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Infection control compliance

Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Caroline M Coope, Neville Q Verlander, Annegret Schneider, Susan Hopkins, William Welfare, Alan P Johnson, Bharat Patel, Isabel Oliver
BACKGROUND: Following hospital outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), Public Health England published a toolkit in December 2013 to promote the early detection, management and control of CPE colonisation and infection in acute hospital settings. AIM: This evaluation aimed to examine awareness, uptake, implementation and usefulness of the CPE toolkit and identify potential barriers and facilitators to its adoption in order to inform future guidance...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Benedetta Allegranzi, Alexander M Aiken, Nejla Zeynep Kubilay, Peter Nthumba, Jack Barasa, Gabriel Okumu, Robert Mugarura, Alexander Elobu, Josephat Jombwe, Mayaba Maimbo, Joseph Musowoya, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Sean M Berenholtz
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most frequent health-care-associated infections in developing countries. Specific prevention measures are highly effective, but are often poorly implemented. We aimed to establish the effect of a multimodal intervention on SSIs in Africa. METHODS: We did a before-after cohort study, between July 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, at five African hospitals. The multimodal intervention consisted of the implementation or strengthening of multiple SSI prevention measures, combined with an adaptive approach aimed at the improvement of teamwork and the safety climate...
March 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Lingchen Kong, Jianzhong Li, Peng Wu, Jianhua Xu, Honglei Li, Haifei Long, Pan Liu, Fangfang Wei, Wenhong Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of lateral position ventilation combined with vibration sputum drainage on the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The patients with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Linyi Central Hospital from January 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into simple ventilation group and combined treatment group according to random number table...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Hang Thi Phan, Hang Thi Thuy Tran, Hanh Thi My Tran, Anh Pham Phuong Dinh, Ha Thanh Ngo, Jenny Theorell-Haglow, Christopher J Gordon
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. METHODS: Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene...
March 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Peter M Hawkey, Roderic E Warren, David M Livermore, Cliodna A M McNulty, David A Enoch, Jonathan A Otter, A Peter R Wilson
The Working Party makes more than 100 tabulated recommendations in antimicrobial prescribing for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and suggest further research, and algorithms for hospital and community antimicrobial usage in urinary infection. The international definition of MDR is complex, unsatisfactory and hinders the setting and monitoring of improvement programmes. We give a new definition of multiresistance. The background information on the mechanisms, global spread and UK prevalence of antibiotic prescribing and resistance has been systematically reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tracey L Yap, Susan M Kennerly, Susan D Horn, Nancy Bergstrom, Santanu Datta, Cathleen Colon-Emeric
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers/injuries (PrUs), a critical concern for nursing homes (NH), are responsible for chronic wounds, amputations, septic infections, and premature deaths. PrUs occur most commonly in older adults and NH residence is a risk factor for their development, with at least one of every nine U.S. NH residents experiencing a PrU and many NHs having high incidence and prevalence rates, in some instances well over 20%. PrU direct treatment costs are greater than prevention costs, making prevention-focused protocols critical...
February 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Farnaz Foolad, Angela M Huang, Cynthia T Nguyen, Lindsay Colyer, Megan Lim, Jessica Grieger, Julius Li, Sara Revolinski, Megan Mack, Tejal Gandhi, J Njeri Wainaina, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Vincent D Marshall, Jerod Nagel
Background: The increased emphasis on pneumonia-related performance measures and patient outcomes has led hospitals to implement multifaceted approaches to quickly identify patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), start timely therapy and reduce readmission. However, there has been minimal focus on duration of therapy (DOT) and patients often receive prolonged antibiotic courses. The IDSA and American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) CAP guidelines recommend 5 days of therapy for clinically stable patients that quickly defervesce and stewardship teams are well positioned to influence prescribing practices...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mansoor Keshavarz, Maryam Kashanian, Soodabeh Bioos, Yasaman Vazani
wufjhjdkf Background Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) is an ancient medical system that provides suggestions to improve the health of mothers and children during pregnancy and labor. Persian physicians believed that these instructions made labor easier, safer, and less painful. Methods The present randomized clinical trial was conducted among women at 33-38 weeks of pregnancy in Tehran, Iran. TPM instructions consisted of diet, bathing, and application of oil from the 38th week of pregnancy to the onset of labor...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Samara Palma-Milla, Bricia López-Plaza, Beatriz Santamaría, Álvaro de Arriba-Sánchez, Laura M Bermejo, Carmen Gómez-Candela
