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hepatitis B clinical patterns

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353268/non-invasive-diagnostic-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-b-virus-endemic-areas-is-cirrhosis-indispensable
#1
Xiao-Wen Huang, Bing Liao, Yang Huang, Jin-Yu Liang, Quan-Yuan Shan, Shun-Li Shen, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-de Lu, Li-da Chen, Wei Wang
AIM: To confirm whether cirrhosis is indispensable for the non-invasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-endemic areas. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2014, a total of 409 patients with pathologically proven focal liver lesions who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were recruited from our institution. Clinical liver cirrhosis, HBV/HCV infection and HCC-typical vascular pattern of the targeted lesion on CEUS were evaluated...
January 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#2
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300980/distinct-relapse-rates-and-risk-predictors-after-discontinuing-tenofovir-and-entecavir-therapy
#3
Tung-Hung Su, Hung-Chih Yang, Tai-Chung Tseng, Jyh-Ming Liou, Chen-Hua Liu, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Chun-Jen Liu, Jia-Horng Kao
Background: We investigated the patterns; predictors for virological relapse (VR), clinical relapse (CR), sustained clinical response (SCR); and retreatment outcomes after nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy discontinuation. Methods: Chronic hepatitis B patients discontinuing NUC were prospectively enrolled. Viral and host predictors, including HBsAg, anti-HBc, the single nucleotide polymorphisms of NTCP (rs2296651), CTLA4 (rs231775), rs3077 (HLA-DPA1), and rs9277535 (HLA-DPB1), and post-therapy predictors were investigated...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285238/hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-x-gene-mutations-and-their-association-with-liver-disease-progression-in-hbv-infected-patients
#4
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Nyla Nazir, Rohit Ghai, Ayman A Abdo, Faisal M Sanai, Waleed K Al-Hamoudi, Khalid A Alswat, Hamad I Al-Ashgar, Mohammed Q Khan, Ali Albenmousa, Damian Dela Cruz, Marie Fe F Bohol, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the clinical impact of single and combinational mutations in HBx gene on the pathogenesis of HCC during progressive stages of liver disease. The patients were categorized into inactive HBV carriers, active carriers, cirrhosis and HCC groups based on disease severity. Male sex, age > 50 years, and high serum alanine aminotransferase level were associated with risk of progressive liver disease...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282815/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-cerebral-microbleeds-among-adult-patients-with-haemophilia-a-or-b
#5
H Husseinzadeh, T Chiasakul, P A Gimotty, B Pukenas, R Wolf, M Kelty, E Chiang, P F Fogarty, A Cuker
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) represent clinically silent haemorrhagic events. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) portend negative neurovascular and cognitive outcomes in the general population and are associated with cognitive impairment in persons with haemophilia (PWH). Prevalence, patterns, and risk factors for CMBs in PWH have not been directly compared to persons without coagulopathy. AIM: To examine prevalence, patterns, and risk factors for CMBs in PWH vs normal controls...
December 28, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259231/a-novel-cell-line-based-orthotopic-xenograft-mouse-model-that-recapitulates-human-hepatoblastoma
#6
Sarah E Woodfield, Yan Shi, Roma H Patel, Jingling Jin, Angela Major, Stephen F Sarabia, Zbigniew Starosolski, Barry Zorman, Siddharth S Gupta, Zhenghu Chen, Aryana M Ibarra, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Ketan B Ghaghada, Pavel Sumazin, Dolores López-Terrada, Sanjeev A Vasudevan
Currently, preclinical testing of therapies for hepatoblastoma (HB) is limited to subcutaneous and intrasplenic xenograft models that do not recapitulate the hepatic tumors seen in patients. We hypothesized that injection of HB cell lines into the livers of mice would result in liver tumors that resemble their clinical counterparts. HepG2 and Huh-6 HB cell lines were injected, and tumor growth was monitored with bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Levels of human α-fetoprotein (AFP) were monitored in the serum of animals...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248936/patients-with-coexistence-of-circulating-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-and-its-antibody-may-have-a-strong-predisposition-to-virus-reactivation-during-immunosuppressive-therapy-a-hypothesis
#7
Yu-Lan Chen, Ying-Qian Mo, Dong-Hui Zheng, Jian-Da Ma, Jun Jing, Lie Dai
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-recognized complication in patients who undergo immunosuppressive drug therapy. Although the recommendation of antiviral prophylaxis made by the American Gastroenterological Association in 2015 focuses on the risk stratification of different immunosuppressive drugs, risk factors for HBV reactivation are also worth identifying in clinical practice. Recent studies have shown that the uncommon serological pattern of coexistent circulating HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and its antibody (anti-HBs) was associated with double mutations (A1762T/G1764A) in the basal core promoter (BCP) region of the HBV genome, which is critical for HBV replication...
