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hepatitis b patterns

Richard Treger, Ramy M Hanna, Brian M Lee, Eduardo A Lopez, James Wilson, Dalila Corry
The introduction of hepatitis B vaccination and infection control in 1977 has greatly decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B. Currently, approximately 2.8% of the end-stage renal disease population is hepatitis B positive with a presence in 27.7% of the USA hemodialysis (HD) units according to the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study data. The behavior of hepatitis B infection differs significantly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Immunosuppressed hosts present more subtly with complications of chronic hepatitis B infection, being more challenging to detect...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Rikako Hiramatsu, Yoshifumi Ubara, Naoki Sawa, Eiko Hasegawa, Masahiro Kawada, Aya Imafuku, Keiichi Sumida, Junichi Hoshino, Kenmei Takaichi
We performed a bone histomorphometric analysis in two patients demonstrating Fanconi syndrome with hypophosphatemia, adefovir-related bone disease and chronic hepatitis B infection. Both patients had osteomalacia, but showed two different histological patterns. The osteoid volume of the patient without risedronate increased with [(osteoid volume/ bone volume)×100=18.6%]. However, the osteoid volume of the patient receiving risedronate without vitamin D analogue showed a greater increase of 53.8%. In both patients bone pain and hypophosphatemia subsided soon after the discontinuation of adefovir and the administration of phosphate derivative...
2016: Internal Medicine
S Khurram, M Borhany, N Anwar, I Naseer, S Boota, I Mirza, M Nadeem, T Shamsi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and reasons for donor deferral prior to the blood donation process in our population. BACKGROUND: Transfusion is an irreversible event that carries potential risks as well as benefits to the recipient. Therefore, donor selection prior to blood donation is one of the most important steps in ensuring the safety of blood and blood products. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the blood bank department in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014...
October 12, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
Ling-Hao Zhao, Xiao Liu, He-Xin Yan, Wei-Yang Li, Xi Zeng, Yuan Yang, Jie Zhao, Shi-Ping Liu, Xue-Han Zhuang, Chuan Lin, Chen-Jie Qin, Yi Zhao, Ze-Ya Pan, Gang Huang, Hui Liu, Jin Zhang, Ruo-Yu Wang, Yun Yang, Wen Wen, Gui-Shuai Lv, Hui-Lu Zhang, Han Wu, Shuai Huang, Ming-Da Wang, Liang Tang, Hong-Zhi Cao, Ling Wang, T P Lee, Hui Jiang, Ye-Xiong Tan, Sheng-Xian Yuan, Guo-Jun Hou, Qi-Fei Tao, Qin-Guo Xu, Xiu-Qing Zhang, Meng-Chao Wu, Xun Xu, Jun Wang, Huan-Ming Yang, Wei-Ping Zhou, Hong-Yang Wang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can integrate into the human genome, contributing to genomic instability and hepatocarcinogenesis. Here by conducting high-throughput viral integration detection and RNA sequencing, we identify 4,225 HBV integration events in tumour and adjacent non-tumour samples from 426 patients with HCC. We show that HBV is prone to integrate into rare fragile sites and functional genomic regions including CpG islands. We observe a distinct pattern in the preferential sites of HBV integration between tumour and non-tumour tissues...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Kaitlin M Johnson, Sean C Lema
Several estuaries along the Pacific Ocean coast of North America were identified recently as having elevated 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in sediments and biota, raising concerns about reproductive impacts for wildlife given 4-NP's established estrogenic activity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Here we characterize 4-NP mediated induction and recovery of estrogen-sensitive gene transcripts in the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios), an intertidal fish abundant in estuarine mud flats on the west coast of North America...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
M J Nielsen, M A Karsdal, K Kazankov, H Grønbaek, A Krag, D J Leeming, D Schuppan, J George
BACKGROUND: While morphological patterns differ, the molecular phenotype of liver fibrosis is considered a stereotypical response to chronic liver injury. However, with different cellular triggers and networks regulating fibrosis, the molecular responses of the injured liver may not be identical. AIM: To investigate whether differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of the liver during fibrogenesis in two seemingly similar types of viral hepatitis could be reflected by differences in ECM turnover...
