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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926559/preoperative-immunonutrition-and-elective-colorectal-resection-outcomes
#1
Lucas W Thornblade, Thomas K Varghese, Xu Shi, Eric K Johnson, Amir Bastawrous, Richard P Billingham, Richard Thirlby, Alessandro Fichera, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914936/public-health-and-public-trust-survey-evidence-from-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-in-liberia
#2
Robert A Blair, Benjamin S Morse, Lily L Tsai
Trust in government has long been viewed as an important determinant of citizens' compliance with public health policies, especially in times of crisis. Yet evidence on this relationship remains scarce, particularly in the developing world. We use results from a representative survey conducted during the 2014-15 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Monrovia, Liberia to assess the relationship between trust in government and compliance with EVD control interventions. We find that respondents who expressed low trust in government were much less likely to take precautions against EVD in their homes, or to abide by government-mandated social distancing mechanisms designed to contain the spread of the virus...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#4
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902412/the-staff-education-to-reducing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#5
Gurdal Yilmaz, Hava Aydin, Mustafa Aydin, Sedat Saylan, Hulya Ulusoy, Iftihar Koksal
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving invasive procedure performed in intensive care units (ICUs) where critical patients are given advanced support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personnel training on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The study, performed prospectively in the ICU, was planned in two periods. In both periods, patient's characteristics were recorded on patient data forms. In the second period, ICU physicians and assistant health personnel were given regular theoretical and practical training...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900923/-the-infection-risk-scan-in-clinical-practice-improving-infection-prevention-and-antibiotic-use-through-transparency
#6
I Willemsen, J A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVE: The increase in Highly Resistant Micro-Organisms (HRMO) in hospitals and nursing homes requires an intensification of infection prevention measures. This paper describes a new, standardised approach to infection prevention and monitoring of antibiotic use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. METHOD: The Infection RIsk Scan (IRIS) measures a number of objectifiable variables in the field of infection prevention, including the dissemination of HRMO, the use of antibiotics and indwelling medical devices, environmental contamination, hand hygiene and personal hygiene of healthcare workers, and various infection control preconditions...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894353/provider-and-user-acceptability-of-intermittent-screening-and-treatment-for-the-control-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-malawi
#7
Deborah Almond, Mwayi Madanitsa, Victor Mwapasa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Jayne Webster, Feiko Ter Kuile, Lucy Paintain
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is a major cause of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is one of the control strategies promoted by WHO. In response to mounting resistance to SP, intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) has been proposed as an alternative. The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of ISTp for health workers and pregnant women. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews of ten health workers and five focus group discussions of 38 women enrolled in an ongoing trial comparing IPTp-SP and ISTp with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were conducted at two antenatal clinics in rural Malawi...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889276/perceived-effectiveness-of-messages-promoting-hand-hygiene
#8
Ronald E Taylor
Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875286/new-immunomodulatory-oral-nutrition-formula-for-use-prior-to-surgery-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-an-exploratory-study
#9
Samara Palma-Milla, Bricia López-Plaza, Beatriz Santamaría, Álvaro de Arriba-Sánchez, Laura M Bermejo, Carmen Gómez-Candela
BACKGROUND: The perioperative use of immunomodulatory nutrition formulas in patients with head and neck cancer reduces the number of postoperative infections and the length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: An exploratory, randomized, controlled, blind, clinical trial was designed to examine the effect of the preoperative consumption of a new, immunomodulatory, oral nutrition formula in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients were randomized to receive either 400 mL/d of either the new immunomodulatory formula (IF) or that commonly used in clinical practice (CF) over 10 days prior to surgery...
November 10, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860342/compliance-with-a-copd-bundle-of-care-in-an-australian-emergency-department-a-cohort-study
#10
Alexis Gerber, Catriona Moynihan, Sharon Klim, Peter Ritchie, Anne-Maree Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Bundles of care are gaining popularity for treating acute severe illness. OBJECTIVE: To describe compliance with bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle') for patients treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Retrospective observational study of patients presenting in the 2014 calendar year with an ED diagnosis of COPD. The primary outcomes of interest were compliance with key bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle')...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845478/healthcare-associated-infections-educational-intervention-by-adult-learning-in-an-italian-teaching-hospital
#11
A Rinaldi, A Marani, M Montesano, S Berdini, M C Petruccioli, F Di Ninno, R Orioli, F Ferretti, G Tarsitani, C Napoli, A De Luca, G B Orsi
BACKGROUND: An educational intervention for HAI prevention based on a combination of training, motivation and subsequent application in the current clinical practice in an Italian teaching hospital. METHODS: In 2015-2016 a pilot mandatory training on HAI targeted to HCWs was organized in the 450 bed teaching hospital Sant'Andrea in Rome. By adopting the "Impact/control matrix" prioritization tool, the relative level of impact (risk in causing or favoring HAI) and control (possibility for HCWs to prevent HAI) attributed by the participants to the issues associated to HAI during their working groups was evaluated...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842876/thailand-antimicrobial-resistance-containment-and-prevention-program
#12
Visanu Thamlikitkul, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Varaporn Pumsuwan, Tepnimitr Judaeng, Surapee Tiengrim, Wantana Paveenkittiporn, Suvichai Rojanasthien, Sasi Jaroenpoj, Saisiri Issaracharnvanich
The Thailand Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Containment and Prevention Program was founded to develop, co-ordinate and implement AMR Containment and Prevention (AMRCP) operational actions in Thailand following the 'One Health' approach. This article summarises the ten AMRCP operational actions initiated during the initial phase of the programme from 2012 to 2016: estimating the national AMR burden; establishing the dynamics of AMR chains to understand how AMR in Thailand develops and spreads; developing a national AMRCP infrastructure; developing laboratory and information technology systems for surveillance of AMR, antibiotic use and hospital-acquired infections; regulating the use and distribution of antibiotics in humans and food animals; generating local evidence for promoting responsible use of antibiotics and efficient practices for infection prevention and control; designing AMRCP campaigns; creating an AMRCP package; implementing the AMRCP package in selected pilot communities; and conducting research and development on diagnostics, therapy and prevention of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826955/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-preventing-infections-in-children-under-five-years-of-age
#13
REVIEW
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Rehana A Salam, Farhan R Khan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age...