December 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241726/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-attending-the-three-main-tertiary-hospitals-in-libya
#8
Abdel-Naser Elzouki, Saleh M Bashir, Omar Elahmer, Islam Elzouki, Fathi Alkhattali
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Globally, More than 350 million individuals are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and >20 million of them are co-infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of HDV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 162 patients with chronic hepatitis B positive for more than six months) who were followed up at hepatitis clinics of the three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli city (88 patients from Tripoli Medical Centre and Tripoli Central Hospital) and Benghazi city (74 patients from Aljomhoria Hospital) during the period from January 2010 to June 2012...
December 11, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232004/three-types-of-pres1-start-codon-deletion-variants-in-the-natural-course-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#9
Won Hyeok Choe, Hong Kim, So-Young Lee, Yu-Min Choi, So Young Kwon, Hee Won Moon, Mina Hur, Bum-Joon Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Naturally occurring hepatitis B virus variants carrying a deletion in the preS1 start codon region may evolve during long-lasting virus-host interactions in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to determine the immune phase-specific prevalent patterns of preS1 start codon deletion variants and related factors during the natural course of CHB. METHODS: A total of 399 CHB patients were enrolled. Genotypic analysis of three different preS1 start codon deletion variants (classified by deletion size: 15-bp, 18-bp, and 21-bp deletion variants) was performed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218046/tlr2-expression-in-peripheral-cd4-t-cells-promotes-th17-response-and-is-associated-with-disease-aggravation-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#10
Chunli Xu, Yinping Lu, Xin Zheng, Xuemei Feng, Xuecheng Yang, Joerg Timm, Jun Wu, Baoju Wang, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Jia Liu
Th17 responses have been shown to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The mechanism underlying the enhanced Th17 responses in these patients remains largely unclear. Here we investigated toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in peripheral T cells and their roles in Th17 cell differentiation and disease aggravation in ACLF patients. 18 healthy subjects (HS), 20 chronic HBV-infected (CHB) patients, and 26 ACLF patients were enrolled and examined for TLRs expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202690/distinct-patterns-of-serum-hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-during-the-natural-history-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#11
Zhan-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Nan Zhang, Wei Lu, Yan-Bing Wang, Qi-Cheng Weng, Yan-Ling Feng
BACKGROUND: The current clinical practice on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) requires better on-treatment monitoring of viral persistence. Quantified assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core-related antigen (HBcrAg) hold promise for further optimization of therapy. Here, we aimed to characterize HBcrAg during the natural course of CHB. METHODS: Four-hundred and forty four treatment naïve CHB patients, who all underwent liver histology examination, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
December 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177849/practice-patterns-in-hepatitis-b-virus-screening-before-cancer-chemotherapy-in-a-major-us-hospital-network
#12
Ye Eun Kwak, Stacy M Stein, Joseph K Lim
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy face an increased risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. AIM: To determine the HBV screening rate in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy in various clinical settings. METHOD: We identified 11,959 adult cancer patients (age ≥ 18 years) receiving parenteral chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 within a major US hospital network, including a large university hospital, community teaching hospitals, and community oncology clinics...
