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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053414/perk-phosphorylated-eif2%C3%AE-pathway-suppresses-tumor-metastasis-through-downregulating-expression-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-and-cxcl5-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#1
Weiwei Zou, Yu Bai, Xilong Wang, Kai Cheng, Hongguang Sun, Guoqiang Zhang, Xiaohong Wang, Zhenlin Yang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be associated with metastasis in many malignant tumors. PKR-like ER kinase-phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (PERK-p-eIF2α) pathway is one of the three main signal pathways in ER stress, however, its mechanism in regulating breast cancer (BC) relapse or metastasis was still not completely understood. Besides, drug resistance was an important factor influencing the effect of tumor treatment and whether PERK-p-eIF2α pathway was involved in the drug resistance to BC treatment also needs to be explored...
October 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053398/the-involvement-of-lncrnas-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Li Duguang, He Jin, Qian Xiaowei, Xu Peng, Wang Xiaodong, Li Zhennan, Qian Jianjun, Yao Jie
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant tumors that are difficult to diagnose at its early stage and there is no effective therapy. Recent studies uncovered that many non-protein-coding RNAs including the class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in various types of tumors and they are potent regulators of tumor progression and metastasis. LncRNA can mediate tumor initiation, proliferation, migration and metastasis through modulating epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, transcription, and protein translation...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052912/clinicopathologic-significance-of-rock2-expression-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#3
Mauricio Rocha Dourado, Carine Ervolino de Oliveira, Iris Sawazaki-Calone, Elias Sundquist, Ricardo D Coletta, Tuula Salo
BACKGROUND: Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 (ROCK2) is an oncoprotein that controls cytoskeleton organization and acts as prognostic marker in different types of solid tumors. ROCK2 overexpression is also observed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), which suggests its relevance within the tumor microenvironment. This study aimed to access the prognostic value of ROCK2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and its association with CAF density. METHODS: ROCK2 immunohistochemical analysis was applied in 93 OSCC samples from 2 centers in Brazil and Finland...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052674/egfr-targeting-plga-peg-nanoparticles-as-a-curcumin-delivery-system-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#4
Hua Jin, Jiang Pi, Yue Zhao, Jinhuan Jiang, Ting Li, Xueyi Zeng, Peihui Yang, Colin E Evans, Jiye Cai
Poor bioavailability and non-specificity of chemotherapeutic agents are major challenges in breast cancer treatment. Antibodies and small molecules that block cell signaling pathways have shown promise in the clinic, but their application is also limited by the high costs and treatment dosages required. Novel therapies that aim to rapidly and specifically target malignant cells with long-lasting impact in the tumor microenvironment may ultimately improve clinical outcome in cancer patients. Here, we demonstrate that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting GE11 peptides conjugated with PEGylated polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles can be used to effectively deliver an anti-cancer agent, curcumin, into EGFR-expressing MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051386/ets2-anchors-the-prometastatic-function-of-mutant-p53-in-osteosarcoma
#5
REVIEW
Daniel D Liu, Yibin Kang
Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 occur in a majority of human cancers. Some gain-of-function (GOF) p53 mutations endow tumor cells with increased metastatic ability, although our understanding of the underlying mechanism remains incomplete. In this issue of Genes & Development, Pourebrahim and colleagues (pp. 1847-1857) develop a new mouse model of osteosarcoma in which a GOF mutant p53 allele is expressed specifically in osteoblasts, while the tumor microenvironment remains wild type for p53, allowing for the study of cell-autonomous functions...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051371/adrenergic-nerves-activate-an-angio-metabolic-switch-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Ali H Zahalka, Anna Arnal-Estapé, Maria Maryanovich, Fumio Nakahara, Cristian D Cruz, Lydia W S Finley, Paul S Frenette
Nerves closely associate with blood vessels and help to pattern the vasculature during development. Recent work suggests that newly formed nerve fibers may regulate the tumor microenvironment, but their exact functions are unclear. Studying mouse models of prostate cancer, we show that endothelial β-adrenergic receptor signaling via adrenergic nerve-derived noradrenaline in the prostate stroma is critical for activation of an angiogenic switch that fuels exponential tumor growth. Mechanistically, this occurs through alteration of endothelial cell metabolism...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051064/harnessing-the-cross-talk-between-tumor-cells-and-tumor-associated-macrophages-with-a-nano-drug-for-modulation-of-glioblastoma-immune-microenvironment
