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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734132/high-dimensional-single-cell-mapping-of-cerium-distribution-in-the-lung-immune-microenvironment-of-an-active-smoker
#2
Adeeb H Rahman, Yonit Lavin, Soma Kobayashi, Andrew Leader, Miriam Merad
BACKGROUND: Mass cytometry leverages inductively coupled mass spectrometry to perform high dimensional single cell analyses using antibodies tagged with rare earth isotopes that are considered to be largely absent in biological samples. We have recently noted an unusual exception to this rule while analyzing tissue samples from patients undergoing surgical resection for early stage lung cancer, and here we present a detailed cytometric characterization of cerium in a clinical patient sample...
July 22, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732377/thrombospondin-1-is-a-multifaceted-player-in-tumor-progression
#3
REVIEW
Tingting Huang, Li Sun, Xianglin Yuan, Hong Qiu
Thrombospondins are a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) was the first member to be identified and is a main player in tumor microenvironment. The diverse functions of TSP1 depend on the interactions between its structural domains and multiple cell surface molecules. TSP1 acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor by stimulating endothelial cell apoptosis, inhibiting endothelial cell migration and proliferation, and regulating vascular endothelial growth factor bioavailability and activity...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732279/turbocharging-vaccines-emerging-adjuvants-for-dendritic-cell-based-therapeutic-cancer-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Mansi Saxena, Nina Bhardwaj
Development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been hindered by the many pro-tumorigenic mechanisms at play in cancer patients that serve to suppress both antigen presenting cells and T cells. In face of these obstacles, cancer vaccines are most likely to promote anti-tumorigenic immune responses only when formulated with strong adjuvants, and in combination with new immune interventions designed to reverse immune suppression and exhaustion of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs) are often termed 'nature's adjuvant' due to their exceptional capacity for initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732079/lmp1-mediated-glycolysis-induces-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-expansion-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#5
Ting-Ting Cai, Shu-Biao Ye, Yi-Na Liu, Jia He, Qiu-Yan Chen, Hai-Qiang Mai, Chuan-Xia Zhang, Jun Cui, Xiao-Shi Zhang, Pierre Busson, Yi-Xin Zeng, Jiang Li
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731132/mir-374-mediates-the-malignant-transformation-of-gastric-cancer-associated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-experimental-rat-model
#6
Runbi Ji, Xu Zhang, Hui Qian, Hongbing Gu, Zixun Sun, Fei Mao, Yongmin Yan, Jingyan Chen, Zhaofeng Liang, Wenrong Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a critical component of the tumor microenvironment. Upon distinct pathological stimulus, MSCs show phenotypic and functional changes. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer‑related deaths worldwide. The roles and mechanisms of MSCs in gastric cancer have not been well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the roles of MSCs in the malignant transformation from gastritis to gastric cancer using an N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer model...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731046/pd-l1-expression-and-the-immune-microenvironment-in-primary-invasive-lobular-carcinomas-of-the-breast
#7
Elizabeth D Thompson, Janis M Taube, Rebecca J Asch-Kendrick, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Haiying Xu, Rajni Sharma, Alan Meeker, Pedram Argani, Leisha A Emens, Ashley Cimino-Mathews
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-L1 are potential prognostic factors and therapeutic targets in breast cancer. Most studies characterizing the breast tumor immune microenvironment have focused on ductal carcinomas. Here we investigate the tumor microenvironment of primary invasive lobular carcinomas. Previously constructed tissue microarrays of 47 lobular carcinomas were labeled by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, CD8, CD20, and FoxP3. The stromal immune infiltrate density was qualitatively scored as a percentage of tumor area: 1+ (<5%); 2+ (5-10%); 3+ (10-15%); or 4+ (>50%)...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730141/extracellular-vesicles-as-modulators-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-disease-progression-in-glioma
#8
REVIEW
Abir Mondal, Divya Kumari Singh, Suchismita Panda, Anjali Shiras
Diffuse gliomas are lethal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by infiltrative growth, aggressive nature, and therapeutic resistance. The recent 2016 WHO classification for CNS tumors categorizes diffuse glioma into two major types that include IDH wild-type glioblastoma, which is the predominant type and IDH-mutant glioblastoma, which is less common and displays better prognosis. Recent studies suggest presence of a distinct cell population with stem cell features termed as glioma stem cells (GSCs) to be causal in driving tumor growth in glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729775/role-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-and-its-prognostic-significance
#9
Tianjian Yu, Genhong Di
Breast cancer has been shown to live in the tumor microenvironment, which consists of not only breast cancer cells themselves but also a significant amount of pathophysiologically altered surrounding stroma and cells. Diverse components of the breast cancer microenvironment, such as suppressive immune cells, re-programmed fibroblast cells, altered extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain soluble factors, synergistically impede an effective anti-tumor response and promote breast cancer progression and metastasis...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#10
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728794/myeloid-suppressor-cells-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Marco Massarotti
A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells proliferate. Cancers harness the immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity from evading immunosurveillance and promoting immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with cancer cells and causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity. This redundant immunosuppressive network poses an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy by facilitating tumor progression...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728298/-the-prognostic-analysis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-the-tumor-neo-vessels-macrophages-and-%C3%AE-sma-in-tumor-microenvironment
#12
M Fang, J P Yuan, L L Liu, G P Cheng, H J Ying, Y M Chen, M Chen
Objective: To analyze the quantitative expression and prognostic significance of tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts in tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The clinic-pathological features and tissue samples for 101 HCC cases were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain the tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts on tumor tissue. The distribution results and quantitative data of above key components were acquired by inverted microscopy equipped with CRi Nuance multispectral analysis system...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727936/helper-t-cells-and-cancer-associated-inflammation-a-new-direction-for-immunotherapy
#13
Chen Dong
CD4(+) helper T cells are critical regulators in immunity and inflammation. Growing evidence has indicated their involvement in cancer, by shaping the tumor microenvironment. In this study, I summarize latest literature on Th2 and Th17 cells in cancer-associated inflammation and propose that they may be targeted for cancer immunotherapy.
