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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102654/tuberculosis-and-tuberculin-skin-test-reactivity-in-pediatric-patients-with-celiac-disease
#1
Nafiye Urganci, Derya Kalyoncu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine tuberculin skin test reactivity and associated factors in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). METHODS: Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed on 28 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 15 years (mean, 6.64±4.8) and 28 healthy age and sex-matched children. The association between TST reactivity and parameters such as age, gender, malnutrition, clinical presentation, compliance to gluten free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations were determined...
February 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099236/intratracheal-instillation-of-perfluorohexane-modulates-the-pulmonary-immune-microenvironment-by-attenuating-early-inflammatory-factors-in-patients-with-smoke-inhalation-injury-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
Hui Ding, Qi Lv, Shiman Wu, Shike Hou, Ziquan Liu, Ning Xu Landén, Ping Tian, Mengyang Yu, Zhiguang Sun, Haojun Fan
Smoke inhalation injury (SII) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in burn patients, and effective treatments are lacking. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) have a protective effect against acute lung injury. We aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of perfluorohexane on burn patients with SII. Patients with burns complicated by moderately severe SII were randomly divided into control (n = 11) and PFC groups (n = 12). The control group received conventional treatment (anti-infection, nutritional support, antishock measures, and supportive treatment)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075419/surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-results-from-a-six-year-retrospective-study-in-nine-hospitals-of-a-north-italian-local-health-authority
#3
Greta Roncarati, Laura Dallolio, Erica Leoni, Manuela Panico, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare associated infections. In nine hospitals of an Italian Local Health Authority the episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) were identified using the data registered by the centralized Laboratory Information System, from 2010 to 2015. CDI incidence (positive patients for A and/or B toxins per patients-days) was analysed per year, hospital, and ward. A number of cases approximately equivalent to the mean of identified cases per year were studied retrospectively to highlight the risk factors associated to CDI and their severity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064105/a-brief-review-on-the-application-of-nanoparticle-enclosed-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-infective-endocarditis
#4
REVIEW
Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi, Maryam Soleimaninejad, Aiyelabegan T Hammed
Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components...
January 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052885/a-micronutrient-fortified-young-child-formula-improves-the-iron-and-vitamin-d-status-of-healthy-young-european-children-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#5
Marjolijn D Akkermans, Simone Rbm Eussen, Judith M van der Horst-Graat, Ruurd M van Elburg, Johannes B van Goudoever, Frank Brus
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are common among young European children because of low dietary intakes and low compliance to vitamin D supplementation policies. Milk is a common drink for young European children. Studies evaluating the effect of milk fortification on iron and vitamin D status in these children are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of a micronutrient-fortified young-child formula (YCF) on the iron and vitamin D status of young European children...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043498/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-ethiopian-settings-and-its-association-with-previous-antituberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Setegn Eshetie, Feleke Moges, Mulat Dagnew
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) epidemic have now been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which are resistant to one or more anti-TB drugs. Multidrug resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia may be more prevalent than previously appreciated; thus, up-to-date national drug resistance studies are critically needed. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed, first, to determine pooled prevalence of MDR TB among newly diagnosed and previously treated TB cases, and second, to measure the association between previous anti-TB exposure and acquisition of MDR-MTB infection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029336/unit-specific-rates-of-hand-hygiene-opportunities-in-an-acute-care-hospital
#7
Angela Han, Laurie J Conway, Christine Moore, Liz McCreight, Kelsey Ragan, Jannice So, Emily Borgundvaag, Mike Larocque, Brenda L Coleman, Allison McGeer
OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in multiple units of an acute-care hospital. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING The adult intensive care unit (ICU), medical and surgical step-down units, medical and surgical units, and the postpartum mother-baby unit (MBU) of an academic acute-care hospital during May-August 2013, May-July 2014, and June-August 2015. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS HHOs were recorded using direct observation in 1-hour intervals following Public Health Ontario guidelines...
