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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437628/advanced-biomaterials-and-microengineering-technologies-to-recapitulate-the-stepwise-process-of-cancer-metastasis
#1
REVIEW
Nitish Peela, Danh Truong, Harpinder Saini, Hunghao Chu, Samaneh Mashaghi, Stephanie L Ham, Sunil Singh, Hossein Tavana, Bobak Mosadegh, Mehdi Nikkhah
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally according to the World Health Organization. Although improved treatments and early diagnoses have reduced cancer related mortalities, metastatic disease remains a major clinical challenge. The local tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in cancer metastasis, where tumor cells respond and adapt to a plethora of biochemical and biophysical signals from stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Due to these complexities, there is a critical need to understand molecular mechanisms underlying cancer metastasis to facilitate the discovery of more effective therapies...
April 21, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436934/biopolymers-codelivering-engineered-t-cells-and-sting-agonists-can-eliminate-heterogeneous-tumors
#2
Tyrel T Smith, Howell F Moffett, Sirkka B Stephan, Cary F Opel, Amy G Dumigan, Xiuyun Jiang, Venu G Pillarisetty, Smitha P S Pillai, K Dane Wittrup, Matthias T Stephan
Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435988/the-key-genes-of-chronic-pancreatitis-which-bridge-chronic-pancreatitis-and-pancreatic-cancer-can-be-therapeutic-targets
#3
Shuang Li, Rui Li, Heping Wang, Lisha Li, Huiyu Li, Yulin Li
An important question in systems biology is what role the underlying molecular mechanisms play in disease progression. The relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer needs further exploration in a system view. We constructed the disease network based on gene expression data and protein-protein interaction. We proposed an approach to discover the underlying core network and molecular factors in the progression of pancreatic diseases, which contain stages of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer...
April 24, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435778/tumor-microenvironment-activable-self-assembled-dna-hybrids-for-ph-and-redox-dual-responsive-chemotherapy-pdt-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Da Zhang, Aixian Zheng, Juan Li, Ming Wu, Zhixiong Cai, Lingjie Wu, Zuwu Wei, Huanghao Yang, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
Smart self-assembled "Turn-ON" DNA hybrids are employed, which could respond to tumor microenvironment stimuli for cancer cell specific real-time fluorescence imaging, tumor-specific synergistic photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435466/design-of-tumor-acidity-responsive-sheddable-nanoparticles-for-fluorescence-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-photodynamic-therapy
#5
Feng Fan, Yue Yu, Fei Zhong, Meng Gao, Tianmeng Sun, Jiaxin Liu, Huimao Zhang, Haisheng Qian, Wei Tao, Xianzhu Yang
Imaging-guided cancer therapy, which integrates diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into a single system, holds great promise to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and improve the efficacy of therapy. Specifically, for photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is highly desirable to precisely focus laser light onto the tumor areas to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are cytotoxic tumor cells and avoid light-associated side effects. Herein, a distinct three-layer nanostructured particle with tumor acidity-responsiveness (S-NP) that encapsulates the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and chelates Gd(3+) is successfully developed for fluorescence/magnetic resonance (MR) dual-model imaging-guided precision PDT...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435458/phosphorylcholine-based-stealthy-nanocapsules-enabling-tumor-microenvironment-responsive-doxorubicin-release-for-tumor-suppression
#6
Gan Liu, Hsiang-I Tsai, Xiaowei Zeng, Yixiong Zuo, Wei Tao, Jun Han, Lin Mei
The efficient delivery of anticancer drugs into tumor tissues to improve therapeutic efficacy remains an urgent demand. To satisfy this demand, a drug delivery system based on a stealthy nanocapsule was developed. This nanocapsule was fabricated by encapsulating stealthy cross-linked poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and benzaldehyde groups around the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by conjugation of doxorubicin (Dox) through a pH-responsive benzoic-imine bond. The in vitro results show that the Dox-conjugated nanocapsule (nBSA-Dox) released the drug under an acidic tumor microenvironment (pH ~6...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435457/tumor-hypoxia-regulates-forkhead-box-c1-to-promote-lung-cancer-progression
#7
Yu-Jung Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Chi-Wei Chang, Chi-Chung Wang, Chung-Pu Wu, Hsu-Tung Lee, Liang-Jwu Chen, Chia-Hung Hsieh
Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors that are characterized by a DNA-binding forkhead domain. Increasing evidence indicates that FOXC1 is involved in tumor progression. However, the role of tumor hypoxia in FOXC1 regulation and its impact on lung cancer progression are unclear. Here, we report that FOXC1 was upregulated in hypoxic areas of lung cancer tissues from rodents or humans. Hypoxic stresses significantly induced FOXC1 expression. Moreover, hypoxia activated FOXC1 transcription via direct binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) in the FOXC1 promoter...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435287/serum-galectin-1-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-associations-with-survival-angiogenesis-and-biomarkers-of-macrophage-activation
