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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245052/optical-molecular-imaging-for-tumor-detection-and-image-guided-surgery
#1
REVIEW
Chensu Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Tian Zhao, Yang Li, Gang Huang, Baran D Sumer, Jinming Gao
We have witnessed rapid development of fluorescence molecular imaging of solid tumors for cancer diagnosis and image-guided surgery in the past decade. Many biomarkers unique to cancer cells or tumor microenvironment, such as cell surface receptors, hypoxia, secreted proteases and extracellular acidosis have been characterized, and can be used to distinguish cancer from normal tissue. A variety of optical imaging probes have been developed to target these biomarkers to improve tumor contrast over the background tissue...
December 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244745/immunotherapeutic-potential-of-oncolytic-h-1-parvovirus-hints-of-glioblastoma-microenvironment-conversion-towards-immunogenicity
#2
Assia L Angelova, Milena Barf, Karsten Geletneky, Andreas Unterberg, Jean Rommelaere
Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors, is characterized by highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. This contributes to glioblastoma resistance to standard treatment modalities and allows tumor growth and recurrence. Several immune-targeted approaches have been recently developed and are currently under preclinical and clinical investigation. Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV), show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. In a first phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01), H-1PV was safe and well tolerated when locally or systemically administered to recurrent glioblastoma patients...
December 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244195/decellularized-colorectal-cancer-matrix-as-bioactive-microenvironment-for-in-vitro-3d-cancer-research
#3
Martina Piccoli, Edoardo D'Angelo, Sara Crotti, Francesca Sensi, Luca Urbani, Edoardo Maghin, Alan Burns, Paolo De Coppi, Matteo Fassan, Massimo Rugge, Flavio Rizzolio, Antonio Giordano, Pierluigi Pilati, Enzo Mammano, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Marco Agostini
Three-dimensional (3D) cancer models are overlooking the scientific landscape with the primary goal of bridging the gaps between two-dimensional (2D) cell lines, animal models and clinical research. Here we describe an innovative tissue engineering approach applied to colorectal cancer (CRC) starting from decellularized human biopsies in order to generate an organotypic 3D-bioactive model. This in vitro 3D system recapitulates the ultrastructural environment of native tissue as demonstrated by histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243219/pd-1-blockade-enhances-the-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-gm-csf-surface-modified-bladder-cancer-stem-cells-vaccine
#4
Xiaojun Shi, Xinji Zhang, Jinlong Li, Lijun Mo, Hongfan Zhao, Yongtong Zhu, Zhiming Hu, Jimin Gao, Wanlong Tan
Eliminating cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a key issue in eradicating tumor. The streptavidin-granulocyte -macrophage colony stimulating factor (SA-GM-CSF) surface-modified bladder cancer stem cells vaccine previously developed using our protein-anchor technology could effectively induce specific immune response for eliminating CSCs. However, program death receptor-1 (PD-1)/program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling in tumor microenvironment results in tumor adaptive immune resistance. Although the CSCs vaccine could increase the number of CD8+ T-cells, a part of these CD8+ T-cells expressed PD-1...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242629/immune-microenvironment-of-experimental-rat-c6-gliomas-resembles-human-glioblastomas
#5
Anna Gieryng, Dominika Pszczolkowska, Katarzyna Bocian, Michal Dabrowski, Wenson David Rajan, Michal Kloss, Jakub Mieczkowski, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with ineffective anti-tumor responses and a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatments. GBM immune microenvironment is heterogenous  and activation of specific immune populations in GBM is not fully characterized. Reliable animal models are critical for defining mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. First we analyzed the immune subpopulations present in rat C6 gliomas. Using flow cytometry we determined kinetics of infiltration of myeloid cells and T lymphocytes into glioma-bearing brains...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242608/immunotherapies-for-malignant-glioma
#6
REVIEW
Vassiliki A Boussiotis, Alain Charest
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer with a dreadful overall survival and for which treatment options are limited. Recent breakthroughs in novel immune-related treatment strategies for cancer have spurred interests in usurping the power of the patient's immune system to recognize and eliminate GBM. Here, we discuss the unique properties of GBM's tumor microenvironment, the effects of GBM standard on care therapy on tumor-associated immune cells, and review several approaches aimed at therapeutically targeting the immune system for GBM treatment...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242604/ribosomal-protein-s15a-promotes-tumor-angiogenesis-via-enhancing-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-induced-fgf18-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Pengyi Guo, Yi Wang, Chunxiu Dai, Chonglin Tao, Fang Wu, Xiaozai Xie, Haitao Yu, Qiandong Zhu, Junjian Li, Longyun Ye, Fuxiang Yu, Yunfeng Shan, Zhengping Yu, Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Rongyuan Zheng, Gang Chen