December 28, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011037/assessment-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-long-term-treatment-with-combination-lumacaftor-and-ivacaftor-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-homozygous-for-the-f508del-cftr-mutation-progress-a-phase-3-extension-study
#8
Michael W Konstan, Edward F McKone, Richard B Moss, Gautham Marigowda, Simon Tian, David Waltz, Xiaohong Huang, Barry Lubarsky, Jaime Rubin, Stefanie J Millar, David J Pasta, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Christopher H Goss, Wayne Morgan, Gregory S Sawicki
BACKGROUND: The 24-week safety and efficacy of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy was shown in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs)-TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT-in patients with cystic fibrosis who were aged 12 years or older and homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of extended lumacaftor/ivacaftor therapy in this group of patients in PROGRESS, the long-term extension of TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT. METHODS: PROGRESS was a phase 3, parallel-group, multicentre, 96-week study of patients who completed TRAFFIC or TRANSPORT in 191 sites in 15 countries...
December 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010906/zoonotic-disease-risk-perceptions-in-the-british-veterinary-profession
#9
Charlotte Robin, Judy Bettridge, Fiona McMaster
In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons...
January 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007678/use-of-probiotics-as-an-adjuvant-to-sequential-h-pylori-eradication-therapy-impact-on-eradication-rates-treatment-resistance-treatment-related-side-effects-and-patient-compliance
#10
Ayhan Hilmi Çekin, Yasin Şahintürk, Ferda Akbay Harmandar, Seyit Uyar, Başak Oğuz Yolcular, Yeşim Çekin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the effect of probiotics administered as an adjuvant to sequential Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy on treatment outcome and patient compliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 159 patients with H. pylori infection receiving sequential H. pylori eradication therapy were included in this randomized placebo-controlled study. Starting from day 0 of sequential eradication therapy (ERA), patients in the ERA+probiotic group [n=53, mean (SD) age: 47...
December 23, 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994474/probiotics-improve-the-efficacy-of-standard-triple-therapy-in-the-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-a-meta-analysis
#11
Christine S M Lau, Amanda Ward, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori colonization is present in half of the world's population and can lead to numerous gastrointestinal diseases if left untreated, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Although concurrent triple therapy remains the recommended treatment regimen for H. pylori eradication, its success rate and efficacy have been declining. Recent studies have shown that the addition of probiotics can significantly increase eradication rates by up to 50%. This meta-analysis examines the impact of probiotic supplementation on the efficacy of standard triple therapy in eradicating H...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986296/effects-of-a-mixed-media-education-intervention-program-on-increasing-knowledge-attitude-and-compliance-with-standard-precautions-among-nursing-students-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Peng Xiong, Jun Zhang, Xiaohui Wang, Tat Leong Wu, Brian J Hall
BACKGROUND: Standard precautions (SPs) are considered fundamental protective measures to manage health care-associated infections and to reduce occupational health hazards. This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a mixed media education intervention to enhance nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with 84 nursing students was conducted in a teaching hospital in Hubei, China. The intervention group (n = 42) attended 3 biweekly mixed media education sessions, consisting of lectures, videos, role-play, and feedback with 15-20 minutes of individual online supervision and feedback sessions following each class...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977071/efficacy-and-safety-of-high-dose-dual-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-rescue-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Cai Ping Gao, Zhou Zhou, Jia Zhen Wang, Sheng Xi Han, Liang Ping Li, Hong Lu
AIM: Although some studies have reported >90% success with high dose dual PPI-amoxicillin therapy (high dose dual therapy) for Helicobacter pylori eradication, the efficacy of this therapy remains controversial. We reevaluate the efficacy and safety of high dose dual therapy on H. pylori eradication. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase for randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of high dose dual therapy on H. pylori eradication...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957323/relationship-between-hospital-ward-design-and-healthcare-associated-infection-rates-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Stiller, Florian Salm, Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: The influence of the hospital's infrastructure on healthcare-associated colonization and infection rates has thus far infrequently been examined. In this review we examine whether healthcare facility design is a contributing factor to multifaceted infection control strategies. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from 1990 to December 31(st), 2015, with language restriction to English, Spanish, German and French...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955788/mass-deworming-to-improve-developmental-health-and-wellbeing-of-children-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#15