July 20, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727766/clinical-implications-of-the-novel-cytokine-il-38-expressed-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-possible-association-with-pd-l1-expression
#14
Kazuki Takada, Tatsuro Okamoto, Masaki Tominaga, Koji Teraishi, Takaki Akamine, Shinkichi Takamori, Masakazu Katsura, Gouji Toyokawa, Fumihiro Shoji, Masaki Okamoto, Yoshinao Oda, Tomoaki Hoshino, Yoshihiko Maehara
Interleukin (IL)-38, a novel member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is homologous to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra, and has been reported to act as an antagonist. IL-38 expression is found in tonsil, placenta, and spleen, and recent studies suggest an association between IL-38 and autoimmune diseases. However, whether IL-38 plays a role in carcinogenesis or cancer growth is unclear. In the present study, we identified increases in IL-38 expression by immunohistochemistry in multiple types of cancer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727142/genomic-and-transcriptomic-heterogeneity-of-colorectal-tumors-arising-in-lynch-syndrome
#15
Hans Binder, Lydia Hopp, Michal R Schweiger, Steve Hoffmann, Frank Jühling, Martin Kerick, Bernd Timmermann, Susann Siebert, Christina Grimm, Lilit Nersisyan, Arsen Arakelyan, Maria Herberg, Peter Buske, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Maciej Rosolowski, Christoph Engel, Jens Przybilla, Martin Peifer, Nicolaus Friedrichs, Gabriela Moeslein, Margarete Odenthal, Michelle Hussong, Sophia Peters, Stefanie Holzapfel, Jacob Nattermann, Robert Hueneburg, Wolff Schmiegel, Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Stefan Aretz, Michael Kloth, Matthias Kloor, Reinhard Buettner, Jörg Galle, Markus Loeffler
Colorectal cancer (CRC) arising in Lynch Syndrome (LS) comprises tumors with constitutional mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes. Whole-genome and transcriptome studies of LS-CRC are still missing to address questions about similarities and differences of mutation and gene expression characteristics between LS-CRC and sporadic CRC, about the molecular heterogeneity of LS-CRC and about specific mechanisms of LS-CRC genesis linked to dysfunctional mismatch-repair in LS colonic mucosa and the possible role of immune editing...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726849/o2-controllable-hydrogels-for-studying-cellular-responses-to-hypoxic-gradients-in-three-dimensions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Daniel M Lewis, Michael R Blatchley, Kyung Min Park, Sharon Gerecht
Oxygen (O2) acts as a potent upstream regulator of cell function. In both physiological and pathophysiological microenvironments, the O2 concentration is not uniformly distributed but instead follows a gradient that depends on distance from oxygen-carrying blood vessels. Such gradients have a particularly important role in development, tissue regeneration, and tumor growth. In this protocol, we describe how to use our previously reported gelatin-based O2-controllable hydrogels that can provide hypoxic microenvironments in vitro...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725636/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-from-normal-functioning-to-disease-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Olena Bilyk, Mackenzie Coatham, Michael Jewer, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725635/implications-of-micrornas-in-oncolytic-virotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Xavier Bofill-De Ros, Maria Rovira-Rigau, Cristina Fillat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-coding RNA molecules (~22 nt) that can repress gene expression. Deregulation of certain miRNAs is widely recognized as a robust biomarker for many neoplasms, as well as an important player in tumorigenesis and the establishment of tumoral microenvironments. The downregulation of specific miRNAs in tumors has been exploited as a mechanism to provide selectivity to oncolytic viruses or gene-based therapies. miRNA response elements recognizing miRNAs expressed in specific tissues, but downregulated in tumors, have been inserted into the 3'UTR of viral genes to promote the degradation of these viral mRNAs in healthy tissue, but not in tumor cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725493/interferon-alpha-based-immunotherapies-in-the-treatment-of-b-cell-derived-hematologic-neoplasms-in-today-s-treat-to-target-era
#19
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Yu-Tzu Tai, Matthew Zhi Guang Ho, Lugui Qiu, Kenneth C Anderson
B cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) are the most common hematological malignancies which benefit from therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-based immunotherapies. Despite significant improvement on patient outcome following the use of novel therapies for the past decades, curative treatment is unavailable for the majority of patients. For example, the 5-year survival of MM is currently less than 50%. In the 1980s, interferon-α was used as monotherapy in newly diagnosed or previously treated MM with an overall response rate of 15-20%...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725433/macrophage-type-2-differentiation-in-a-patient-with-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-the-cervical-lymph-nodes
#20
Michael C Topf, Madalina Tuluc, Larry A Harshyne, Adam Luginbuhl
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment often polarizes infiltrating macrophages towards a type 2, or M2 phenotype, that is characterized by expression of various cysteine-rich, scavenger receptors, including CD163. The primary function of M2 macrophages is to facilitate wound healing. As such, they are capable of providing metabolic support to a growing tumor, neovascularization, as well as protection from cytotoxic T cells. The tumor microenvironment contains a milieu of secreted factors and vesicles, which in certain circumstances can gain access to lymphatic vessels that drain to local lymph nodes...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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