#7
Tong-Fei Li, Ke Li, Chao Wang, Xin Liu, Yu Wen, Yong-Hong Xu, Quan Zhang, Qiu-Ya Zhao, Ming Shao, Yan-Ze Li, Min Han, Naoki Komatsu, Li Zhao, Xiao Chen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor with a high mortality rate. The presence of a large population of macrophages (Mφ) in the tumor microenvironment is a prominent feature of GBM and these so-called tumor-associated Mφ (TAM) closely interact with the GBM cells to promote the survival, progression and therapy resistance of the GBM. Various therapeutic strategies have been devised either targeting the GBM cells or the TAM but few have addressed the cross-talks between the two cell populations...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050338/tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-producing-antitumor-active-immunoglobulins-in-resected-hcc-prolong-patient-survival
#8
Stefan M Brunner, Timo Itzel, Christoph Rubner, Rebecca Kesselring, Eva Griesshammer, Matthias Evert, Andreas Teufel, Hans J Schlitt, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The immunological microenvironment of HCC influences patient outcome, however, the role of B cells remains unclear. This study investigated effects of local B-cell infiltration in HCC cohorts on patient survival and immunological and molecular tumor microenvironment. RESULTS: Unsupervised gene expression analysis of full cancer transcriptomes (N=2158) revealed a highly co-regulated immunological cluster in HCC that mainly contained immunoglobulin fragments...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050261/alpha-linolenic-acid-stabilizes-hif-1-%C3%AE-and-downregulates-fasn-to-promote-mitochondrial-apoptosis-for-mammary-gland-chemoprevention
#9
Subhadeep Roy, Atul Kumar Rawat, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Uma Devi, Manjari Singh, Swetlana Gautam, Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Lakhveer Singh, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Rakesh Pandey, Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kaithwas
Alpha linolenic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and is reported to have the anti-cancer potential with no defined hypothesis or mechanism/s. Henceforth present study was in-quested to validate the effect of alpha linolenic acid on mitochondrial apoptosis, hypoxic microenvironment and de novo fatty acid synthesis using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The IC50 value of alpha linolenic acid was recorded to be 17.55μM against ER+MCF-7 cells. Treatment with alpha linolenic acid was evident for the presence of early and late apoptotic signals along with mitochondrial depolarization, when studied through acridine orange/ethidium bromide and JC-1 staining...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049843/metabolic-strategies-of-melanoma-cells-mechanisms-interactions-with-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-therapeutic-implications
#10
REVIEW
Grant M Fischer, Y N Vashisht Gopal, Jennifer L McQuade, Weiyi Peng, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Michael A Davies
Melanomas are metabolically heterogeneous, and they are able to adapt in order to utilize a variety of fuels that facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. The significance of metabolism in melanoma is supported by growing evidence of impact on the efficacy of contemporary therapies for this disease. There is also data to support that the metabolic phenotypes of melanoma cells depend upon contributions from both intrinsic oncogenic pathways and extrinsic factors in the tumor microenvironment. This review summarizes current understanding of the metabolic processes that promote cutaneous melanoma tumorigenesis and progression, the regulation of cancer cell metabolism by the tumor microenvironment, and the impact of metabolic pathways on targeted and immune therapies...
October 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049091/tumor-microenvironment-and-models-of-ovarian-cancer-the-11th-biennial-rivkin-center-ovarian-cancer-research-symposium
#11
Karen McLean, Geeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the latest research advances on the topics of the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment and models of ovarian cancer. METHODS: In September 2016, a symposium of the leaders in the field of ovarian cancer research was convened to present and discuss current advances and future directions in ovarian cancer research. RESULTS: One session was dedicated to Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, and included a keynote presentation from Anil Sood, MD, and an invited oral presentation from David Huntsman, MD...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048682/snhg15-affects-the-growth-of-glioma-microvascular-endothelial-cells-by-negatively-regulating-mir-153
#12
Yawen Ma, Yixue Xue, Xiaobai Liu, Chengbin Qu, Heng Cai, Ping Wang, Zhiqing Li, Zhen Li, Yunhui Liu
Malignant glioma, the most common intracranial primary tumor, is characterized by increased angiogenesis. Accumulating evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in a variety of biological behaviors of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in the regulation of glioma vascular endothelial cell function remains to be investigated. To simulate the glioma microenvironment, we applied glioma conditioned medium (GCM) to human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs). In the present study, the lncRNA SNHG15 was found to be highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells...
