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Roberta Iatta, Maria Rita Puttilli, Davide Immediato, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
This study aims to evaluate the effect of efflux pump modulators (EPMs) on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole (FLZ) and voriconazole (VOR) in Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis. The in vitro efficacy of azoles, in combination with EPMs (ie haloperidol-HAL, promethazine-PTZ and cyclosporine A-CYS), against 21 M. furfur from bloodstream infection patients and 14 M. pachydermatis from the skin of dogs with dermatitis, was assessed using a broth microdilution chequerboard analysis...
October 24, 2016: Mycoses
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Anupma J Kindo, Murugan Sundaram, G Sybren de Hoog
In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Wei Qiu, Biao Ren, Huanqin Dai, Lixin Zhang, Qiong Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Yuqing Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of eight antifungal drugs on S. mutans growth, biofilm formation and virulence factors. METHODS: The actions of antifungal drugs on S. mutans were determined by recovery plates and survival kinetic curves. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the viable cells were recovered on BHI plates, meanwhile biofilms were stained by BacLight live/dead kit to investigate the biofilm viability...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Biswa Nath Bhadra, Pill Won Seo, Nazmul Abedin Khan, Sung Hwa Jhung
Two highly porous Co-based metal-azolate frameworks (MAFs), MAF-5(Co) and MAF-6(Co), which are isostructural with MAF-5(Zn) and MAF-6(Zn), respectively, were first synthesized in high yield and purity at room temperature. The syntheses compared two mixing methods, slow and fast, using cobalt acetate as the metal ion (Co(2+)) source and 2-ethylimidazole as the ligand. Triethylamine was applied as an additive/promoter in aqueous/ethanol solutions, and benzene and cyclohexane were used as hydrophobic templates...
October 20, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Sarah G Whaley, P David Rogers
Candida infections have increased due to the growth and expansion of susceptible patient populations. The azole fluconazole is the most widely prescribed antifungal, but rising rates of clinical resistance among Candida glabrata isolates have greatly limited its utility. A better understanding of the mechanisms of azole antifungal resistance will provide information needed to overcome this clinical problem and reclaim this antifungal class as an option for empiric treatment of Candida infections. By far, the most frequent mechanism of azole resistance in C...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Xiaokui Gu, Wei Xue, Yajing Yin, Hongwei Liu, Shaojie Li, Xianyun Sun
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eugen Widmeier, Weizhen Tan, Merlin Airik, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
INTRODUCTION: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) inevitably progresses to end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or transplantation for survival. However, treatment modalities and drug discovery remain limited. Mutations in over 30 genes have been discovered as monogenic causes of SRNS. Most of these genes are predominantly expressed in the glomerular epithelial cell, the podocyte, placing it at the center of the pathogenesis of SRNS. Podocyte migration rate (PMR) represents a relevant intermediate phenotype of disease in monogenic causes of SRNS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
M Ivaskiene, A P Matusevicius, A Grigonis, G Zamokas, L Babickaite
In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Hamid Badali, Tahereh Shokohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Nasrin Amirrajab, Maryam Moazeni
Clinical management of fungal diseases is compromised by the emergence of antifungal drug resistance in fungi, which leads to elimination of available drug classes as treatment options. An understanding of antifungal resistance at molecular level is, therefore, essential for the development of strategies to combat the resistance. This study presents the assessment of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida glabrata isolates originated from Iran. Taking seven distinct fluconazole-resistant C...
