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Creatine Nitrate

Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% of them having a higher estrogenic activity than acceptable. About 50% of the supplements are contaminated by melamine, a source of nonprotein nitrogen...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Elfego Galvan, Dillon K Walker, Sunday Y Simbo, Ryan Dalton, Kyle Levers, Abigail O'Connor, Chelsea Goodenough, Nicholas D Barringer, Mike Greenwood, Christopher Rasmussen, Stephen B Smith, Steven E Riechman, James D Fluckey, Peter S Murano, Conrad P Earnest, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. METHODS: Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
G L Close, D L Hamilton, A Philp, L M Burke, J P Morton
Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e...
September 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lakshmikanthan Panneerselvam, Vimal Govindarajan, Jaishabanu Ameeramja, Harikumaran Raveendran Nair, Ekambaram Perumal
Several studies have shown that acute fluoride (F(-)) exposure impairs cardiac function, but the molecular mechanism is not clear. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F(-) for 24 h. A significant accumulation of F(-) was found in the serum and myocardium of experimental rats. F(-) treatment causes myocardial necrosis as evident from increased levels of myocardial troponin I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase. In addition, F(-) induces myocardial oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and nitrate levels along with decreased in the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione s transferase pi class) and non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) antioxidants...
December 2015: Biochimie
Bruna M Schweinberger, Elias Turcatel, André F Rodrigues, Angela T S Wyse
In this study we evaluated oxidative/nitrative stress parameters (reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, sulfhydryl content, superoxide dismutase, catalase and nitrite levels), as well as total protein content in the gastrocnemius skeletal muscle of the offspring of rats that had been subjected to gestational hypermethioninaemia. The occurrence of muscular injury and inflammation was also measured by creatine kinase activity, levels of creatinine, urea and C-reactive protein and the presence of cardiac troponin I in serum...
October 2015: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Heba H Mansour, Shereen M El Kiki, Hesham F Hasan
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an oxazaphosphorine nitrogen mustard alkylating drug used for the treatment of chronic and acute leukemias, lymphoma, myeloma, and cancers of the breast and ovary. It is known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) on CP-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CP resulted in a significant increase in serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) enzymes, asymmetric dimethylarginine and tumor necrosis factor-α and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite(NOx)...
September 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Irina Hörster, Katharina Weigt-Usinger, Christina Carmann, Kristine Chobanyan-Jürgens, Cornelia Köhler, Ulrike Schara, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Bibiana Beckmann, Dimitrios Tsikas, Thomas Lücke
The L-arginine/nitric oxide (L-Arg/NO) pathway regulates endothelial function and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Yet, this pathway is poorly investigated in children suffering from DMD. Endothelial dysfunction can affect the perfusion of contracting muscles, thus leading to ischemia and hypoxia. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that reduced NO production due to elevated synthesis of N (G),N (G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, is a possible pathophysiological mechanism for progressive intramuscular muscle ischemia and disturbed endothelial function in children with DMD...
September 2015: Amino Acids
Guo-Qiang Qian, Jingjing Ding, Xiaozhao Zhang, Xiaofeng Yin, Yuqin Gao, Guo-Ping Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NO) pathway is involved or not in the protective effects of glycyrrhizic, ferulic, paeoniflorin, cinnamic (GFPC) in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model was made by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery for 30 min and releasing for 120 min, then the left ventricular apical was fixed and sliced, morphological changes of myocardial microvascular endothelial cell (MMVEC) was observed by electron microscopy, apoptosis index of MMVEC was observed by means of TUNEL, serum NO was tested by methods of nitrate reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was detected by automatic biochemical analyzer; Phosphorylated eNOS (PeNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein were measured by means of western blot...
April 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mateus Struecker da Rosa, César Augusto João Ribeiro, Bianca Seminotti, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Daniella de Moura Coelho, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Guilhian Leipnitz, Moacir Wajner
Patients affected by L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) are biochemically characterized by elevated L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine due to a blockage in the conversion of L-2-HG to α-ketoglutaric acid. Neurological symptoms associated with basal ganglia and cerebelar abnormalities whose pathophysiology is still unknown are typical of this neurometabolic disorder. In the present study we evaluated the early effects (30min after injection) of an acute in vivo intrastriatal and intracerebellar L-2-HG administration on redox homeostasis in rat striatum and cerebellum, respectively...
June 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jordan M Joy, Ryan P Lowery, Paul H Falcone, Matt M Mosman, Roxanne M Vogel, Laura R Carson, Chih-Yin Tai, David Choate, Dylan Kimber, Jacob A Ormes, Jacob M Wilson, Jordan R Moon
BACKGROUND: Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. METHODS: 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 ± 3.9 years, 144...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Enkui Hao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Zongxian Cao, Katalin Erdélyi, Eileen Holovac, Lucas Liaudet, Wen-Shin Lee, György Haskó, Raphael Mechoulam, Pál Pacher
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX's cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy...