October 3, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Fuchu Qian, Jiqu Qin, Dongli Li, Zhihong Ma, Hairong Zhang, Fang Jin, Weihong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Antiviral drug-resistance patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants are complex and currently partly understood. The aim of this study was to monitor the genotypic resistance profile in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in Huzhou, eastern China. METHODOLOGY: Serum samples of 139 CHB patients undergoing NA treatment were obtained from Huzhou Central Hospital. The full-length HBV reverse transcriptase regions were amplified and sequenced...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
S B Paul, E Dhamija, S R Gamanagatti, V Sreenivas, D P Yadav, S Jain, Shalimar, S K Acharya
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that of multiphase computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of tumor response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age, 53 years±12.5 [SD]) with a total of 70 HCCs (mean size, 5cm±3 [SD]) were evaluated. Post-TACE therapeutic assessment of HCC was done at 4 weeks. Patients with TACE done earlier and reporting with suspicion for recurrence were also included...
September 27, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Guoying Ni, Yuejian Wang, Scott Cummins, Shelley Walton, Kate Mounsey, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei, Tianfang Wang
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that is able to downregulate inflammation. Its overexpression is directly associated with the difficulty in the clearance of chronic viral infections, such as chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infection, and infection-related cancer. IL-10 signaling blockade has been proposed as a promising way of clearing chronic viral infection and preventing tumor growth in animal models. Recently, we have reported that peptides with a helical repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues are able to inhibit IL-10 significantly both in vitro and in vivo (1) ...
September 29, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Kübra Altinel, Kosuke Hashimoto, Yu Wei, Christine Neuveut, Ishita Gupta, Ana Maria Suzuki, Alexandre Dos Santos, Pierrick Moreau, Tian Xia, Soichi Kojima, Sachi Kato, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Isao Hidaka, Masahito Shimizu, Tomokazu Matsuura, Akihito Tsubota, Hitoshi Ikeda, Sumiko Nagoshi, Harukazu Suzuki, Marie-Louise Michel, Didier Samuel, Marie Annick Buendia, Jamila Faivre, Piero Carninci
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and more than 650,000 people die annually due to HBV-associated liver failure. Extensive studies of individual promoters have revealed that heterogeneous RNA 5' -ends contribute to the complexity of HBV transcriptome and proteome. Here we provide a comprehensive map of HBV transcription start sites (TSSs) in human liver, HCC and blood, as well as several experimental replication systems, at single nucleotide resolution...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Bing-Fang Chen
AIM: To investigate the associations of different types of pre-S deletions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. METHODS: The sequences of the pre-S region, basal core promoter (BCP) mutation, and precore (PC) mutation were examined through direct DNA sequencing or clonal analysis and sequencing in 273 HBV carriers, namely 55 asymptomatic carriers, 55 carriers with chronic hepatitis (CH), 55 with liver cirrhosis (LC), 53 with liver cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma (LC-HCC), and 55 with noncirrhotic HCC...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Arielle Klepper, Francis J Eng, Erin H Doyle, Ahmed El-Shamy, Adeeb H Rahman, M Isabel Fiel, Gonzalo Carrasco Avino, Moonju Lee, Fei Ye, Sasan Roayaie, Meena B Bansal, Margaret R MacDonald, Thomas D Schiano, Andrea D Branch
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unique among RNA viruses in its ability to establish chronic infection in the majority of exposed adults. HCV persists in the liver despite interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) induction; robust induction actually predicts treatment failure and viral persistence. It is unclear which forms of HCV RNA are associated with ISG induction and interferon resistance during natural infections. To thoroughly delineate HCV RNA populations, we developed conditions that fully separate the strands of long double-stranded (ds)RNA and allow the released RNAs to be quantified in reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (qRT/PCR) assays...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hartono Gunardi, Melanie Y Iskandar, Turyadi, Susan I Ie, Pramita G Dwipoerwantoro, Rino A Gani, David H Muljono
BACKGROUND: HBV-infected patients are potential sources of intra-familial transmission. We studied HBV transmission and molecular characteristics within families of HBV-related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS: Family members [index cases (ICs), spouses, and 1-18-year-old children] of HBV-related CLD patients were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. HBsAg-positive subjects were tested for HBeAg/anti-HBe. Anti-HBc-positive children together with their family members were further investigated for HBV DNA...
