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hepatitis b patterns

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447150/life-cycle-synchronization-is-a-viral-drug-resistance-mechanism
#1
Iulia A Neagu, Jason Olejarz, Mark Freeman, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Martin A Nowak, Alison L Hill
Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446468/prevalence-of-occult-hepatitis-b-in-a-population-from-the-brazilian-amazon-region
#2
Carla de Castro Sant' Anna, Marcella Kelly Costa de Almeida, Patrícia Ferreira, Roseane Gomes de Oliveira, Anna Rafaella Ferreira Baraúna, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalvez, Andrea Marinho da Silva, Carolina de Souza Pereira, Luisa Carício Martins
In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of occult hepatitis B (OBI) in a population from the Brazilian Amazon region, identify circulating genotypes and mutations in the S gene. 181 patients with negative serology for HBsAg and anti-HBs and positive serology for anti-HBc participated in the study. Detection of viral DNA, genotyping by sequencing and analysis of nucleotide sequences to detect possible mutations were performed. HBV DNA was detected in 14.36% of the patients. Genotyping revealed genotype A in 88...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442226/molecular-evolution-and-phylodynamics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-circulating-in-iran
#3
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyed Amir Malekpour, Mehdi Norouzi, Fatemeh Ramezani, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Vahdat Poortahmasebi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi, Azam Ghaziasadi, Hadi Karimzadeh, Reza Malekzadeh, Masood Ziaee, Farshid Abedi, Behrooz Ataei, Majid Yaran, Babak Sayad, Hamid Reza Jahantigh, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Gholamreza Sarizadeh, Ismail Sanei-Moghaddam, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Hossein Keyvani, Ebrahim Kalantari, Zahra Fakhari, Babak Geravand, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441762/-time-dependent-protein-expressions-of-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-in-liver-contusion-rats-after-impact
#4
C L Wang, Z X Xia, G H Zhang, J B You, H Yu, L L Wang, M Z Zhang, H B Yang, J P Gu, Y K Jin
OBJECTIVES: To observe the protein expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the liver tissue of liver contusion rats at different time after impact. METHODS: Fifty healthy adult male SD rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group and experimental groups (1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d after liver contusion). A rat liver contusion model was established by a free-falling device. The rats were killed at corresponding time, and the contused hepatic lobes were extracted...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428874/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-species-discovered-in-capuchin-monkeys-sheds-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-primate-hepadnaviruses
#5
Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Alexander König, Andrea Rasche, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Nora Stephan, Victor Max Corman, Pia Luise Roppert, Nora Goldmann, Ramona Kepper, Simon Franz Müller, Christof Völker, Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Andreas Stöcker, Michael Nassal, Carlos Roberto Franke, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares, Joachim Geyer, Philippe Lemey, Christian Drosten, Eduardo Martins Netto, Dieter Glebe, Jan Felix Drexler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: All known hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes occur in humans and hominoid Old World nonhuman primates (NHP). The divergent Woolly Monkey HBV (WMHBV) forms another orthohepadnavirus species. The evolutionary origins of HBV are unclear. METHODS: We analyzed sera from 124 Brazilian monkeys collected during 2012-2016 for hepadnaviruses using molecular and serological tools and conducted evolutionary analyses. RESULTS: We identified a novel orthohepadnavirus species in capuchin monkeys (CMHBV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416539/adjuvant-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-the-preterm-and-term-newborn
#6
Annette Scheid, Francesco Borriello, Carlo Pietrasanta, Helen Christou, Joann Diray-Arce, Matthew A Pettengill, Sweta Joshi, Ning Li, Ilana Bergelson, Tobias Kollmann, David J Dowling, Ofer Levy
Immunization is key to protecting term and preterm infants from a heightened risk of infection. However, preterm immunity is distinct from that of the term, limiting its ability to effectively respond to vaccines routinely given at birth, such as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). As part of the Expanded Program on Immunization, HBV is often given together with the live-attenuated vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), known to activate multiple pattern-recognition receptors. Of note, some clinical studies suggest BCG can enhance efficacy of other vaccines in term newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413097/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-infant-thimerosal-containing-hepatitis-b-vaccine-exposure-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a marked pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is inconsistent with developmental level and interferes with normal functioning in at least two settings. This study evaluated the hypothesis that infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HepB) exposure would increase the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This cross-sectional study examined 4393 persons between 13 and 19 years of age from the combined 1999-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographic, immunization, socioeconomic, and health-related variables using the SAS system...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408639/hepatitis-b-virus-does-not-interfere-with-innate-immune-responses-in-the-human-liver
#8
Aleksei Suslov, Tujana Boldanova, Xueya Wang, Stefan Wieland, Markus H Heim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most viruses are detected at early stages of cell infection and induce an innate immune response mediated by production interferons (IFNs). IFNs induce expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Infection of chimpanzees with hepatitis C virus, but not hepatitis B virus (HBV), induces ISG expression in the liver. HBV might not induce an innate immune response because it is not detected by pattern recognition receptors (the stealth properties of HBV) or because HBV suppresses IFN production or signaling despite detection by pattern recognition receptors...