Ribosomal protein s15a (RPS15A) plays a promotive role in the mRNA/ribosome interactions during early translation. Our previous study has found that inhibiting RPS15A expression can decrease proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of RPS15A in HCC pathogenesis and the clinical significance of RPS15A expression remain unclear. In this study, an evaluation of RPS15A expression in 110 surgically resected HCCs and matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues revealed an overexpression of RPS15A in HCC, which was correlated with worse survival...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242097/emerging-trends-in-the-immunotherapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Kasturi Banerjee, Sushil Kumar, Kathleen A Ross, Shailendra Gautam, Brittany Poelaert, Mohd Wasim Nasser, Abhijit Aithal, Rakesh Bhatia, Michael J Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan, Joyce C Solheim, Surinder K Batra, Maneesh Jain
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., claiming approximately 45,000 lives every year. Much like other solid tumors, PC evades the host immune surveillance by manipulating immune cells to establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Therefore, targeting and reinstating patient's immune system could serve as a powerful therapeutic tool. Indeed, immunotherapy has emerged in recent years as a potential adjunct treatment for solid tumors including PC...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241546/neutrophils-and-snail-orchestrate-the-establishment-of-a-pro-tumor-microenvironment-in-lung-cancer
#9
Julien Faget, Svenja Groeneveld, Gael Boivin, Martial Sankar, Nadine Zangger, Miguel Garcia, Nicolas Guex, Inti Zlobec, Loïc Steiner, Alessandra Piersigilli, Ioannis Xenarios, Etienne Meylan
Understanding the immune compartment of tumors facilitates the development of revolutionary new therapies. We used a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse model of lung cancer to establish an immune signature and identified a contribution of Gr1+ neutrophils to disease progression. Depletion experiments showed that Gr1+ cells (1) favor tumor growth, (2) reduce T cell homing and prevent successful anti-PD1 immunotherapy, and (3) alter angiogenesis, leading to hypoxia and sustained Snail expression in lung cancer cells. In turn, Snail accelerated disease progression and increased intratumoral Cxcl2 secretion and neutrophil infiltration...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241377/current-and-future-immunotherapies-for-thyroid-cancer
#10
Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi
Cancer immunotherapies were approved in recent years, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Experience with ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antagonist), nivolumab and pembrolizumab (PD-1 antagonists), and atezolizumab (PD-L1 antagonist) has shown that the impact on overall survival in cancer patients is paramount. Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the immune system and they can be applied across multiple cancers; the response rate is ranging from 20 to 40%. Many studies have shown that thyroid cancer (TC) cells produce cytokines and chemokines, inducing several tumor-promoting effects...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239917/natural-compounds-as-epigenetic-regulators-of-human-dendritic-cell-mediated-immune-function
#11
Sheefa Mirza, Kanisha Shah, Shanaya Patel, Nayan Jain, Rakesh Rawal
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are poised to capture antigen, migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and postmaturation process. Recent evidences have suggested that tumor microenvironment has an effect on DCs by inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance, eventually leading to tumorigenesis. This inactivation is owed to the epigenetic modifications [ie, microRNA (miRNA)] at the posttranscriptional level, thus regulating the differentiation patterns and functional behavior of DCs...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239188/-evaluation-of-inflammatory-cells-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-solid-tumors
#12
P Dundr, K Němejcová, M Bártů, R Matěj, Z Rohan, I Tichá
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumorigenesis and the tumor-host relationship. An important part of the tumor microenvironment is inflammatory infiltration. Its evaluation in solid tumors has prognostic meaning and appears also to be predictive of outcome, which is particularly important for predicting responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the methodology used to assess inflammatory infiltration is problematic, because it has been standardized only for certain types of tumors...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239107/regulation-of-tumor-stroma-interactions-by-the-unfolded-protein-response
#13
REVIEW
Joanna Obacz, Tony Avril, Camila Rubio-Patiño, Jozef P Bossowski, Aeid Igbaria, Jean-Ehrland Ricci, Eric Chevet
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive pathway that helps cells cope with the protein misfolding burden within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Imbalance between protein folding demand and capacity in the ER leads to a situation called ER stress that is often observed in highly proliferative and secretory tumor cells. As such, activation of the UPR signaling has emerged as a key adaptive mechanism promoting cancer progression. It is becoming widely acknowledged that, in addition to its intrinsic effect on tumor biology, the UPR can also regulate tumor microenvironment...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238954/il-25-is-involved-in-ctcl-progression-by-establishing-th2-dominant-microenvironment
#14
R Nakajima, T Miyagaki, T Oka, N Takahashi, M Hirakawa, H Suga, A Yoshizaki, H Fujita, Y Asano, M Sugaya, S Sato
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 family which can promote and augment T-helper type (Th) 2 responses. The expression of IL-25 and its cognate receptor, IL-25 receptor (IL-25R), is upregulated and correlated with disease activity in Th2-associated diseases. OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression and function of IL-25 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). METHODS: Expression and localization of IL-25 in lesional skin was investigated using immunohistochemistry...