September 13, 2016: Hepatology International
Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Asuka Kamei, Yuki Watanabe, Fumika Shinozaki, Akihito Yasuoka, Kousuke Shimada, Kaori Kondo, Tomoko Ishijima, Tsudoi Toyoda, Soichi Arai, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe
SCOPE: Maple syrup contains various polyphenols and we investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich maple syrup extract (MSXH) on the physiology of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), an HFD, or an HFD supplemented with 0.02% (002MSXH) or 0.05% MSXH (005MSXH) for 4 weeks. Global gene expression analysis of the liver was performed, and the differentially expressed genes were classified into three expression patterns; pattern A (LFD < HFD > 002MSXH = 005MSXH, LFD > HFD < 002MSXH = 005MSXH), pattern B (LFD < HFD = 002MSXH > 005MSXH, LFD > HFD = 002MSXH < 005MSXH), and pattern C (LFD < HFD > 002MSXH < 005MSXH, LFD > HFD < 002MSXH > 005MSXH)...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Nelly Agrinier, Le Maréchal Marion, Lisa Fressard, Pierre Verger, Céline Pulcini
OBJECTIVES: - The objectives of our study were to describe GPs' vaccination recommendations for their patients and practices for their children, and to identify any discrepancies between them. METHODS: - Applying multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of a national sample of GPs, we constructed a typology based on the patterns of associations between GPs' vaccine recommendations to their patients and their own children's vaccinations...
September 4, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jördis J Ott, Johannes Horn, Gérard Krause, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Information on trends in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence across countries is lacking. We studied changes in chronic HBV infection over previous decades by country, and assessed patterns of change between and within WHO-defined regions. METHODS: Based on data from a published systematic review on chronic HBV, we applied a linear model on the logit scale to assess time trends in country-specific prevalence. Estimated HBsAg prevalence in 2000 and relative changes in prevalence over time were evaluated by country and region...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Yuan Liu, Xiaodong Guo, Liyuan Wu, Mei Yang, Zhiwei Li, Yinjie Gao, Shuhong Liu, Guangde Zhou, Jingmin Zhao
: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs predominantly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immune responses and TLR signaling has been associated with various chronic liver diseases. Lipid rafts provide the necessary microenvironment for certain specialized signaling events to take place, such as the innate immune recognition. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of TLR7 expression in HCC, how to recruit TLR7 into lipid rafts responded to ligands and whether targeting TLR7 might have beneficial effects...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Qingqing Li, Renyong Jia, Siyang Liu, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Anchun Cheng
BACKGROUND: The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) strain, designated SCP01, was isolated and identified from a Sichuan Cherry Valley duck in Southwestern China. To determine the origination and evolution of this isolated strain, we carried out complete genome sequencing of this strain. FINDINGS: Sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of DHBV strain SCP01 revealed a genome size of 3021 bp that contained three open reading frames, designated as C, S, and P, which were consistent with those of other duck hepatitis B viruses nucleotide sequences available in the GenBank of NCBI...
2016: SpringerPlus
Ying Cai, Ning Wang, Xiaomei Wu, Kai Zheng, Yan Li
Although the drug-induced mutations of HBV have been ever documented, the evolutionary mechanism is still obscure. To deeply reveal molecular characters of HBV evolution under the special condition, here we made a comprehensive investigation of the molecular variation of the 3432 wild-type sequences and 439 YMDD variants from HBV genotype A, B, C and D, and evaluated the co-variant patterns and the frequency distribution in the different YMDD mutation types and genotypes, by using the naïve Bayes classification algorithm and the complete induction method based on the comparative sequence analysis...
2016: SpringerPlus
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