October 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Teresa Graziano, Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Elisabetta Raiteri, Mario Del Piano, Luca Mogna
GOALS: To investigate the possible use of Lactobacillus strains in the prophylaxis and/or adjuvant therapy of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis and other vaginal infections sustained by Candida yeasts. BACKGROUND: The incidence of Candida infections has substantially increased in recent years. Treatment of vaginal infections with lactobacilli has a long tradition, starting with Döderlein's description of the vaginal microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the activity of serially diluted fluconazole and miconazole (from 3 ng/mL to 1 mg/mL) against Candida strains...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ewa D Raczyńska, Jean-François Gal, Pierre-Charles Maria
Nitrogen bases containing one or more pushing amino-group(s) directly linked to a pulling cyano, imino, or phosphoimino group, as well as those in which the pushing and pulling moieties are separated by a conjugated spacer (C═X)n, where X is CH or N, display an exceptionally strong basicity. The n-π conjugation between the pushing and pulling groups in such systems lowers the basicity of the pushing amino-group(s) and increases the basicity of the pulling cyano, imino, or phosphoimino group. In the gas phase, most of the so-called push-pull nitrogen bases exhibit a very high basicity...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Kaihong Chen, Guiling Shi, Xiuyuan Zhou, Haoran Li, Congmin Wang
A novel method for highly efficient nitric oxide absorption by azole-based ionic liquid was reported. The NO absorption capacity reached up to 4.52 mol per mol ionic liquid and is significant higher than the capacity other traditional absorbents. Moreover, the absorption of NO by this ionic liquid was reversible. Through a combination of experimental absorption, quantum chemical calculation, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic investigation, the results indicated that such high capacity originated from multiple-site interactions between NO and the anion through the formation of NONOate with the chemical formula R(1) R(2) N-(NO(-) )-N=O, where R(1) and R(2) are alkyl groups...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Tanvi Shekhar-Guturja, Walters Aji Tebung, Harley Mount, Ningning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Malcolm Whiteway, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of human mortality. Effective treatment is hindered by the rapid emergence of resistance to the limited number of antifungal drugs, demanding new strategies to treat life-threatening fungal infections. Here, we explore a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy using the natural product beauvericin against leading human fungal pathogens. We found that beauvericin potentiates the activity of azole antifungals against azole-resistant Candida isolates via inhibition of multidrug efflux, and that beauvericin itself is effluxed via Yor1...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Suresh Sadhasivam, Sekar Palanivel, Shamik Ghosh
Antimicrobials from natural sources have gained immense importance in recent times to combat the global challenge of antibiotic resistance. Essential oils are implicated in antimicrobial action against several species. Here we have screened nine commercially available essential oils for their antimicrobial activity against organisms associated with skin, scalp and nail infections mainly Propionibacterium acnes, Malassezia spp, Candida albicans and Trichophyton spp. Among nine essential oils, B. serrata essential oil demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms and surprisingly it showed maximum activity against Trichophyton spp...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Victoria V Grishko, Irina A Tolmacheva, Vladimir O Nebogatikov, Natalia V Galaiko, Alexei V Nazarov, Maxim V Dmitriev, Irena B Ivshina
An efficient scheme to synthesize novel ring-A fused heterocyclic derivatives of betulin was developed. The starting reaction of this synthesis was one-pot selective bacterial oxidation of betulin to betulone used as the key compound to synthesize the substituted azoles such as C(2)-C(3)-fused 1,2,3-triazoles, oxazoles and 1,2,4-triazine, as well as C(1)-C(2)-fused isoxazoles. The semi-synthetic compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines A549, HCT 116, HEp-2, MS and RD TE32 with use of the photometric MTT assays...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zi-Li Zhou, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Yun-Liang Yang, Hsiu-Jung Lo
The species distribution and drug susceptibilities of 1106 Candida isolates collected in Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) in 2014 were determined. Candida albicans is still the dominant species, accounting for 35.9%, followed by 28.3% C. glabrata, 26.6% C. tropicalis, 5.2% C. parapsilosis, 1.0% C. krusei, and 3.0% of 13 other species. Interestingly, the prevalence of candidemia caused by C. glabrata in the present study is significantly higher than that in previous three surveys (39/220 vs...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Juwen C DuBois, A George Smulian
The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host...
2016: PloS One
Nagaraju Narayanam, Kalpana Chintakrinda, Wei-Hui Fang, Yao Kang, Lei Zhang, Jian Zhang
Six polyoxo-titanium clusters (PTCs) with varying nuclearities containing Ti-N bonds and heteronuclearity, namely, [Ti6(μ3-O)2(μ2-O)2(O3P-Phen)2(OiPr)10(1-hbta)2] (PTC-37), Ti8(μ3-O)2(μ2-O)2(O3P-Phen)2(OiPr)16(adn)2(NO3)2] (PTC-38), [Ti4(μ3-O)(μ2-O)(μ2-OiPr)2(OiPr)4(O3P-Phen)3(1,10-phn)](HOiPr) (PTC-39), [Ti4(μ3-O)(μ2-OiPr)3(OiPr)5(O3P-Phen)3(Im)] (PTC-40), [Ti4(μ3-O)(μ2-OiPr)3(OiPr)5(O3P-Phen)3(Im)][Ti3M(μ3-O)(μ2-OiPr)3(OiPr)3(O3P-Phen)3(Im)] (M = Co for PTC-41 and M = Zn for PTC-42; O3P-Phen = phenyl phosphonate, 1-hbta = 1-hydroxy benzotriazolate, adn = adenine, 1,10-phn = 1,10-phenanthroline, Im = imidazolate, and OiPr = isopropoxide) were prepared as crystalline samples and structurally characterized...
October 6, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
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