Vivian A Welch, Elizabeth Ghogomu, Alomgir Hossain, Shally Awasthi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Chisa Cumberbatch, Robert Fletcher, Jessie McGowan, Shari Krishnaratne, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Salim Sohani, Shalini Suresh, Peter Tugwell, Howard White, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, considered among the neglected tropical diseases by WHO, affect more than a third of the world's population, with varying intensity of infection. We aimed to evaluate the effects of mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths (with or without deworming for schistosomiasis or co-interventions) on growth, educational achievement, cognition, school attendance, quality of life, and adverse effects in children in endemic helminth areas...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939245/evaluation-of-a-modified-cleaning-procedure-in-the-prevention-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clonal-spread-in-a-burn-intensive-care-unit-using-a-high-sensitivity-luminometer
#16
B Casini, C Selvi, M L Cristina, M Totaro, A L Costa, P Valentini, S Barnini, A Baggiani, E Tagliaferri, G Privitera
BACKGROUND: Enhanced environmental cleaning practices are among the most accepted measures for controlling the spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab). AIM: To evaluate the impact of heightened cleaning on an ongoing CR-Ab outbreak in a burn intensive care unit (BICU) of an Italian teaching hospital, where chlorhexidine-60% isopropyl alcohol was applied as a complementary disinfectant on high-touch surfaces. METHODS: Compliance with the microbial limit proposed for the BICU by AFNOR-NF-S90-351 (20 colony-forming units/100cm(2)) was assessed by plate count, and compared with the results obtained with intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection...
January 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938988/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-post-hysterectomy-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#17
Aurora Pop-Vicas, Jackson S Musuuza, Michelle Schmitz, Ahmed Al-Niaimi, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical technological advances have greatly reduced, but not totally eliminated surgical site infection (SSI) posthysterectomy. We aimed to identify risk factors for SSI posthysterectomy among women with a high prevalence of gynecologic malignancies, in a tertiary care setting where compliance with the Joint Commission's Surgical Care Improvement Project core measures is excellent. METHODS: The study was a matched case-control, 2 controls per case, matched on date of surgery...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938986/reduction-in-hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-with-daily-chlorhexidine-gluconate-bathing-for-medical-inpatients
#18
Christopher F Lowe, Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Baljinder Sidhu, Gordon Ritchie, Azra Sharma, Willson Jang, Anna Wong, Jennifer Bilawka, Danielle Richards, Thomas Kind, David Puddicombe, Sylvie Champagne, Victor Leung, Marc G Romney
BACKGROUND: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. METHODS: A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930268/recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-spores-expressing-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-and-helicobacter-pylori-urease-b-confers-protection-against-h-pylori-in-mice
#19
Zhenwen Zhou, Hui Dong, Shuwen Yao, Yanmei Huang, Bingshao Liang, Yongqiang Xie, Yan Long, Jialiang Mai, Sitang Gong
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The limitations of current therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection include poor compliance and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, an effective anti-H. pylori vaccine would be an alternative or complement to antibiotic treatment. Urease B (UreB) is considered an ideal vaccine antigen against H. pylori infection. In this study, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), a mucosal adjuvant, was used to enhance the immunogenicity of novel Bacillus subtilis spores vaccine that express CTB-UreB along with the B...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926559/preoperative-immunonutrition-and-elective-colorectal-resection-outcomes
#20
Lucas W Thornblade, Thomas K Varghese, Xu Shi, Eric K Johnson, Amir Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Richard Thirlby, Alessandro Fichera, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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