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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944433/pharmacogenetics-of-lipid-lowering-agents-an-update-review-on-genotype-dependent-effects-of-hdl-targetingand-statin-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Nathan Messas, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Results from randomized trials of HDL-targeting therapies, including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, have shown a lack of benefit in unsegmented populations. These observations could be explained by inter-individual variability of clinical responses to such agents depending on the patients' genotypes. In parallel, although lowering of LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) with statin therapy reduces the risk of vascular events in a wide range of individuals, inter-individual variability exists with regard to LDL-c-lowering response as well as efficacy in reducing major cardiovascular events...
September 25, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942590/conservative-treatment-of-acute-colonic-diverticulitis
#2
REVIEW
S T van Dijk, S J Rottier, A A W van Geloven, M A Boermeester
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the treatment of acute diverticulitis has become more conservative over the last years, knowledge of conservative treatment strategies is increasingly important. RECENT FINDINGS: Several treatment strategies that previously have been imposed as routine treatment are now obsolete. Uncomplicated diverticulitis patients can be treated without antibiotics, without bed rest, and without dietary restrictions; and a selected group of patients can be treated as outpatients...
September 23, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941343/-smart-therapeutics-based-on-synthetic-gene-circuits
#3
Shuguang Peng, Zhen Xie
Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941239/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-autism-review
#4
REVIEW
Mary Miu Yee Waye, Ho Yu Cheng
Autism is a developmental disorder that starts before age 3, and children with autism has impairment in both social interaction and communication, and has restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. There is a strong heritable component of autism and autism spectrum disorder as studies have shown that parents who have a child with ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child with ASD. Since the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders have been increasing during the last 3 decades, much research has been carried out to understand the etiology, so as to develop novel preventive and treatment strategies...
September 23, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940410/mechanisms-of-bone-destruction-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
E Terpos, D Christoulas, M Gavriatopoulou, M A Dimopoulos
Osteolytic bone disease is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma, resulting in skeletal complications that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the result of an increased activity of osteoclasts, which is not followed by reactive bone formation by osteoblasts. Recent studies have revealed novel molecules and pathways that are implicated in osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Among them, the most important include the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway, the macrophage inflammatory proteins and the activin-A that play a crucial role in osteoclast stimulation in myeloma, while the wingless-type (Wnt) signalling inhibitors (sclerostin and dickkopf-1) along with the growth factor independence-1 are considered the most important factors for the osteoblast dysfunction of myeloma patients...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940017/critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-a-narrative-review-from-a-multispecialty-task-force-of-the-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-the-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm
#6
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Bram Rochwerg, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the latest concepts and understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of international experts in critical care medicine and endocrinology and members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). DATA SOURCES: Medline, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
September 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939355/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-immunomodulation-of-influenza-virus-infection
#7
Chi-Jene Chen, Guan-Hong Wu, Rei-Lin Kuo, Shin-Ru Shih
Prevention and treatment measures against influenza virus infection remain limited, and alternative host protection strategies are badly needed. In this review, we discuss the regulatory role of intestinal microbiota in influenza infections, and present the latest evidence for strategies seeking to harness gut microbiota for the management of influenza infections.
September 19, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939351/standardization-of-nodal-radiation-therapy-through-changes-to-a-breast-cancer-clinical-pathway-throughout-a-large-integrated-cancer-center-network
#8
Brian J Gebhardt, Joel Thomas, Zachary D Horne, Colin E Champ, Gretchen M Ahrendt, Emilia Diego, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Studies demonstrate safety of omitting axillary nodal dissection for early-stage breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node (+SLN) biopsy, although trial designs differed in radiation therapy (RT) fields. Regional nodal irradiation was separately shown to improve outcomes in high-risk patients. This led to lack of consensus in RT volumes. Clinical pathways (CPs) standardize care where practice varies unnecessarily. We evaluated the impact of changes to a CP guiding postoperative RT in women with +SLNs on practice patterns throughout a network...