November 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826443/belgian-hand-hygiene-campaigns-in-icu-2005-2015
#14
Sylvanus Fonguh, Annie Uwineza, Boudewijn Catry, Anne Simon
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are still a major problem especially in most intensive care units (ICU). Incompliance by clinical staff with hand hygiene (HH) increases rates of preventable infections. We report the outcome of the Belgian national hand hygiene campaign from 2005 to 2015 with focus on intensive care units. METHODS: Using the World Health organisation (WHO) standardised observation roster, trained infection control teams measured adherence to HH guidelines by direct observation...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825917/intraoperative-hypothermia-and-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-with-class-1-clean-wounds-a-case-control-study
#15
Michael J Brown, Timothy B Curry, Joseph A Hyder, Elie F Berbari, Mark J Truty, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Daryl J Kor
BACKGROUND: Numerous surgical quality metrics focus on prevention of unintentional perioperative hypothermia due, in part, to the association between hypothermia and surgical site infections (SSI). However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the relationship between these metrics and SSI. In this study, we evaluated individual components of one set of hypothermia metrics to determine their association with SSI. METHODS: Patients with clean (Type 1) wounds who developed a SSI within thirty days after surgery from January 2003-December 2012 in one of five surgical specialties were matched to specialty specific controls without SSI...
November 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818376/improving-household-air-drinking-water-and-hygiene-in-rural-peru-a-community-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-integrated-environmental-home-based-intervention-package-to-improve-child-health
#16
S M Hartinger, C F Lanata, J Hattendorf, H Verastegui, A I Gil, J Wolf, D Mäusezahl
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, which can be prevented by simple low-cost interventions. Integrated strategies can provide additional benefits by addressing multiple health burdens simultaneously. METHODS: We conducted a community-randomized-controlled trial in 51 rural communities in Peru to evaluate whether an environmental home-based intervention package, consisting of improved solid-fuel stoves, kitchen sinks, solar disinfection of drinking water and hygiene promotion, reduces lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and improves growth in children younger than 36 months...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817762/improvement-of-hand-hygiene-quality-and-compliance-using-bioburden-measurement-and-online-feedback-in-germany
#17
Frank Günther, Kai Rudolph, Uwe Frank, Nico T Mutters
To improve compliance with hand hygiene, a novel method with inclusion of an online reporting system was developed, comprising measurement of total hand bioburden, anonymous online feedback, and onsite training. The intervention significantly improved both compliance and quality of hand hygiene and reduced Staphylococcus aureus incidence. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-4.
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817756/frequency-of-use-of-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-by-nurses-a-systematic-review
#18
John M Boyce, Philip M Polgreen, Mauricio Monsalve, David R Macinga, James W Arbogast
BACKGROUND Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration requested that a "maximal use" trial be conducted to ensure the safety of frequent use of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) by healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE To establish how frequently volunteers should be exposed to ABHR during a maximal use trial. DESIGN Retrospective review of literature and analysis of 2 recent studies that utilized hand hygiene electronic compliance monitoring (ECM) systems. METHODS We reviewed PubMed for articles published between 1970 and December 31, 2015, containing the terms hand washing, hand hygiene, hand hygiene compliance, and alcohol-based hand rubs...
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787348/budgetary-impact-of-compliance-with-sti-screening-guidelines-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#19
Ellen F Eaton, Kathryn Hudak, Christina A Muzny
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines recommend annual screening of all persons living with HIV (PLWH) for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and syphilis; annual T. vaginalis screening is recommended for HIV-infected women. The study objective is to evaluate the budgetary impact of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening. We hypothesized that recommended STI screening is costly and would not be covered in full by insurers...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777757/a-quasi-experimental-study-to-determine-the-effects-of-a-multifaceted-educational-intervention-on-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-a-radiography-unit
#20
Margaret O'Donoghue, Suk-Hing Ng, Lorna Kp Suen, Maureen Boost
BACKGROUND: Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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