February 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403301/early-exposure-to-distinct-sources-of-lipids-affects-differently-the-development-and-hepatic-inflammatory-profiles-of-21-day-old-rat-offspring
#9
Laís Vales Mennitti, Lila Missae Oyama, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
Introduction: Maternal diet composition of fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation seems to modify the fetal programming, epigenetic pattern and offspring phenotype. Aim: Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal consumption of normal-fat diets with distinct lipid sources during pregnancy and lactation on the somatic development and proinflammatory status of 21-day-old rat offspring. Materials and Methods: On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: soybean oil (M-SO), lard (M-L), hydrogenated vegetable fat (M-HVF) and fish oil (M-FO)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393485/early-changes-in-quasispecies-variant-after-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#10
Yujiao Liang, Yoshihiko Yano, Wahyu Aristyaning Putri, Yan Mardian, Rina Okada, Toshihito Tanahashi, Yoshiki Murakami, Yoshitake Hayashi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase gene is targeted by nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC), but it is unclear how HBV quasispecies of whole genome changes during early period of NUC treatment. To understand the unknown region of drug sensitivity and treatment resistance, HBV quasispecies of whole genome during early period of NUC treatment was examined using ultra‑deep sequencing. Eleven patients with chronic HBV infection who received NUC treatment were enrolled in the current study. Viral DNA was extracted from serum samples before and early period of NUC treatment...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387227/screening-of-up-and-downregulation-of-circrnas-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-microarray
#11
Shichang Cui, Zhiling Qian, Yuhan Chen, Lei Li, Peng Li, Huiguo Ding
The present study describes circular RNA (circRNA) profiles in three pairs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and the corresponding adjacent non-tumorous tissues (NTs) by microarray. circRNA is a type of endogenous RNA that serve a crucial role in disease development and aberrantly express in a number of types of cancer. In the present study, 3 paired HCC tissues and paired adjacent NTs were collected from HCC surgical specimens from 3 hepatitis B virus-infected patients with HCC. With abundant and varied probes accounting for 5,396 circRNAs, a large number of circRNAs are able to be quantitatively determined...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377141/evaluation-of-hpv-type-replacement-in-unvaccinated-and-vaccinated-adolescent-females-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-community-randomized-clinical-trial-ii
#12
Penelope Gray, Johanna Palmroth, Tapio Luostarinen, Dan Apter, Gary Dubin, Geoff Garnett, Tiina Eriksson, Kari Natunen, Marko Merikukka, Ville Pimenoff, Anna Söderlund-Strand, Simopekka Vänskä, Jorma Paavonen, Eero Pukkala, Joakim Dillner, Matti Lehtinen
Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination program may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naïve population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B), and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C)...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353268/non-invasive-diagnostic-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-b-virus-endemic-areas-is-cirrhosis-indispensable
#13
Xiao-Wen Huang, Bing Liao, Yang Huang, Jin-Yu Liang, Quan-Yuan Shan, Shun-Li Shen, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-de Lu, Li-da Chen, Wei Wang
AIM: To confirm whether cirrhosis is indispensable for the non-invasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-endemic areas. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2014, a total of 409 patients with pathologically proven focal liver lesions who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were recruited from our institution. Clinical liver cirrhosis, HBV/HCV infection and HCC-typical vascular pattern of the targeted lesion on CEUS were evaluated...