BACKGROUND: The perioperative use of immunomodulatory nutrition formulas in patients with head and neck cancer reduces the number of postoperative infections and the length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: An exploratory, randomized, controlled, blind, clinical trial was designed to examine the effect of the preoperative consumption of a new, immunomodulatory, oral nutrition formula in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were randomized to receive either 400 mL/d of either the new immunomodulatory formula (IF) or that commonly used in clinical practice (CF) over 10 days prior to surgery...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pooja Singh, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the leading killer infectious diseases of humans. At present, the standard therapeutic regimen to treat TB comprised of multiple antibiotics administered for a minimum of six months. Although these drugs are useful in controlling TB burden globally, they have not eliminated the disease. In addition, the lengthy duration of treatment with multiple drugs contributes to patient non-compliance that can result in the development of drug resistant strains (MDR and XDR) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
C Legeay, V Thépot-Seegers, H Pailhoriès, D Hilliquin, J-R Zahar
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) area a major issue. Cohorting can help controlling spread of CPEs in hospitals, but is expensive and hard to implement. AIM: To identify ward variables associated with CPE in-hospital transmission in a hospital where cohorting was never implemented. METHODS: Cohort prospective study, where we compared fourteen consecutive days period regarding in-hospital transmission. Each period met the 2 following conditions: 1) CPE carriers/infected admitted for at least 48h, 2) 80% of relative contact patients were screened at least twice...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Collins S K Ahorlu, Eric Koka, Susan Adu-Amankwah, Joseph Otchere, Dziedzom Komi de Souza
BACKGROUND: The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started operation in 2000 and aimed at eliminating the disease by the year 2020, following 5-6 rounds of effective annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The MDA programme took off in Ghana in 2001 and has interrupted transmission in many areas while it has persisted in some areas after 10 or more rounds of MDA. This study was to appreciate community members' perspectives on MDA after over 15 years of implementation...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Marta F Maia, Merav Kliner, Marty Richardson, Christian Lengeler, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death across endemic regions. Considerable success against malaria has been achieved within the past decade mainly through long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). However, elimination of the disease is proving difficult as current control methods do not protect against mosquitoes biting outdoors and when people are active. Repellents may provide a personal protection solution during these times. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of topical repellents, insecticide-treated clothing, and spatial repellents on malaria transmission...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jeong Sil Choi, Kyung Mi Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine how nursing students' intention to comply with infection control practices (ICPs) is affected by their awareness of ICPs and by their observations of staff nurses' noncompliance with ICPs. The subjects were 350 nursing students from 8 universities in Korea. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors of compliance intention with ICPs. We found that nursing students' awareness of ICPs was the most significant influencing factor affecting their compliance with ICPs...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Viktor Dombrádi, Barnabás Margitai, Csaba Dózsa, Orsolya Karola Bárdos-Csenteri, János Sándor, Tibor Gáll, Sándor Gődény
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative studies have shown the various benefits for having accreditation in hospitals. However, neither of these explored the general conditions before applying for an accreditation. To close this gap, this study aimed to investigate the possible association between joining an accreditation programme with various hospital characteristics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was implemented using the databases of the 2013 Hungarian hospital survey and of the Hungarian State Treasury...
February 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Carmine Carriero, Fabiana Divina Fascilla, Paola Cramarossa, Achiropita Lepera, Stefano Bettocchi, Antonella Vimercati
In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Harsimran Kaur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Candidemia, the commonest invasive fungal infection, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, though the exact prevalence is not known due to lack of systematic epidemiological data from those countries. The limited studies report a very high incidence of candidemia and unique epidemiology with a different spectrum of Candida species. The recent global emergence of multi-drug resistant Candida auris is looming large as an important threat in hospitalized patients of developing countries...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhenwei Liu, Xin Deng, Jinhua Mo, Feng Jiang, Bin Wen, Yaping Zhang, Jun Pang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of moxibustion combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and simple HAART for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with HIV receiving HAART were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 50 cases in each one. In the observation group, moxibustion was used at Zusanli (ST 36), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. combined with HAART of zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine and efavirenzone, etc...
January 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Laura Ceballos, Alejandro Krolewiecki, Marisa Juárez, Laura Moreno, Fabian Schaer, Luis I Alvarez, Rubén Cimino, Judd Walson, Carlos E Lanusse
BACKGROUND: Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections negatively impact physical and mental development in human populations. Current WHO guidelines recommend morbidity control of these infections through mass drug administration (MDA) using albendazole (ABZ) or mebendazole. Despite major reductions in STH associated morbidity globally, not all programs have demonstrated the expected impact on prevalence of parasite infections. These therapeutic failures may be related to poor programmatic coverage, suboptimal adherence or the exposure of parasites to sub-therapeutic drug concentrations...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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