#8
Morten Nørgaard Andersen, Maja Ludvigsen, Niels Abildgaard, Irma Petruskevicius, Rikke Hjortebjerg, Mette Bjerre, Bent Honoré, Holger J Møller, Niels F Andersen
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is known to regulate cell signaling within the immune system and may be a target for new anticancer immune therapy. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), high levels of Gal-1 within the tumor microenvironment were associated with worse disease state or poor outcome. Gal-1 can be secreted from cells by an unknown mechanism, and levels in blood samples were associated with high tumor burden and worse disease state in cHL and CLL patients. However, serum levels of Gal-1 have never been investigated in patients with multiple myeloma (MM)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434891/nanotechnology-based-therapeutic-modality-to-boost-anti-tumor-immunity-and-collapse-tumor-defense
#9
REVIEW
Xiaomeng Hu, Tingting Wu, Yuling Bao, Zhiping Zhang
Cancer is still the leading cause of death. While traditional treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy play dominating roles, recent breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy indicate that the influence of immune system on cancer development is virtually beyond our expectation. Manipulating the immune system to fight against cancer has been thriving in recent years. Further understanding of tumor anatomy provides opportunities to put a brake on immunosuppression by overcoming tumor intrinsic resistance or modulating tumor microenvironment...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434677/the-microbiome-of-the-prostate-tumor-microenvironment
#10
Ilaria Cavarretta, Roberto Ferrarese, Walter Cazzaniga, Diego Saita, Roberta Lucianò, Elisa R Ceresola, Irene Locatelli, Laura Visconti, Giovanni Lavorgna, Alberto Briganti, Manuela Nebuloni, Claudio Doglioni, Massimo Clementi, Francesco Montorsi, Filippo Canducci, Andrea Salonia
BACKGROUND: The advent of molecular-based methods of identification and characterization of complex microbial populations has led to a new era of microbial discovery. A detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbial ecosystem of the pathologic and healthy prostate tissues has not been yet reported. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiome possibly associated to the pathologic prostate microenvironment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The microbiome profile of tumor, peri-tumor, and nontumor tissues was assessed on 16 radical prostatectomy-specimens...
April 20, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434398/the-use-of-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma
#11
REVIEW
Tala Achkar, Ahmad A Tarhini
Patients with advanced melanoma have a compromised anti-tumor immune response leading to tumor immune tolerance and a tumor microenvironment conducive to disease progression. Immunotherapy that successfully overcomes this tumor-mediated immune suppression has made the greatest impact in the management of this disease over the past few years. This progress through immunotherapy builds upon earlier successes that interferon-α had in the treatment of melanoma in the adjuvant setting, as well as that of high-dose interleukin-2 in advanced melanoma...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434112/dendritic-cell-based-vaccination-strategy-an-evolving-paradigm
#12
REVIEW
Anna C Filley, Mahua Dey
Malignant gliomas (MG), tumors of glial origin, are the most commonly diagnosed primary intracranial malignancies in adults. Currently available treatments have provided only modest improvements in overall survival and remain limited by inevitable local recurrence, necessitating exploration of novel therapies. Among approaches being investigated, one of the leading contenders is immunotherapy, which aims to modulate immune pathways to stimulate the selective destruction of malignant cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent initiators of adaptive immune responses and therefore crucial players in the development and success of immunotherapy...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433935/distinct-on-off-fluorescence-signals-from-dual-responsive-activatable-nanoprobes-allows-detection-of-inflammation-with-improved-contrast
#13
Mathieu L Viger, Guillaume Collet, Jacques Lux, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Monica Guma, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Jason Olejniczak, Shivanjali Joshi-Barr, Gary S Firestein, Adah Almutairi
Visualization of biochemical changes associated with disease is of great clinical significance, as it should allow earlier, more accurate diagnosis than structural imaging, facilitating timely clinical intervention. Herein, we report combining stimuli-responsive polymers and near-infrared fluorescent dyes (emission max: 790 nm) to create robust activatable fluorescent nanoprobes capable of simultaneously detecting acidosis and oxidative stress associated with inflammatory microenvironments. The spectrally-resolved mechanism of fluorescence activation allows removal of unwanted background signal (up to 20-fold reduction) and isolation of a pure activated signal, which enables sensitive and unambiguous localization of inflamed areas; target-to-background ratios reach 22 as early as 3 h post-injection...