November 24, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118562/obstetricians-and-gynecologists-knowledge-education-and-practices-regarding-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#13
Bolin Niu, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Steven K Herrine
Background: In pregnant women with high viral loads, third-trimester initiation of antiviral agents can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. We aimed to assess obstetricians' and gynecologists' (OB-GYN) knowledge and clinical practice when treating pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: All program directors (PDs) from 250 US OB-GYN residency programs were invited to anonymously complete an 18-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116050/real-world-evidence-for-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-a-5-year-multicentre-study-of-antiviral-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china-52-week-results
#14
Jidong Jia, Hong Tang, Qin Ning, Jiaji Jiang, Xiaoguang Dou, Mingxiang Zhang, Shuqin Zhang, Jia Shang, Wei Lu, Yinong Ye, Xin Wang, Mingshu Li, Jie Liu, Qingyan Bo, Wenzhong Tan
BACKGROUND: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China. METHODS: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070526/circulating-tumors-cells-from-different-vascular-sites-exhibit-spatial-heterogeneity-in-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-composition-and-distinct-clinical-significance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Yunfan Sun, Wei Guo, Yang Xu, Ying-Hong Shi, Zijun Gong, Yuan Ji, Min Du, Xin Zhang, Bo Hu, Ao Huang, George G Chen, Paul B S Lai, Ya Cao, Shuang-Jian Qiu, Jian Zhou, Xin-Rong Yang, Jia Fan
PURPOSE: The spatial heterogeneity of phenotypic and molecular characteristics of CTCs within circulatory system remains unclear. Herein, we mapped the distribution and characterized biological features of CTCs along the transportation route in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  Experimental Design: In 73 localized HCC patients, blood was drawn from peripheral vein (PV), peripheral artery (PA), hepatic veins (HV), infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IHIVC) and portal vein (PoV) before tumor resection...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045810/a-novel-next-generation-sequencing-assay-as-an-alternative-to-currently-available-methods-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping
#16
G Dirani, E Paesini, E Mascetra, P Farabegoli, B Dalmo, B Bartolini, A R Garbuglia, M R Capobianchi, V Sambri
Chronic HCV infection is one of the leading causes of liver-related death and in many countries it is a primary reason for having a liver transplant. HCV genotype identification has long been used in the clinical practice, since different genotypes have different response rates and required different doses and durations of IFN/RBV treatment; moreover both the frequency and the pattern of resistance to different Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) classes are subtype specific. Hence the necessity to make an accurate HCV subtyping becomes a fundamental tool to optimize current and future clinical management of HCV infected subjects...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022863/next-generation-sequencing-revealed-divergence-in-deletions-of-the-pres-region-in-the-hbv-genome-between-different-hbv-related-liver-diseases
#18
Jian'an Jia, Xiaotao Liang, Shipeng Chen, Hui Wang, Huiming Li, Meng Fang, Xin Bai, Ziyi Wang, Mengmeng Wang, Shanfeng Zhu, Fengzhu Sun, Chunfang Gao
In order to investigate if deletion patterns of the preS region can predict liver disease advancement, the preS region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome in 45 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 94 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the percentages of nucleotide deletion in the preS region were analysed. Hierarchical clustering and heatmaps based on deletion percentages of preS revealed different deletion patterns between CHB and HCC patients...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990003/liver-lesions-detected-in-a-hepatitis-b-core-total-antibody-positive-patient-masquerading-as-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-rare-case-of-peliosis-hepatis-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Chun Han Nigel Tan, Gwyneth Shook Ting Soon, Wei Chieh Alfred Kow
Peliosis Hepatis (PH) is a rare vascular disorder of the liver, characterized by the presence of cystic blood-filled cavities distributed throughout the hepatic parenchyma. The pathogenesis of PH remains controversial. The preoperative diagnosis of PH is difficult, due to the non-specific imaging characteristics of PH and almost all cases are diagnosed on histology post resection. This study presents a case of PH masquerading as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient is a 45-year old Chinese lady, who presented with transaminitis...
August 2017: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960041/clevudine-induced-mitochondrial-myopathy
#20
Soo Hyun Park, Kyung Seok Park, Nam Hee Kim, Joong Yang Cho, Moon Soo Koh, Jin Ho Lee
Clevudine was approved as an antiviral agent for hepatitis B virus, which showed marked, rapid inhibition of virus replication without significant toxicity. However, several studies have reported myopathy associated with clevudine therapy. Also, we experienced seven patients who suffered from myopathy during clevudine therapy. To characterize clevudine-induced myopathy, we collected previously reported cases of clevudine myopathy and analyzed all the cases including our cases. We searched electronic databases that were published in English or Korean using PubMed and KoreaMed...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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