae). Assignments into 14 Hepacivirus species (Hepacivirus A-N) and 11 Pegivirus species (Pegivirus A-K) are based on phylogenetic relationships and sequence distances between conserved regions extracted from complete coding sequences for members of each proposed taxon. We propose that the species Hepatitis C virus is renamed Hepacivirus C in order to acknowledge its unique historical position and so as to minimize confusion...
November 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668369/evaluation-of-employee-vaccination-policies-in-outpatient-oncology-clinics-a-pilot-study
#15
Karlen E Luthy, Sarah L Stocksdale, Janelle L B Macintosh, Lacey M Eden, Renea L Beckstrand, Katie Edmonds
BACKGROUND: All major hospital facilities in the state of Utah have employee vaccination policies. However, the presence of healthcare worker vaccination policies in outpatient oncology clinics was unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this article are to identify oncology outpatient employee vaccination policies in Utah and to identify what consequences, if any, are present for unvaccinated employees. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study design in which clinic managers from outpatient oncology clinics were asked, via questionnaire, to describe the clinic's employee vaccination policy and the consequences for refusing the policy...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647675/an-unexpected-surge-in-plasma-bkpyv-viral-load-heralds-the-development-of-bkpyv-associated-metastatic-bladder-cancer-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient-with-bkpyv-nephropathy
#16
S Kuppachi, D Holanda, M Eberlein, B Alexiev, A J Tyler, M C Wissel, S B Kleiboeker, C P Thomas
We report a lung transplant recipient who developed BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) DNAemia and BKPyV nephropathy. With careful management of his immunosuppression he achieved significant reduction in BKPyV DNAemia and stabilization of his kidney function. He later developed a high-grade bladder cancer and shortly thereafter he experienced a major upsurge in the level of BKPyV DNAemia that coincided with the discovery of hepatic metastasis. Retrospectively, the bladder cancer and the hepatic secondary tumor stained uniformly for SV40 large T antigen, and the BKPyV DNA sequences identified in plasma corresponded to BKPyV DNA within hepatic tissue, indicating that the spike in BKPyV load was likely derived from the circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA following metastases of a BKV-associated cancer...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645509/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-infections-in-young-women-seeking-abortion-care-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Wondemagegn Mulu, Yohannes Zenebe, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu
BACKGROUND: Young women aged 15-24 years are members of key populations at higher risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acquisition through sexual intercourse. In areas where unprotected sex is a common practice, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) commonly transmitted via sexual and parenteral routes. The study aimed at determining HIV and HBV infections prevalence in young women attending health institutions for abortion care in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross - sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2015...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617077/efficacy-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers-in-iran-is-it-authentic
#18
Zahra Ahmadinejad, Zahra Abdi Liae, Saideh Salehizadeh, Sedighe Mansori, Neda Alijani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection is a universal concern. This infection can lead to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers are at high risk of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, especially for HBeAg-positive mothers or neonates who have not received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) and HBV vaccines. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis in these infants to prevent infection...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598699/a-meta-analysis-of-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-membranous-nephropathy
#19
Yue Yang, Ye-Ping Ma, Da-Peng Chen, Li Zhuo, Wen-Ge Li
Hepatitis B virus-associated membranous nephropathy (HBV-MN) is the most common renal extra-hepatic manifestation in patients with chronic HBV infection. In September 2015, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, and the reference lists of retrieved articles, to identify relevant studies. Descriptions of antiviral drugs used to treat HBV-MN were included in our review. Two authors independently screened all relevant articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Nine hundred and fifty-four papers have been considered after electronic and manual searching, only five relevant studies were identified...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539754/frequency-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-on-histopathology-in-patients-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-duration-of-more-than-5-years
#20
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Abdul Rauf Memon, Sadia Tanveer, Asif Ali, Pyar Ali, Khalid Imran, Hussain Haroon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) on histopathology in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with duration of more than 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Dow Medical College, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from November 2013 to April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 5 years duration having raised alanine transaminases level and fatty liver on ultrasonography were selected...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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