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Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

Masahiro Tabuchi, Keita Mizuno, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Tomohisa Hattori, Yoshio Kase
Yokukansan (YKS) and yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH) are traditional Japanese Kampo medicines. The latter comprises YKS along with the medicinal herbs Citrus unshiu peel and Pinellia tuber. Both of these Kampo medicines are indicated for the treatment of night crying and irritability in children and for neurosis and insomnia in adults. In recent clinical trials, YKS exhibited ameliorative effects on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, such as aggressiveness, excitement, and irritability. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the involvement of cholinergic degeneration in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the development of aggressiveness in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
John Noel M Viaña, Merlin Bittlinger, Frederic Gilbert
Several studies of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the fornix or the nucleus basalis of Meynert have been recently conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease, with several recruiting participants <65 and thus have early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Although EOAD accounts for less than 5.5% of AD cases, ethical considerations must still be made when performing DBS trials including these participants since a portion of people with EOAD, especially those possessing autosomal-dominant mutations, have an atypical and more aggressive disease progression...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Qing Liu, Zude Zhu, Stefan J Teipel, Jianwei Yang, Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Jianping Jia
Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Edward D Plowey, Jennifer L Ziskin
Whereas early Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and mild cognitive impairment are relatively common in aging, accurate prediction of patients that will progress to dementia requires new biomarkers. Recently, substantial work has focused on phospho-tau/MAPT (p-MAPT) neuropathology since its regional propagation correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in AD suggest that increased diffusion in the fornix secondary to p-MAPT-related axonal injury could serve as a predictive biomarker of the risk of disease progression...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Jan Willem van Dalen, Matthan W A Caan, Willem A van Gool, Edo Richard
This study aims to evaluate the relation between a cluster of neuropsychiatric symptoms related to cholinergic deficiency and degradation of the cortical cholinergic projections which project from the nucleus basalis of Meynert to the cerebral cortex. An atlas of the pathway from the nucleus basalis to the cortex (NbM cortical pathway) was constructed using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography in 87 memory clinic patients. Structural degradation was considered to be represented by lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD)...
October 27, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Salvatore Torrisi, Camilla L Nord, Nicholas L Balderston, Jonathan P Roiser, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
Jianjun Hui, Gaifeng Feng, Caifeng Zheng, Hui Jin, Ning Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder that gradually destroys memory and cognitive abilities in the elderly, makes a huge emotional and economic burden on the patients and their families. The presence of senile plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain are two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Maternal separation (MS) is an animal paradigm designed to make early life stress. Studies on wild type rodents showed that MS could induce AD-like cognitive deficit and pathological changes...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Bettina Maria Foidl, Patricia Do-Dinh, Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Harald R Bliem, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, Tau pathology and dysfunction of the cholinergic system causing memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) anxiety and cognition, (2) Aβ plaque deposition and (3) degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and cortical cholinergic innervation in an Alzheimer mouse model (APP_SweDI; overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q, and Iowa D694N mutations)...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who appeared to show recovery of an injured anterior cingulum via an aberrant neural tract between an injured cingulum and the basalis nucleus of Meynert following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS: A 47-year-old male who had suffered a pedestrian traffic accident underwent conservative management for diffuse traumatic axonal injury. When starting rehabilitation at 6 weeks after onset, evaluation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) could not be performed due to the severity of his cognitive dysfunction...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Laura J Mahady, Sylvia E Perez, Dwaine F Emerich, Lars U Wahlberg, Elliott J Mufson
Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT-immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jose L Cantero, Laszlo Zaborszky, Mercedes Atienza
Extensive research suggests that basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether volume loss of BF cholinergic compartments parallels structural changes of their innervated regions in prodromal AD. To this aim, we have correlated volume of each BF compartment with cortical thickness and hippocampus/amygdala volume in 106 healthy older (HO) adults and 106 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Correlations were limited to regions affected by atrophy in aMCI...