December 13, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238879/the-small-vesicular-culprits-the-investigation-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-new-targets-for-cancer-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Fumihiko Urabe, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Yusuke Yoshioka, Shin Egawa, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles released from almost all type of cells including cancer cells. EVs transfer their components, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), messenger RNAs, lipids and proteins, from one cell to another, affecting the target cells. Emerging evidence suggests that reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the cells in their microenvironment via EVs drive disease progression and therapy resistance. Therefore, understanding the roles of EVs in cancer biology will provide us with new opportunities to treat patients...
December 13, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238224/prognostic-value-of-cox-2-and-pd-l1-expression-and-its-relationship-with-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-resected-lung-adenocarcinoma
#16
Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata
Programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor-infiltrating CD8-positive T lymphocytes (CD8-positive TILs), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) have been used as prognostic tools in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We conducted a retrospective review of data from 170 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection as an initial treatment for clinical T1-2 N0 lung adenocarcinoma. We then investigated the expressions of three biomarkers using immunohistochemical analyses and compared the expression levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of the patients...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238068/microrna-105-is-involved-in-tnf-%C3%AE-related-tumor-microenvironment-enhanced-colorectal-cancer-progression
#17
Zetao Shen, Rui Zhou, Chen Liu, Yaofeng Wang, Wanqi Zhan, Ziyun Shao, Jian Liu, Feifei Zhang, Lijun Xu, Xinying Zhou, Lu Qi, Feng Bo, Yanqing Ding, Liang Zhao
TNF-α is a central proinflammatory cytokine contributing to malignant tumor progression in tumor microenvironment. In this study, we found the upregulation of miR-105 in colorectal cancer was associated with aggressive phenotype, and the enhanced expression of miR-105 was required for TNF-α-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The expression of miR-105 was remarkably stimulated by TNF-α in a time-dependent manner using real-time qPCR analysis. Inhibition of miR-105 remarkably weakened the aggressive effects of TNF-α through preventing the activation of NF-κB signaling and the initiation of EMT...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238040/il-3r-alpha-blockade-inhibits-tumor-endothelial-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicle-ev-mediated-vessel-formation-by-targeting-the-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#18
Giusy Lombardo, Maddalena Gili, Cristina Grange, Claudia Cavallari, Patrizia Dentelli, Gabriele Togliatto, Daniela Taverna, Giovanni Camussi, Maria Felice Brizzi
The proangiogenic cytokine Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is released by inflammatory cells in breast and ovarian cancer tissue microenvironments and also acts as an autocrine factor for human breast and kidney tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs). We have previously shown that IL-3-treated endothelial cells (ECs) release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which serve as a paracrine mechanism for neighboring ECs, by transferring active molecules. The impact of an anti-IL-3R-alpha blocking antibody on the proangiogenic effect of EVs released from TECs (anti-IL-3R-EVs) has therefore been investigated in this study...
December 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237932/current-progress-and-controversies-in-prostate-cancer-management
#19
REVIEW
De-Xin Dong, Zhi-Gang Ji
OBJECTIVE: The optimal management strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. We performed a systemic review of current progress and controversies regarding the diagnosis and treatment of PCa. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed for recently published articles up to July 2017 using the following key words: "prostate cancer," "progress," "controversy," "immunotherapy," and "prevention." STUDY SELECTION: Articles were obtained and reviewed to provide a systematic review of the current progress and controversies regarding PCa management...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237352/influence-of-patterned-titanium-coatings-on-polarization-of-macrophage-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#20
Zequan Zhang, Youtao Xie, Houhua Pan, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Biomaterial surface topography plays a vital role in the osteointegration of implants by regulating the early cell responses and tissue growth-in. However, most of the previous researches focused on the effects of osteogenic cells, only a little is known about the immune cells which dominate osteogenesis after implanting. In this paper, patterned titanium coatings were fabricated and the effects of surface topography on the macrophage behaviors were investigated. On patterned titanium surface, macrophages preferred to polarize to M2, while macrophages on traditional titanium coatings presented higher M1 polarization...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
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