March 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433787/facile-encapsulation-of-hydroxycamptothecin-nanocrystals-into-zein-based-nanocomplexes-for-active-targeting-drug-delivery-and-cell-imaging
#14
Hongdi Wang, Wei Zhu, Yunna Huang, Zhixian Li, Yanbin Jiang, Qiuling Xie
Nano-drug delivery systems that integrate inorganic and organic or even bioactive components into a single nanoscale platform are playing a greatly important role in cancer treatment. Here, the fabrication of a versatile nanocarrier based on self-assembled structures of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-zein is reported, which displays high drug-loading efficiency for needle-shaped hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) nanocrystals. The surface modification with folate-conjugated polydopamine (PFA) renders them stable and also facilitates their selective cellular internalization and enhancement of endocytosis...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433543/phenformin-inhibits-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-enhances-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-pd-1-blockade-in-melanoma
#15
Sun Hye Kim, Man Li, Sebastian Trousil, Yaqing Zhang, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Kenneth D Swanson, Bin Zheng
Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, their potential effects on the tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Here we report that phenformin selectively inhibits granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) in spleens of tumor bearing mice and ex vivo. Phenformin induces production of reactive oxygen species in G-MDSC, whereas the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuates the inhibitory effects of phenformin...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433198/tumor-promoting-role-of-anti-tumor-macrophages-in-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Tithi Ghosh, Sarbari Ghosh, Madhurima Sarkar, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
Recent advances in tumor biology demand detailed analysis of the complex interaction of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Mononuclear phagocytes or macrophages, a type of innate immune cells, defend the organism against infection and injury. On the otherhand, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432648/rationale-for-new-checkpoint-inhibitor-combinations-in-melanoma-therapy
#17
Mario Mandalà, Carlo Tondini, Barbara Merelli, Daniela Massi
The use of monoclonal antibodies that block immunologic checkpoints, which mediate adaptive immune resistance, has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Specifically, targeting single immune suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), or programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its primary ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), resulted in pronounced clinical benefit for a subset of melanoma patients. Although single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has demonstrated promising clinical activity in metastatic melanoma patients, there is still a significant proportion of patients who show primary resistance to these therapies...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432594/microrna-transfer-between-bone-marrow-adipose-and-multiple-myeloma-cells
#18
REVIEW
Luna Soley, Carolyne Falank, Michaela R Reagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, largely due to the tumor-supportive role of the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is one component of the fertile microenvironment which is believed to contribute to myeloma progression and drug resistance, as well as participate in a vicious cycle of osteolysis and tumor growth. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as instrumental regulators of cellular processes that enable the development and dissemination of cancer...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432289/simultaneous-detection-of-egfr-and-vegf-in-colorectal-cancer-using-fluorescence-raman-endoscopy
#19
Yong-Il Kim, Sinyoung Jeong, Kyung Oh Jung, Myung Geun Song, Chul-Hee Lee, Seock-Jin Chung, Ji Yong Park, Myeong Geun Cha, Sung Gun Lee, Bong-Hyun Jun, Yun-Sang Lee, Do Won Hwang, Hyewon Youn, Keon Wook Kang, Yoon-Sik Lee, Dae Hong Jeong, Dong Soo Lee
Fluorescence endomicroscopy provides quick access to molecular targets, while Raman spectroscopy allows the detection of multiple molecular targets. Using a simultaneous fluorescence-Raman endoscopic system (FRES), we herein demonstrate its potential in cancer diagnosis in an orthotopically induced colorectal cancer (CRC) xenograft model. In the model, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were targeted with antibody-conjugated fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (F-SERS) dots...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432279/il-35-induces-n2-phenotype-of-neutrophils-to-promote-tumor-growth
#20
Jiu-Ming Zou, Jian Qin, Yong-Chao Li, Yu Wang, Dong Li, Yu Shu, Chao Luo, Shan-Shan Wang, Gang Chi, Fang Guo, Gui-Mei Zhang, Zuo-Hua Feng
IL-35 is an immunosuppressive cytokine and exerts regulatory effects on T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Neutrophils are important innate immune cells that play key roles in tumor development. The effect of IL-35 on neutrophils remains unknown. Here, we report that IL-35 can induce N2 neutrophil polarization (protumor phenotype) by increasing G-CSF and IL-6 production, and promote neutrophil infiltration into tumor microenvironment. The sustained expression of IL-35 could promote chronic inflammation to augment the proangiogenic and immunosuppressive function of neutrophils...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
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