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Infection control compliance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321988/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-optimize-dosing-of-surgical-antimicrobial-prophylaxis
#1
Thomas J Caruso, Ellen Wang, Hayden T Schwenk, David Scheinker, Calida Yeverino, Mary Tweedy, Manjit Maheru, Paul J Sharek
BACKGROUND: The risk of surgical site infections is reduced with appropriate timing and dosing of preoperative antimicrobials. Based on evolving national guidelines, we increased the preoperative dose of cefazolin from 25 to 30 mg·kg(-1) . This quality improvement project describes an improvement initiative to develop standard work processes to ensure appropriate dosing. AIMS: The primary aim was to deliver cefazolin 30 mg·kg(-1) to at least 90% of indicated patients...
March 21, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320336/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-ethiopian-settings-and-its-association-with-previous-history-of-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Previous studies have documented variable prevalences of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and its risk factors in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis is aimed, firstly, to determine the pooled prevalence of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed and previously treated TB cases, and secondly, to measure the association between MDR-TB and a history of previous anti-TB drugs treatment...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318646/effects-of-mandatory-continuing-education-related-to-infection-control-on-the-infection-control-practices-of-dental-hygienists
#3
Noel Kelsch, Cheryl A Davis, Gwen Essex, Lory Laughter, Dorothy J Rowe
The infection control (IC) practices of dental hygienists, who were practicing in states with and without mandatory continuing education (CE) related to IC, were compared using a nationwide survey approach. The percentages of respondents from states with mandated IC CE, who reported compliance with 8 practices described in the current IC guidelines and acquiring more CE units and taking more recent IC CE, were greater (P < .005) than the percentages of respondents from states without the requirement.
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263778/evaluation-of-the-bundle-zero-surgical-site-infection-to-prevent-surgical-site-infection-in-vascular-surgery
#4
María Fernández-Prada, Carmen Martínez-Ortega, Livia Revuelta-Mariño, Ángeles Menéndez-Herrero, Juan F Navarro-Gracia
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) before and after the implementation of a bundle of care called 'Zero Surgical Site Infection'. Secondary goals included estimating measures of association and their potential impact, determining care management indicators in vascular surgery, and evaluating the level of compliance with the bundle. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study with a historic control group. The bundle included: 1) removal of body hair with clippers; 2) preoperative showering with chlorhexidine soap; 3) preparation of the surgical field with alcoholic chlorhexidine 2%; 4) adequacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis; 5) and 6) intra- and post-operative glycemic and central temperature control...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256264/national-survey-of-practices-to-prevent-health-care-associated-infections-in-thailand-the-role-of-prevention-bundles
#5
Anucha Apisarnthanarak, David Ratz, M Todd Greene, Thana Khawcharoenporn, David J Weber, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the practices used in Thai hospitals to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: From January 1, 2014-November 30, 2014, we surveyed all Thai hospitals with an intensive care unit and at least 250 beds. The use of prevention practices for CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP was assessed. High compliance (≥75%) with all components of the CLABSI and VAP prevention bundles were determined...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255472/undigested-pills-in-stool-mimicking-parasitic-infection
#6
Fazia Mir, Ilyas Achakzai, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Background. Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report. A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251730/epidemiological-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-a-solid-organ-transplantation-department
#7
Anastasia Geladari, Theodoros Karampatakis, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elias Iosifidis, Olga Tsiatsiou, Lida Politi, Aggeliki Karyoti, Vasilios Papanikolaou, Athanassios Tsakris, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of intensified infection control measures (ICM) on colonization and infection caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii in a Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) Department. METHODS: A quasi-experimental methodology was followed. The study was divided in 3 periods: pre-intervention, intervention with implementation of an ICM bundle including active surveillance program (ASP) and gradually enhanced measures, and post-ASP without ASP...
March 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249573/dangerous-practices-in-a-hemodialysis-unit-in-vietnam-identify-from-mixed-methods
#8
Minh Cuong Duong, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Non-compliance with infection control practices poses a serious risk to patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. We aimed to identify the type and frequency of non-compliance with infection control practices in a hemodialysis unit in Vietnam where a large outbreak of hepatitis C infection had occurred. METHODS: Mixed methods approach included observations and discussions of non-compliance with all 12 nurses at the Hemodialysis Unit, District-6 Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City...
March 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247943/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-norovirus-transmission-in-food-establishments-evaluating-the-impact-of-intervention-strategies-and-food-employee-behavior-on-the-risk-associated-with-norovirus-in-foods
#9
Steven Duret, Régis Pouillot, Wendy Fanaselle, Efstathia Papafragkou, Girvin Liggans, Laurie Williams, Jane M Van Doren
We developed a quantitative risk assessment model using a discrete event framework to quantify and study the risk associated with norovirus transmission to consumers through food contaminated by infected food employees in a retail food setting. This study focused on the impact of ill food workers experiencing symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting and potential control measures for the transmission of norovirus to foods. The model examined the behavior of food employees regarding exclusion from work while ill and after symptom resolution and preventive measures limiting food contamination during preparation...
