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Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

Bettina Maria Foidl, Patricia Do-Dinh, Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Harald R Bliem, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, Tau pathology and dysfunction of the cholinergic system causing memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) anxiety and cognition, (2) Aβ plaque deposition and (3) degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and cortical cholinergic innervation in an Alzheimer mouse model (APP_SweDI; overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q, and Iowa D694N mutations)...
September 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who appeared to show recovery of an injured anterior cingulum via an aberrant neural tract between an injured cingulum and the basalis nucleus of Meynert following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 47-year-old male who had suffered a pedestrian traffic accident underwent conservative management for diffuse traumatic axonal injury. When starting rehabilitation at 6 weeks after onset, evaluation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) could not be performed due to the severity of his cognitive dysfunction...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Laura Mahady, Sylvia E Perez, Dwaine F Emerich, Lars U Wahlberg, Elliott J Mufson
Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jose L Cantero, Laszlo Zaborszky, Mercedes Atienza
Extensive research suggests that basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether volume loss of BF cholinergic compartments parallels structural changes of their innervated regions in prodromal AD. To this aim, we have correlated volume of each BF compartment with cortical thickness and hippocampus/amygdala volume in 106 healthy older (HO) adults and 106 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Correlations were limited to regions affected by atrophy in aMCI...
July 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Iván Manuel, Laura Lombardero, Frank M LaFerla, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
Neurochemical alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and a decrease in densities of the M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in areas related to learning and memory. Neuromodulators present in the cholinergic pathways, such as neuropeptides and neurolipids, control these cognitive processes and have become targets of research in order to understand and treat the pathophysiological and clinical stages of the disease. This is the case of the endocannabinoid and galaninergic systems, which have been found to be up-regulated in AD, and could therefore have a neuroprotective role...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Sean J Colloby, Greg J Elder, Riham Rabee, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Several cholinergic nuclei, and in particular the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are localised to the substantia innominata in the basal forebrain. These nuclei provide major cholinergic innervation to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and have an essential role in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate volumetric grey matter (GM) changes in the substantia innominata from structural T1 images in Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and healthy older participants using voxel-based morphometry...
May 19, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Chelsea T Tiernan, Stephen D Ginsberg, Angela L Guillozet-Bongaarts, Sarah M Ward, Bin He, Nicholas M Kanaan, Elliott J Mufson, Lester I Binder, Scott E Counts
Conformational phosphorylation and cleavage events drive the tau protein from a soluble, monomeric state to a relatively insoluble, polymeric state that precipitates the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in projection neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the magnocellular perikarya located in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) complex of the basal forebrain. Whether these structural changes in the tau protein are associated with pathogenic changes at the molecular and cellular level remains undetermined during the onset of AD...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Sarah K B Bick, Emad N Eskandar
Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury...
May 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Florian Lammers, Arian Mobascher, Francesco Musso, Nadim Jon Shah, Tracy Warbrick, Laszlo Zaborszky, Georg Winterer
BACKGROUND: Cortical acetylcholine released from cells in the basal forebrain facilitates cue detection and improves attentional performance. Cholinergic fibres to the cortex originate from the CH4 cell group, sometimes referred to as the Nucleus basalis of Meynert and the Nucleus subputaminalis of Ayala. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of volumes of cholinergic nuclei on attention and executive function. METHODS: The volumes of CH4 and CH4p subregions were measured in a subgroup of 38 subjects (33...
January 2016: Brain and Behavior
Cornelis K Mulder, Yun Dong, Humphrey F Brugghe, Hans A M Timmermans, Wichard Tilstra, Janny Westdijk, Elly van Riet, Harry van Steeg, Peter Hoogerhout, Ulrich L M Eisel
BACKGROUND: Soluble oligomeric (misfolded) species of amyloid-β (Aβ) are the main mediators of toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These oligomers subsequently form aggregates of insoluble fibrils that precipitate as extracellular and perivascular plaques in the brain. Active immunization against Aβ is a promising disease modifying strategy. However, eliciting an immune response against Aβ in general may interfere with its biological function and was shown to cause unwanted side-effects...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Talita H Ferreira-Vieira, Isabella M Guimaraes, Flavia R Silva, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Acetylcholine (ACh) has a crucial role in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is responsible for synthesizing ACh from acetyl-CoA and choline in the cytoplasm and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) uptakes the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Following depolarization, ACh undergoes exocytosis reaching the synaptic cleft, where it can bind its receptors, including muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ACh present at the synaptic cleft is promptly hydrolyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), forming acetate and choline, which is recycled into the presynaptic nerve terminal by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1)...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Qiong-Bin Zhu, Unga Unmehopa, Koen Bossers, Yu-Ting Hu, Ronald Verwer, Rawien Balesar, Juan Zhao, Ai-Min Bao, Dick Swaab
The cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is important for memory functions, shows neuronal activation ('up-phase') during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and neurodegeneration ('down-phase') in later stages of Alzheimer's disease. MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) and the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1) were proposed as possible candidate molecules regulating such an up-down activity pattern of the nucleus basalis of Meynert during the course of Alzheimer's disease, as they both show this up-down pattern of expression in the prefrontal cortex during the course of Alzheimer's disease...
