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Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429645/daytime-sleepiness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is-associated-with-neuronal-depletion-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#1
Koji Kasanuki, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Michael G Heckman, Otto Pedraza, Fadi S Hanna Al-Shaikh, Takayasu Mishima, Nancy N Diehl, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that can occur early in the disease. Cholinergic depletion is known to be severe in DLB, even when dementia severity is mild. The nucleus basalis of Meynert serves as a primary source of cortical acetylcholine, and has a role in facilitating cortical activation and arousal. We sought to determine whether daytime sleepiness at the initial evaluation of patients with DLB was associated with neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert...
February 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427292/intranasal-oxytocin-modulates-neural-functional-connectivity-during-human-social-interaction
#2
James K Rilling, Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398365/the-basal-forebrain-regulates-global-resting-state-fmri-fluctuations
#3
Janita Turchi, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, Brian E Russ, David K Yu, Carlos R Cortes, Ilya E Monosov, Jeff H Duyn, David A Leopold
Patterns of spontaneous brain activity, typically measured in humans at rest with fMRI, are used routinely to assess the brain's functional organization. The mechanisms that generate and coordinate the underlying neural fluctuations are largely unknown. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the principal source of widespread cholinergic and GABAergic projections to the cortex, contributes critically to such activity. We reversibly inactivated two distinct sites of the NBM in macaques while measuring fMRI activity across the brain...
January 31, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378005/tau-oligomer-pathology-in-nucleus-basalis-neurons-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-disease
#4
Chelsea T Tiernan, Elliott J Mufson, Nicholas M Kanaan, Scott E Counts
Although tau is the primary constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), evidence suggests that its toxic moiety is oligomeric in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this regard, tau oligomers correlate more strongly with neuronal loss than NFTs and exhibit neurotoxicity in preclinical AD models. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal progression of oligomeric tau accumulation within the highly vulnerable cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) in AD. Tissue from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or AD was immunostained with the tau oligomeric complex 1 (TOC1) antibody, a marker of tau oligomers, and p75NTR, a cholinergic cell marker...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348191/multi-modal-encoding-of-novelty-reward-and-learning-in-the-primate-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#5
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of non-human primates (NHPs; N=2 males; Macaca mulatta) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. Yet, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338612/gene-profiling-of-nucleus-basalis-tau-containing-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#6
Elliott Jay Mufson, Bin He, Stephen D Ginsberg, Benjamin A Carper, Gayle S Bieler, Fiona C Crawford, Victor E Alverez, Bernard R Huber, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Sylvia E Perez
Military personnel and athletes exposed to traumatic brain injury may develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Brain pathology in CTE includes intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau), the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, we found that cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provide the major cholinergic innervation to the cortex, display an increasing number of NFTs across the pathological stages of CTE...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325047/early-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-degeneration-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
James P Gratwicke, Thomas Foltynie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260798/potential-for-intermittent-stimulation-of-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-to-impact-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
David T Blake, Alvin V Terry, Marc Plagenhoef, Christos Constantinidis, Ruifeng Liu
The brain's cholinergic arousal pathways decline in parallel with the brain's executive functions in aging and Alzheimer's Disease. The frontline and currently most effective approach to treating Alzheimer's disease is the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, which, in a dose dependent manner, improve the symptoms of cognitive decline over the first months of treatment before further decline occurs. We recently showed that intermittent deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert improves working memory function in young adult monkeys, and that this improvement depended on cholinergic function...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228203/in-vivo-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-atrophy-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Nicola J Ray, Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Umar Toseeb, Pablo Mir, George K Kountouriotis, Stefan J Teipel, Michel J Grothe
