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Prenatal mirroring

Susanne R de Rooij, Alexander Jones, David I Phillips, Clive Osmond, John M Karemaker, Tessa J Roseboom, Rebecca C Painter
OBJECTIVES: Early-life adversity has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in later life, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this association. Prenatal undernutrition, a severe early-life stressor, is associated with double the risk of coronary heart disease and increased blood pressure responses to psychological stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal undernutrition induces alterations in the autonomic nervous system, which may increase the risk of developing heart disease...
September 7, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Xu Li, Xue-Lei Li, Kefei Hu, Chuangao Yin
BACKGROUND: Here we report our preliminary experience of using fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, particularly with transverse views at the level of the aortic arch, in the diagnosis of aortic arch anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2015, routine prenatal obstetric ultrasound (US), echocardiography (Echo) and 1.5 T CMR were performed on approximately 600 pregnant women. CMR included balanced fast field echo and single-shot fast spin echo sequences...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rebecca S Zee, Katherine W Herbst, Christina Kim, Patrick H McKenna, Tom Bentley, Christopher S Cooper, C D Anthony Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) are not clearly defined. Our study aim was to describe incidence and identify factors associated with UTI among a cohort of children diagnosed with PNH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with confirmed PNH from four medical centers were prospectively enrolled in the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) hydronephrosis registry between 9/2008 and 10/2015. Exclusion criteria included enrollment because of UTI, associated congenital anomalies, and less than 1-month follow-up...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Manuela Eßlinger, Simone Wachholz, Marie-Pierre Manitz, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Maternal infection during pregnancy is a well-established risk factor for schizophrenia in the adult offspring. Consistently, prenatal Poly(I:C) treatment in mice has been validated to model behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. By using the Poly(I:C) BALB/c mouse model, we investigated the functional profile of microglia by flow cytometry in relation to progressive behavioral changes from adolescence to adulthood. Prenatal Poly(I:C) treatment induced the expected sensory gating deficits (pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response) in 100 day-old adult offspring, but only in female not in male descendants...
May 25, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Zhengrong Zhang, Fanfan Zheng, Yang You, Yuanlin Ma, Tianlan Lu, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable chronic mental disorder with significant abnormalities in brain function. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia originates in the prenatal period due to impairments in neuronal developmental processes such as migration and arborization, leading to abnormal brain maturation. Previous studies have identified multiple promising candidate genes that drive functions in neurodevelopment and are associated with schizophrenia...
2016: Molecular Brain
U Weber-Stadlbauer, J Richetto, M A Labouesse, J Bohacek, I M Mansuy, U Meyer
Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults is increasingly recognized to contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders with neurodevelopmental components, including schizophrenia, autism and bipolar disorder. It remains unknown, however, if such immune-mediated brain anomalies can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Using an established mouse model of prenatal immune activation by the viral mimetic poly(I:C), we show that reduced sociability and increased cued fear expression are similarly present in the first- and second-generation offspring of immune-challenged ancestors...
March 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Gabriella A Ferrari, Ylenia Nicolini, Elisa Demuru, Cecilia Tosato, Merhi Hussain, Elena Scesa, Luisa Romei, Maria Boerci, Emanuela Iappini, Guido Dalla Rosa Prati, Elisabetta Palagi, Pier F Ferrari
During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Gregory Konat
It has been well established that peripheral inflammation resulting from microbial infections profoundly alters brain function. This review focuses on experimental systems that model cerebral effects of peripheral viral challenge. The most common models employ the induction of the acute phase response via intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The ensuing transient surge of blood-borne inflammatory mediators induces a "mirror" inflammatory response in the brain characterized by the upregulated expression of a plethora of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory/stress proteins...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
Kristin Thiele, M Emilia Solano, Samuel Huber, Richard A Flavell, Timo Kessler, Roja Barikbin, Roman Jung, Khalil Karimi, Gisa Tiegs, Petra C Arck
Acetaminophen (APAP; ie, Paracetamol or Tylenol) is generally self-medicated to treat fever or pain and recommended to pregnant women by their physicians. Recent epidemiological studies reveal an association between prenatal APAP use and an increased risk for asthma. Our aim was to identify the effects of APAP in pregnancy using a mouse model. Allogeneically mated C57Bl/6J females were injected i.p. with 50 or 250 mg/kg APAP or phosphate-buffered saline on gestation day 12.5; nonpregnant females served as controls...