July 20, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938667/lncrnas-as-prognostic-molecular-biomarkers-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Chuqian Zheng, Xiuxia Liu, Leifeng Chen, Zheng Xu, Jianghua Shao
The latest studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be considered markers as their expression levels were abnormal in cancer and can be used as a molecular biomarker for the potential assessment of cancer prognosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of lncRNA as marker of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We performed a detailed search of the PubMed and Embase databases for articles on the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. We then carefully extracted the relevant data from the articles, and we used the meta-analysis method to analyze these results; heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938494/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-in-natural-product-analysis-an-update
#10
Nora Gibitz Eisath, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
The wide chemical diversity of natural products has challenged analysts all over the world and has been a driving force for the development of innovative technologies since decades. In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has finally emerged from the shadow of liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) and has become a powerful tool in modern natural product analysis. Whereas in the past the technique had mainly been restricted to a small group of nonpolar compounds, it has largely expanded its suitability in the last years and has demonstrated possibilities without boundaries...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938277/multimodality-neuromonitoring-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-narrative-review
#11
Martin Smith
Neuromonitoring plays an important role in the management of traumatic brain injury. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism allows an individualized approach to patient management in which therapeutic interventions intended to prevent or minimize secondary brain injury are guided by monitored changes in physiologic variables rather than generic thresholds. This narrative review describes various neuromonitoring techniques that can be used to guide the management of patients with traumatic brain injury and examines the latest evidence and expert consensus guidelines for neuromonitoring...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938251/critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-a-narrative-review-from-a-multispecialty-task-force-of-the-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-the-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm
#12
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Bram Rochwerg, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the latest concepts and understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). PARTICIPANTS: A multi-specialty task force of international experts in critical care medicine and endocrinology and members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938075/the-human-plasma-proteome-draft-of-2017-building-on-the-human-plasma-peptideatlas-from-mass-spectrometry-and-complementary-assays
#13
Jochen M Schwenk, Gilbert S Omenn, Zhi Sun, David S Campbell, Mark S Baker, Christopher M Overall, Ruedi Aebersold, Robert L Moritz, Eric W Deutsch
Human blood plasma provides a highly accessible window to the proteome of any individual in health and disease. Since its inception in 2002, the Human Proteome Organization's Human Plasma Proteome Project (HPPP) has been promoting advances in the study and understanding of the full protein complement of human plasma and on determining the abundance and modifications of its components. In 2017, we review the history of the HPPP and the advances of human plasma proteomics in general, including several recent achievements...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937232/physiology-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-respiratory-system
#14
M Antosova, D Mokra, L Pepucha, J Plevkova, T Buday, M Sterusky, A Bencova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous neurotransmitter and mediator. It participates in regulation of physiological processes in different organ systems including airways. Therefore, it is important to clarify its role in the regulation of both airway and vascular smooth muscle, neurotransmission and neurotoxicity, mucus transport, lung development and in the. surfactant production. The bioactivity of NO is highly variable and depends on many factors: the presence and activity of NO-producing enzymes, activity of competitive enzymes (e...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936946/genetic-tools-for-the-enhancement-of-probiotic-properties
#15
Laura Ortiz-Velez, Robert Britton
The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933783/reverse-remodelling-and-myocardial-recovery-in-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Gene H Kim, Nir Uriel, Daniel Burkhoff
Advances in medical and device therapies have demonstrated the capacity of the heart to reverse the failing phenotype. The development of normative changes to ventricular size and function led to the concept of reverse remodelling. Among heart failure therapies, durable mechanical circulatory support is most consistently associated with the largest degree of reverse remodelling. Accordingly, research to analyse human tissue after a period of mechanical circulatory support continues to yield a wealth of information...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933602/lactoferrin-structure-function-denaturation-and-digestion
#17
Bo Wang, Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Ewan Blanch, Benu Adhikari
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein occurring in many biological secretions including milk. It possesses iron binding/transferring, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. These functional properties intimately depend on the structural integrity of LF especially its higher order conformation. LF is primarily extracted from bovine milk and it is subsequently added into many commercial products such as nutritional supplements, infant formula, cosmetics and toothpaste...
September 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933080/-recent-advances-in-biosynthetic-pathway-and-synthetic-biology-of-taxol
#18
Xue-Jun Kuang, Cai-Xia Wang, Li-Qiu Zou, Ying Li, Chao Sun
Taxol, a kind of terpenoid secondary metabolite produced by Taxus brevifolia, is an effective anticancer drug that manufacture relies mainly on the extraction form plants. In order to solve the resource shortage, a lot of work has been done to develop the alternative method. Recently, using synthetic biology to realize heterologous biosynthesis of the precursors of taxol has become a hotspot. Now, the basic framework of taxol biosynthetic pathways has been confirmed, and most enzyme genes involved in taxol biosynthesis have been cloned and identified...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932918/long-term-outcome-after-endovascular-treatment-of-cavernous-sinus-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-and-a-literature-review
#19
Yosuke Nishimuta, Ryuji Awa, Sei Sugata, Tetsuya Nagayama, Tsuneo Makiuchi, Tetsuzo Tomosugi, Ryosuke Hanaya, Hiroshi Tokimura, Hirofumi Hirano, F M Moinuddin, Muhammad Kamil, Akari Kibe, Kazunori Arita
BACKGROUND: The long-term efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae (CS-dAVF) was assessed with a special focus on residual shunts after initial EVT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective survey included 50 patients who had undergone EVT and were followed for 1 month or longer (median follow-up 56 months). RESULTS: Common preoperative symptoms were chemosis (78%), extra-ocular motor palsy (72%), exophthalmos (66%), and tinnitus (26%)...
September 20, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932198/progress-and-prospects-of-crispr-cas-systems-in-insects-and-other-arthropods
#20
REVIEW
Dan Sun, Zhaojiang Guo, Yong Liu, Youjun Zhang
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated gene Cas9 represent an invaluable system for the precise editing of genes in diverse species. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an adaptive mechanism that enables bacteria and archaeal species to resist invading viruses and phages or plasmids. Compared with zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the advantage of requiring less time and effort. This efficient technology has been used in many species, including diverse arthropods that are relevant to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and public health; however, there is no review that systematically summarizes its successful application in the editing of both insect and non-insect arthropod genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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