January 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343698/correlations-between-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-d5-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-yunnan-china
#14
Xiao Li, Tai-Cheng Zhou, Chang-Hui Wu, Li-Lin Tao, Rui Bi, Li-Jun Chen, De-Yao Deng, Chang Liu, Newton O Otecko, Yang Tang, Xin Lai, Liang Zhang, Jia Wei
Mitochondrial abnormality is frequently reported in individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the associated hosts' mitochondrial genetic factors remain obscure. We hypothesized that mitochondria may affect host susceptibility to HBV infection. In this study, we aimed to detect the association between chronic HBV infection and mitochondrial DNA in Chinese from Yunnan, Southwest China. A total of 272 individuals with chronic HBV infection (CHB), 310 who had never been infected by HBV (healthy controls, HC) and 278 with a trace of HBV infection (spontaneously recovered, SR) were analysed for mtDNA sequence variations and classified into respective haplogroups...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342849/comparative-response-of-the-hepatic-transcriptomes-of-domesticated-and-wild-turkey-to-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#15
Kent M Reed, Kristelle M Mendoza, Juan E Abrahante, Roger A Coulombe
The food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) poses a significant risk to poultry, which are highly susceptible to its hepatotoxic effects. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive, whereas wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are more resistant. AFB₁ toxicity entails bioactivation by hepatic cytochrome P450s to the electrophilic exo-AFB₁-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Domesticated turkeys lack functional hepatic GST-mediated detoxification of AFBO, and this is largely responsible for the differences in resistance between turkey types...
January 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#16
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325249/-clinicopathologic-features-of-primary-hepatic-marginal-zone-lymphoma-of-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-and-hepatic-pseudolymphoma
#17
C Liu, X Li, H Li, Q X Gong, Y Li, Z Wang, Z H Zhang
Objective: To study the clinicopathological features of primary hepatic extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and hepatic pseudolymphoma, and to discuss their differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Methods: Three primary hepatic MALT lymphomas and two hepatic pseudolymphomas collected from January 2012 to March 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were evaluated by HE and immunohistochemistry(IHC), in-situ hybridization and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement detection, and the relevant literature reviewed...
January 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320416/eating-patterns-in-patients-with-compensated-cirrhosis-a-case-control-study
#18
Camille Buscail, Valérie Bourcier, Léopold K Fezeu, Dominique Roulot, Séverine Brulé, Zahia Ben-Abdesselam, Carole Cagnot, Serge Hercberg, Pierre Nahon, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Chantal Julia
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting that maintaining an adequate nutritional status for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) is relevant to prevent complications. The present study aimed to describe dietary behaviours of patients with compensated and non-complicated LC and comparing them with those of subjects from the general population. METHODS: In this case-control study, patients were volunteers enrolled in the ALICIR (ALImentation et CIRrhose) study, an observational survey nested in two French prospective cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis related either to excessive alcohol consumption (CIRRAL) or to hepatitis B or C virus infection (CirVir)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300980/distinct-relapse-rates-and-risk-predictors-after-discontinuing-tenofovir-and-entecavir-therapy
#19
Tung-Hung Su, Hung-Chih Yang, Tai-Chung Tseng, Jyh-Ming Liou, Chen-Hua Liu, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Chun-Jen Liu, Jia-Horng Kao
Background: We investigated the patterns; predictors for virological relapse (VR), clinical relapse (CR), sustained clinical response (SCR); and retreatment outcomes after nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy discontinuation. Methods: Chronic hepatitis B patients discontinuing NUC were prospectively enrolled. Viral and host predictors, including HBsAg, anti-HBc, the single nucleotide polymorphisms of NTCP (rs2296651), CTLA4 (rs231775), rs3077 (HLA-DPA1), and rs9277535 (HLA-DPB1), and post-therapy predictors were investigated...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300782/the-paradox-of-hbv-evolution-as-revealed-from-a-16th-century-mummy
#20
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen associated with large-scale morbidity and mortality in humans. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the time-scale of its origin and evolution. Initial shotgun data from a mid-16th century Italian child mummy, that was previously paleopathologically identified as having been infected with Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox), showed no DNA reads for VARV yet did for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously, electron microscopy provided evidence for the presence of VARV in this sample, although similar analyses conducted here did not reveal any VARV particles...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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