July 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Iván Manuel, Laura Lombardero, Frank M LaFerla, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
Neurochemical alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and a decrease in densities of the M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in areas related to learning and memory. Neuromodulators present in the cholinergic pathways, such as neuropeptides and neurolipids, control these cognitive processes and have become targets of research in order to understand and treat the pathophysiological and clinical stages of the disease. This is the case of the endocannabinoid and galaninergic systems, which have been found to be up-regulated in AD, and could therefore have a neuroprotective role...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Sean J Colloby, Greg J Elder, Riham Rabee, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Several cholinergic nuclei, and in particular the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are localised to the substantia innominata in the basal forebrain. These nuclei provide major cholinergic innervation to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and have an essential role in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate volumetric grey matter (GM) changes in the substantia innominata from structural T1 images in Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and healthy older participants using voxel-based morphometry...
June 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Chelsea T Tiernan, Stephen D Ginsberg, Angela L Guillozet-Bongaarts, Sarah M Ward, Bin He, Nicholas M Kanaan, Elliott J Mufson, Lester I Binder, Scott E Counts
Conformational phosphorylation and cleavage events drive the tau protein from a soluble, monomeric state to a relatively insoluble, polymeric state that precipitates the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in projection neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the magnocellular perikarya located in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) complex of the basal forebrain. Whether these structural changes in the tau protein are associated with pathogenic changes at the molecular and cellular level remains undetermined during the onset of AD...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Sarah K B Bick, Emad N Eskandar
Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury...
May 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Florian Lammers, Arian Mobascher, Francesco Musso, Nadim Jon Shah, Tracy Warbrick, Laszlo Zaborszky, Georg Winterer
BACKGROUND: Cortical acetylcholine released from cells in the basal forebrain facilitates cue detection and improves attentional performance. Cholinergic fibres to the cortex originate from the CH4 cell group, sometimes referred to as the Nucleus basalis of Meynert and the Nucleus subputaminalis of Ayala. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of volumes of cholinergic nuclei on attention and executive function. METHODS: The volumes of CH4 and CH4p subregions were measured in a subgroup of 38 subjects (33...
January 2016: Brain and Behavior
Cornelis K Mulder, Yun Dong, Humphrey F Brugghe, Hans A M Timmermans, Wichard Tilstra, Janny Westdijk, Elly van Riet, Harry van Steeg, Peter Hoogerhout, Ulrich L M Eisel
BACKGROUND: Soluble oligomeric (misfolded) species of amyloid-β (Aβ) are the main mediators of toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These oligomers subsequently form aggregates of insoluble fibrils that precipitate as extracellular and perivascular plaques in the brain. Active immunization against Aβ is a promising disease modifying strategy. However, eliciting an immune response against Aβ in general may interfere with its biological function and was shown to cause unwanted side-effects...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Talita H Ferreira-Vieira, Isabella M Guimaraes, Flavia R Silva, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Acetylcholine (ACh) has a crucial role in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is responsible for synthesizing ACh from acetyl-CoA and choline in the cytoplasm and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) uptakes the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Following depolarization, ACh undergoes exocytosis reaching the synaptic cleft, where it can bind its receptors, including muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ACh present at the synaptic cleft is promptly hydrolyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), forming acetate and choline, which is recycled into the presynaptic nerve terminal by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1)...
2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Qiong-Bin Zhu, Unga Unmehopa, Koen Bossers, Yu-Ting Hu, Ronald Verwer, Rawien Balesar, Juan Zhao, Ai-Min Bao, Dick Swaab
The cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is important for memory functions, shows neuronal activation ('up-phase') during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and neurodegeneration ('down-phase') in later stages of Alzheimer's disease. MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) and the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1) were proposed as possible candidate molecules regulating such an up-down activity pattern of the nucleus basalis of Meynert during the course of Alzheimer's disease, as they both show this up-down pattern of expression in the prefrontal cortex during the course of Alzheimer's disease...
March 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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