2015: Molecular Medicine
M Desrois, A Piccardo, E Zogheib, C Dalmasso, C Lan, D Fourré, P J Cozzone, T Caus, M Bernard
BACKGROUND: We measured the functional and metabolic status of hearts submitted to normothermic ischemia before preservation through the use of an ex vivo pig heart model to assess the feasibility of donation after cardiac death (DCD) in heart transplantation. METHODS: Ten pigs were separated into 2 groups: control (n = 6, brain-dead group) and DCD (n = 4, heart donation after cardiac death). In the control group, hearts were excised 20 minutes after the brachiocephalic trunk cross-clamping and were immediately reperfused...
December 2014: Transplantation Proceedings
Mohamed Shehata
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the cardioprotective role of oral nicorandil (a hybrid between the nitrates and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] sensitive potassium channel activators) in diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury commonly occurs during PCI. Several agents that mimic ischemic preconditioning could help minimize this phenomenon. METHODS: One hundred diabetic patients with stable angina were prospectively enrolled, then randomly assigned to receive oral nicorandil: 20 mg once daily (group A, 50 patients) or placebo (group B, 50 patients) 1 week before and 6 months after PCI...
October 2014: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Martine Desrois, Frank Kober, Carole Lan, Christiane Dalmasso, Mark Cole, Kieran Clarke, Patrick J Cozzone, Monique Bernard
The chronic administration of the β-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol (IsoP) is used in animals to study the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and failure associated with a sustained increase in circulating catecholamines. Time-dependent changes in myocardial blood flow (MBF), morphological and functional parameters were assessed in rats in vivo using multimodal cardiac MRI. Energy metabolism, oxidative stress and the nitric oxide (NO) pathway were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts following 7 days of treatment...
May 2014: NMR in Biomedicine
Shyh-Shin Chiou, Chao-Jung Tsao, Shih-Meng Tsai, Ye-Ru Wu, Yu-Mei Liao, Pei-Chin Lin, Li-Yu Tsai
BACKGROUND: Iron overload is a major complication in patients with hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease and causes damage of tissues. METHODS: We investigated 26 Hb H patients and 75 controls to evaluate their oxidative stress and antioxidant statuses. RESULTS: There were significantly increased levels of superoxide anion in leucocytes, nitrite (NO2-), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in erythrocytes, decreased levels of nitrate (NO3-) and vitamin C in plasma, and reduced glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes, in addition to the abnormal iron status in the patients when compared with those in the controls...
July 2014: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Jen-Kun Chen, Chia-Chi Ho, Han Chang, Jing-Fang Lin, Chung Shi Yang, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Hui-Ti Tsai, Pinpin Lin
Inhalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) has potential health impact. Because zinc ion may involve in the toxicity of ZnONP, we compared adverse effects of inhaled aerosolized ZnONP and zinc nitrate in mice. Aerosolized ZnONP and zinc nitrate were well-dispersed in the inhalation chamber. Inhalation of 0.86 mg/m(3) ZnONP or 1.98 mg/m(3) zinc nitrate for 5 h caused acute inflammation mainly at bronchioloalveolar junctions of lungs at 24-h post-exposure. Inhalation of ZnONP or zinc nitrate increased metallothionein expression in the epithelial cells of brochioloalveolar junction...
February 2015: Nanotoxicology
Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Alon Schaffer, Ettore Cassetti, Paolo Marino, Giorgio Bellomo, Fabiola Sinigaglia, Giuseppe De Luca
Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a frequent complication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. Despite great attention focused on pharmacological prevention of periprocedural damage, very little is known about using biomarkers to potentially predict the risk of PMI. Larger platelets have been associated with enhanced reactivity, increased cardiovascular risk, and higher rates of complications after coronary stenting. The platelet-larger cell ratio (P-LCR) identifies the largest-sized fraction of platelets, the proportion potentially more closely related to thrombotic events...
January 2015: Heart and Vessels
Ryan P Lowery, Jordan M Joy, Joshua E Dudeck, Eduardo Oliveira de Souza, Sean A McCleary, Shawn Wells, Robert Wildman, Jacob M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Noha Ahmed El-Boghdady
Cardiotoxicity and congestive heart failure are the major factors that limit the use of anti-neoplastic drug adriamycin (ADR). There is increasing experimental evidence that endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) are vasoactive mediators that regulate cardiac performance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of ET-1 and NO in ADR-induced acute cardiotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in rats. A single dose of ADR (20 mg/kg i.p.) caused a significant increase in the cardiac enzyme activities of aspartate transaminases (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) in the serum of animals...
June 2013: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
Angela Zanatta, Carolina Maso Viegas, Anelise Miotti Tonin, Estela Natacha Brandt Busanello, Mateus Grings, Alana Pimentel Moura, Guilhian Leipnitz, Moacir Wajner
AIMS: Cerebellar ataxia is commonly observed in hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, an inherited metabolic disorder biochemically characterized by ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia accumulation. Since the pathophysiology of cerebellum damage in this disorder is still unknown, we investigated the effects of Hcit and Orn on important parameters of redox and energy homeostasis in cerebellum of young rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) levels, carbonyl content, nitrate and nitrite production, hydrogen peroxide production, GSH concentrations, sulfhydryl content, as well as activities of respiratory chain complexes I-IV, creatine kinase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase...
August 6, 2013: Life Sciences
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