September 21, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048671/adoptive-immunotherapy-combined-with-fp-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#13
Mayako Nishio-Nagai, Susumu Suzuki, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Ryuzo Ueda, Yoshiaki Kazaoka
FP treatment, which combines 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy, is widely used for treatment of advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It has been suggested that these drugs cause immunomodulation in the cancer microenvironment, for example, downregulation of immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), activating dendritic cells (DCs), and upregulation of tumor antigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in cancer cells leads to enhancement of cancer immunity, which is important in cancer treatment, as well as providing a direct killing effect...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048660/canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-niches-cellular-heterogeneity-omics-reprogramming-targeted-therapy-and-tumor-plasticity-review
#14
Masaru Katoh
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the potential for self-renewal, differentiation and de-differentiation, undergo epigenetic, epithelial-mesenchymal, immunological and metabolic reprogramming to adapt to the tumor microenvironment and survive host defense or therapeutic insults. Intra-tumor heterogeneity and cancer-cell plasticity give rise to therapeutic resistance and recurrence through clonal replacement and reactivation of dormant CSCs, respectively. WNT signaling cascades cross-talk with the FGF, Notch, Hedgehog and TGFβ/BMP signaling cascades and regulate expression of functional CSC markers, such as CD44, CD133 (PROM1), EPCAM and LGR5 (GPR49)...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048635/novel-focal-adhesion-kinase-1-inhibitor-sensitizes-lung-cancer-cells-to-radiation-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#15
Seung-Youn Jung, Seongho Kho, Kyung-Hee Song, Jiyeon Ahn, In-Chul Park, Ky-Youb Nam, Sang-Gu Hwang, Seon-Young Nam, Seong-Jun Cho, Jie-Young Song
Focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1) is known to promote tumor progression and metastasis by controlling cell movement, invasion, survival and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the tumor microenvironment. As recent reports imply that FAK1 is highly associated with tumor cell development and malignancy, the inhibition of FAK1 activity could be an effective therapeutic approach for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of a novel synthetic FAK1 inhibitor 2-[2-(2-methoxy-4-morpholin-4-yl-phenylamino)-5-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-N-methyl-benzamide, (MPAP) on lung cancer cells...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048623/vegfr3-inhibition-chemosensitizes-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells-in-the-tumor-associated-macrophage-microenvironment-through-upregulation-of-p53-and-pten
#16
Ya Li, Yaguang Weng, Liang Zhong, Huimin Chong, Sicheng Chen, Yanting Sun, Wang Li, Qiong Shi
In lung adenocarcinoma, loss of p53 and PTEN in tumors are associated with decreased response to chemotherapy and decreased survival. A means to pharmacologically upregulate p53 and PTEN protein expression could improve the prognosis of patients with p53- and PTEN-deficient tumors. In the present study we revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma cells was associated with improved expression levels of both p53 and PTEN in the tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) microenvironment...
September 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048422/cell-derived-matrices-for-studying-cell-proliferation-and-directional-migration-in-a-complex-3d-microenvironment
#17
Riina Kaukonen, Guillaume Jacquemet, Hellyeh Hamidi, Johanna Ivaska
2D surfaces offer simple analysis of cells in culture, yet these often yield different cell morphologies and responses from those observed in vivo. Considerable effort has therefore been expended on the generation of more tissue-like environments for the study of cell behavior in vitro. Purified matrix proteins provide a 3D scaffold that better mimics the in vivo situation; however, these are far removed from the complex tissue composition seen in vivo. Cell-derived matrices (CDMs) offer a more physiologically relevant alternative for studying in vivo-like cell behavior in vitro...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048388/regulatory-t-cells-and-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-treated-with-intravesical-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-a-long-term-follow-up-study-of-a-japanese-cohort
#18
Makito Miyake, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Daisuke Gotoh, Sayuri Ohnishi, Takuya Owari, Kota Iida, Kenta Ohnishi, Shunta Hori, Yosuke Morizawa, Yoshitaka Itami, Yasushi Nakai, Takeshi Inoue, Satoshi Anai, Kazumasa Torimoto, Katsuya Aoki, Keiji Shimada, Noboru Konishi, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto
The clinical significance of regulatory T cells (Treg) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in the tumor microenvironment of human bladder cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore their relevance to oncological features in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We carried out immunohistochemical analysis of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3, Treg maker), CD204 (TAM marker), and interleukin-6 (IL6) using surgical specimens obtained from 154 NMIBC patients. The Treg and TAM counts surrounding the cancer lesion and IL6-positive cancer cell counts were evaluated against clinicopathological variables...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047229/enhanced-inflammation-and-attenuated-tumor-suppressor-pathways-are-associated-with-oncogene-induced-lung-tumors-in-aged-mice
#19
Neha Parikh, Ryan L Shuck, Mihai Gagea, Lanlan Shen, Lawrence A Donehower
Aging is often accompanied by a dramatic increase in cancer susceptibility. To gain insights into how aging affects tumor susceptibility, we generated a conditional mouse model in which oncogenic Kras(G12D) was activated specifically in lungs of young (3-5 months) and old (19-24 months) mice. Activation of Kras(G12D) in old mice resulted in shorter survival and development of higher-grade lung tumors. Six weeks after Kras(G12D) activation, old lung tissues contained higher numbers of adenomas than their young tissue counterparts...
October 18, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046875/asymmetric-rna-distribution-among-cells-and-their-secreted-exosomes-biomedical-meaning-and-considerations-on-diagnostic-applications
#20
REVIEW
Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Matilde Cirnigliaro, Rosalia Battaglia, Duilia Brex, Angela Caponnetto, Davide Barbagallo, Cinzia Di Pietro, Michele Purrello
Over the past few years, exosomes and their RNA cargo have been extensively studied because of the fascinating biological roles they play in cell-to-cell communication, including the signal exchange among cancer, stromal, and immune cells, leading to modifications of tumor microenvironment. RNAs, especially miRNAs, stored within exosomes, seem to be among the main determinants of such signaling: their sorting into exosomes appears to be cell-specific and related to cellular physiopathology. Accordingly, the identification of exosomal miRNAs in body fluids from pathological patients has become one of the most promising activity in the field of biomarker discovery...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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