March 1, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239452/intervening-with-healthcare-workers-hand-hygiene-compliance-knowledge-and-perception-in-a-limited-resource-hospital-in-indonesia-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#10
Dewi Santosaningsih, Dewi Erikawati, Sanarto Santoso, Noorhamdani Noorhamdani, Irene Ratridewi, Didi Candradikusuma, Iin N Chozin, Thomas E C J Huwae, Gwen van der Donk, Eva van Boven, Anne F Voor In 't Holt, Henri A Verbrugh, Juliëtte A Severin
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs on improving hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia. METHODS: The study was performed from May to October 2014 and divided into a pre-intervention, intervention, and post-intervention phase...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#11
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228825/the-ultrasound-unit-and-infection-control-are-we-on-the-right-track
#12
Susan C Westerway, Jocelyne M Basseal
Best practice guidelines for the disinfection of ultrasound transducers and infection prevention in ultrasound departments are generally recommended by either government health groups or the ultrasound societies of individual countries. The literature shows a wide variance in not only transducer cleaning methods but basic hygiene practices in the ultrasound workplace. This paper describes results from a UK survey of disinfection of ultrasound transducers and hygiene practice in the workplace. The survey revealed that some ultrasound practitioners did not follow current guidelines with regard to the correct disinfection method of transducers, cords or ultrasound machine keyboards...
February 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224119/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vectored-multi-antigen-tuberculosis-vaccine-limits-bacterial-proliferation-in-mice-following-a-single-intranasal-dose
#13
Ming Zhang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and an urgent need exists to improve or replace the available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Most vaccination protocols adapt two or three doses to induce long-term lasting immunity. Our previous study showed that the naked DNA encoding the triple-antigen fusion TFP846 (Rv3615c-Mtb10.4-Rv2660c) induced robust T cellular immune responses accompanying four inoculations against mycobacteria infection. However, a number of compliance issues exist in some areas lacking the appropriate medical infrastructure with multiple administrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216701/impact-of-modified-quality-control-checklist-on-protocol-adherence-and-outcomes-in-a-post-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#14
Lakshmi Kumar, Meenu Dominic, Sunil Rajan, Sanjeev Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quality improvement (QI) is the sum of all activities that create desired changes in the quality. An effective QI system results in a stepwise increase in quality of care. The efficiency of any health-care unit is judged by its quality indicators. We aimed to evaluate the impact of QI initiatives on outcomes in a surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: This was an observational study carried out using a compliance checklist, developed from the combination of the World Health Organization surgery checklist and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for the prevention of infections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215912/questionnaire-based-analysis-of-infection-prevention-and-control-in-healthcare-facilities-in-saudi-arabia-in-regards-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#15
Ali A Rabaan, Hatem M Alhani, Ali M Bazzi, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed
Effective implementation of infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities depends on training, awareness and compliance of healthcare workers. In Saudi Arabia recent significant hospital outbreaks, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have resulted from lack of, or breakdown in, infection prevention and control procedures. This study was designed to assess attitudes to, and awareness of, infection prevention and control policies and guidelines among healthcare workers of different professions and institution types in Saudi Arabia...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214161/human-factors-related-to-time-dependent-infection-control-measures-scrub-the-hub-for-venous-catheters-and-feeding-tubes
#16
Lindsay Caspari, Elizabeth Epstein, Amy Blackman, Li Jin, David A Kaufman
BACKGROUND: The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. METHODS: An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207505/efficacy-of-1st-line-bismuth-containing-quadruple-therapies-with-levofloxacin-or-clarithromycin-for-the-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-1-week-open-label-randomized-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jing Su, Xiaoying Zhou, Han Chen, Bo Hao, Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of two 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple regimens and 1 levofloxacin-based triple regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in treatment-naive patients. The influence of susceptibility and host CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy was also evaluated. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly to receive esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with clarithromycin and amoxicillin (EBCA), esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with levofloxacin and amoxicillin (EBLA), or esomeprazole along levofloxacin and amoxicillin (ELA) for 1 week...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198632/engineering-oral-and-parenteral-amorphous-amphotericin-b-formulations-against-experimental-trypanosoma-cruzi-infections
#18
Miriam Rolón, Dolores R Serrano, Aikaterini Lalatsa, Esther de Pablo, Juan Jose Torrado, Maria Paloma Ballesteros, Anne Marie Healy, Celeste Vega, Cathia Coronel, Francisco Bolas-Fernández, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela
Chagas disease (CD) is a parasitic zoonosis endemic in most mainland countries of Central and South America affecting nearly 10 million people, with 100 million people at high risk of contracting the disease. Treatment is only effective if received at the early stages of the disease. Only two drugs (benznidazole and nifurtimox) have so far been marketed and both share various limitations such as variable efficacy, many side effects and long duration of treatment, thus reducing compliance. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of poly-aggregated amphotericin B (AmB), encapsulated poly-aggregated AmB in albumin microspheres (AmB-AME) and dimeric AmB - sodium deoxycholate micelles (AmB-NaDC) was evaluated...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195032/ph-responsive-carriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-challenges-and-opportunities-of-current-platforms
#19
REVIEW
Lin Liu, WenDong Yao, YueFeng Rao, XiaoYang Lu, JianQing Gao
Oral administration is a desirable alternative of parenteral administration due to the convenience and increased compliance to patients, especially for chronic diseases that require frequent administration. The oral drug delivery is a dynamic research field despite the numerous challenges limiting their effective delivery, such as enzyme degradation, hydrolysis and low permeability of intestinal epithelium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. pH-Responsive carriers offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to enhancing the stability of drug delivery in stomach and achieving controlled release in intestines...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192635/risk-factors-for-hospitalization-of-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#20
Ming Yang, Perrin C White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are prone to potentially life-threatening adrenal crises. We tried to identify risk factors for post-diagnosis hospitalization for children with the salt wasting form of CAH. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all children who presented to Children's Medical Center Dallas from 1999 to 2013 with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ICD-9 code 255.2). RESULTS: 522 unique patients were coded for ICD-9 code of 255...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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