October 2015: American Journal of Pathology
Maria Cernea, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Robert L Goodman, Lique M Coolen, Michael N Lehman
Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated ewes display a constellation of reproductive defects that closely mirror those seen in PCOS women, including altered hormonal feedback control of GnRH. Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion, and prenatal T treatment in sheep causes an imbalance of KNDy peptide expression within the ARC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal T exposure, in addition to altering KNDy peptides, leads to changes in the morphology and synaptic inputs of this population, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area (POA), and GnRH cells...
September 2015: Endocrinology
Steven J Ondersma, Jessica R Beatty, Dace S Svikis, Ronald C Strickler, Golfo K Tzilos, Grace Chang, George W Divine, Andrew R Taylor, Robert J Sokol
BACKGROUND: Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use has demonstrated efficacy in some trials, its implementation has been limited. Technology-delivered approaches are a promising alternative, particularly during pregnancy when the importance of alcohol use is amplified. The present trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive, empathic, video-enhanced, and computer-delivered SBI (e-SBI) plus 3 tailored mailings, and estimated intervention effects...
July 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jeremy P Landry, Connor Hawkins, Aaron Lee, Alexandra Coté, Evan Balaban, Maria Pompeiano
cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals...
January 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Maureen I Heaman, Wendy Sword, Lawrence Elliott, Michael Moffatt, Michael E Helewa, Heather Morris, Patricia Gregory, Lynda Tjaden, Catherine Cook
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities in the use of prenatal care (PNC) exist even where care is universally available and publicly funded. Few studies have sought the perspectives of health care providers to understand and address this problem. The purpose of this study was to elicit the experiential knowledge of PNC providers in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada regarding their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to PNC for the clients they serve and their suggestions on how PNC services might be improved to reduce disparities in utilization...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Frans Stortelder
Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Mary E Norton, Suneet P Chauhan, Jodi S Dashe
OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune hydrops is the presence of ≥2 abnormal fetal fluid collections in the absence of red cell alloimmunization. The most common etiologies include cardiovascular, chromosomal, and hematologic abnormalities, followed by structural fetal anomalies, complications of monochorionic twinning, infection, and placental abnormalities. We sought to provide evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation and management of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library...
February 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Khalil Karimi, Timo Keßler, Kristin Thiele, Katherina Ramisch, Annette Erhardt, Peter Huebener, Roja Barikbin, Petra Arck, Gisa Tiegs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During pregnancy, acetaminophen is one of the very few medications recommended by physicians to treat fever or pain. Recent insights from epidemiological studies suggest an association between prenatal acetaminophen medication and an increased risk for development of asthma in children later in life. The underlying pathogenesis of such association is still unknown. METHODS: We aimed to develop a mouse model to provide insights into the effect of prenatal acetaminophen on maternal, fetal and adult offspring's health...
May 2015: Journal of Hepatology
Yaron Razon, Michael Berant, Rami Fogelman, Gabriel Amir, Einat Birk
BACKGROUND: Right aortic arch (RAA) is usually associated with the presence of a significant congenital heart disease, usually a conotruncal defect, which determines the postnatal outcome. In the absence of such cardiac defects, the significance of RAA has not been determined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the significance of recognizing RAA in fetuses with normal or near normal intracardiac anatomy and to determine which associations may be present. METHODS: A retrospective study was completed of all fetuses diagnosed with RAA with normal or near normal intracardiac anatomy between 1999 and 2011...
December 2014: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Alan C Logan, Felice N Jacka
In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time...
2014: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Hanjing Chai, Qun Fang, Xuan Huang, Yi Zhou, Yanmin Luo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to investigate the prevalence, clinical presentation, prenatal management, and prognosis of mirror syndrome associated with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated by amnioreduction or selective fetocide. METHOD: A retrospective study of twin pregnancies with TTTS was conducted. The prevalence of mirror syndrome, defined as severe maternal edema related to fetal hydrops and placental edema, was calculated for TTTS, and data on clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of the patients were reviewed...
December 2014: Prenatal Diagnosis
Ji-Wei Tan, Ting-Ting Duan, Qi-Xin Zhou, Ze-Yang Ding, Liang Jing, Jun Cao, Li-Ping Wang, Rong-Rong Mao, Lin Xu
Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1...
July 2015: Addiction Biology
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