March 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Boris Mravec, Katarina Lejavova, Peter Vargovic, Katarina Ondicova, Lubica Horvathova, Petr Novak, Georg Manz, Peter Filipcik, Michal Novak, Richard Kvetnansky
BACKGROUND: Brain norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the modulation of stress response and neuroinflammation. Recent studies indicate that in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the tau neuropathology begins in the locus coeruleus (LC) which is the main source of brain NE. Therefore, we investigated the changes in brain NE system and also the immune status under basal and stress conditions in transgenic rats over-expressing the human truncated tau protein. METHODS: Brainstem catecholaminergic cell groups (LC, A1, and A2) and forebrain subcortical (nucleus basalis of Meynert), hippocampal (cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus), and neocortical areas (frontal and temporal association cortices) were analyzed for NE and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in unstressed rats and also in rats exposed to single or repeated immobilization...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Maryam Zahedi, Mohammad Reza Hojjati, Hossein Fathpour, Zahra Rabiei, Zahra Alibabaei, Arezoo Basim
Some animal models have been used to study Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Animal studies have shown that there is a relation between decrease in cholinergic functions in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and loss of learning capability and memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rheum ribes extract (RR) on memory deficit in one of the rat models of AD. Plant (1500gr) was collected from Saman (kahkesh) region of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province in Iran...
2015: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Anna P Bogachouk, Zinaida I Storozheva, Olga A Solovjeva, Vyacheslav V Sherstnev, Yury A Zolotarev, Vyacheslav N Azev, Igor L Rodionov, Elena A Surina, Valery M Lipkin
A comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of two pharmaceutical substances, the HLDF-6 peptide (HLDF-6-OH) and its amide form (HLDF-6-NH2), was conducted. The study was performed in male rats using two models of a neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive deficit in rats was induced by injection of the beta-amyloid fragment 25-35 (βA 25-35) into the giant-cell nucleus basalis of Meynert or by coinjection of βA 25-35 and ibotenic acid into the hippocampus. To evaluate cognitive functions in animals, three tests were used: the novel object recognition test, the conditioned passive avoidance task and the Morris maze...
January 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Athanasios Alexandris, Alan King Lun Liu, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ronald K B Pearce, Steve M Gentleman
INTRODUCTION: Depletion of cholinergic neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) is thought to contribute to the development of cognitive impairments in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body disorders (LBD). It has been reported that, in late stage AD, a network of fibres that contain the neuropeptide galanin displays significant hypertrophy and 'hyperinnervates' the surviving cholinergic neurons. Galanin is considered as a highly inducible neuroprotective factor and in AD this is assumed to be part of a protective tissue response...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
A K L Liu, M E D Hurry, O T W Ng, J DeFelice, H M Lai, R K B Pearce, G T-C Wong, R C-C Chang, S M Gentleman
AIMS: CLARITY is a novel technique which enables three-dimensional visualization of immunostained tissue for the study of circuitry and spatial interactions between cells and molecules in the brain. In this study, we aimed to compare methodological differences in the application of CLARITY between rodent and large human post mortem brain samples. In addition, we aimed to investigate if this technique could be used to visualize Lewy pathology in a post mortem Parkinson's brain. METHODS: Rodent and human brain samples were clarified and immunostained using the passive version of the CLARITY technique...
October 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
M Noreik, J Kuhn, K Hardenacke, D Lenartz, A Bauer, C P Bührle, P Häussermann, M Hellmich, J Klosterkötter, J Wiltfang, M Maarouf, H-J Freund, V Visser-Vandewalle, V Sturm, R-J Schulz
OBJECTIVE: The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired nutritional status. New methods, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), are currently being tested to decrease the progression of AD. DBS is an approved method in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and its suitability for the treatment of AD patients is currently under experimental investigation. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of this new treatment, it is important to assess potential side effects of DBS regarding the nucleus basalis of Meynert; this new treatment is thought to positively affect cognition and might counteract the deterioration of nutritional status and progressive weight loss observed in AD...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
T A Ishunina
Morphometric parameters of neuronal metabolic activity, such as the area of neuronal nuclei and perikarya and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), tuberomamillary (TMN) and medial mammillary (MMN) hypothalamic nuclei of human subjects belonging to four age groups were studied. Statistically significant increase in the size of neuronal perikarya and their nuclei was found in elderly people aged 60-74 years. The surge in the metabolic activity of neurons in the NBM starts earlier than in the TMN and MMN, and becomes apparent morphologically in people of middle age (45-59 years)...
2015: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Kunihiko Araki, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Takashi Matsudaira, Akira Sugiura, Masaki Takao, Shigeo Murayama, Tomokazu Obi
We describe a woman with a 13-year history of postural instability, vertical gaze palsy and dopa-responsive parkinsonism - a clinical profile that corresponds to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The patient died at the age of 82 years. Neuropathological features included neuronal loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, thoracic intermediolateral nucleus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, in addition to the typical pathology of PSP...
April 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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