Cognitive impairments are a prevalent and disabling non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease, but with variable expression and progression. The onset of serious cognitive decline occurs alongside substantial cholinergic denervation, but imprecision of previously available techniques for in vivo measurement of cholinergic degeneration limit their use as predictive cognitive biomarkers. However, recent developments in stereotactic mapping of the cholinergic basal forebrain have been found useful for predicting cognitive decline in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163063/acetylcholine-neuromodulation-in-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-vigilance-control-in-waking-sleep-autism-amnesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Stephen Grossberg
Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh). In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163051/young-human-cholinergic-neurons-respond-to-physiological-regulators-and-improve-cognitive-symptoms-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Annamaria Morelli, Erica Sarchielli, Giulia Guarnieri, Elisabetta Coppi, Daniela Pantano, Paolo Comeglio, Pamela Nardiello, Anna M Pugliese, Lara Ballerini, Rosanna Matucci, Stefano Ambrosini, Giuseppe Castronovo, Rosa Valente, Benedetta Mazzanti, Sandra Bucciantini, Mario Maggi, Fiorella Casamenti, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella B Vannelli
The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the basal forebrain (BF) is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs) in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104777/studying-the-specific-activity-of-the-amide-form-of-hldf-6-peptide-using-the-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
A P Bogachouk, Z I Storozheva, G B Telegin, A S Chernov, A T Proshin, V V Sherstnev, Yu A Zolotarev, V M Lipkin
The neuroprotective and nootropic activities of the amide form (AF) of the HLDF-6 peptide (TGENHR-NH2) were studied in transgenic mice of the B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1de9)85Dbo (Tg+) line (the animal model of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD)). The study was performed in 4 mouse groups: group 1 (study group): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with the peptide at a dose of 250 μg/kg; group 2 (active control): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with normal saline; group 3 (control 1): Tg- mice; and group 4 (control 2): C57Bl/6 mice...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055119/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-attenuates-early-eeg-components-associated-with-defective-sensory-gating-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-a-two-case-study
#13
Stefan Dürschmid, Christoph Reichert, Jens Kuhn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of Acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep Brain Stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD patients by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory relevant circuits...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988547/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-in-people-with-lewy-body-dementia
#14
Hamilton Morrin, Ton Fang, Donald Servant, Dag Aarsland, Anto P Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological interventions for Lewy body dementia (LBD), especially for its non-cognitive symptoms, are limited in their efficacy and tolerability. Clinicians are often uncertain about non-pharmacological interventions and their efficacy in managing cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of LBD. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the existing literature on non-pharmacological interventions for people with LBD. METHODS: We carried out a systematic search using six databases...
October 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#15
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916821/reduced-basal-forebrain-atrophy-progression-in-a-randomized-donepezil-trial-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Enrica Cavedo, Michel J Grothe, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Marie Chupin, Didier Dormont, Marion Houot, Stephane Lehéricy, Stefan Teipel, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy is reported to precede both entorhinal cortex atrophy and memory impairment in AD, challenging the traditional model of the temporal sequence of topographical pathology associated with AD. We studied the effect of one-year Donepezil treatment on the rate of BFCS atrophy in prodromal AD patients using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Donepezil (10 mg/day)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860465/damaged-fiber-tracts-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#17
Dagmar H Hepp, Elisabeth M J Foncke, Henk W Berendse, Thomas M Wassenaar, Kim T E Olde Dubbelink, Henk J Groenewegen, Wilma D J van de Berg, Menno M Schoonheim
Damage to fiber tracts connecting the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) to the cerebral cortex may underlie the development of visual hallucinations (VH) in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to a loss of cholinergic innervation. This was investigated by comparing structural connectivity of the NBM using diffusion tensor imaging in 15 PD patients with VH (PD + VH), 40 PD patients without VH (PD - VH), and 15 age- and gender-matched controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of pathways connecting the NBM to the whole cerebral cortex and of regional NBM fiber tracts were compared between groups...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852204/tub-gene-expression-in-hypothalamus-and-adipose-tissue-and-its-association-with-obesity-in-humans
#18
V J M Nies, D Struik, M G M Wolfs, S S Rensen, E Szalowska, U A Unmehopa, K Fluiter, T P van der Meer, G Hajmousa, W A Buurman, J W Greve, F Rezaee, R Shiri-Sverdlov, R J Vonk, D F Swaab, B H R Wolffenbuttel, J W Jonker, J V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and adiposity. Aside from the function in central nervous system, TUB has also been implicated in energy metabolism in adipose tissue in rodents. We aimed to determine the expression and distribution patterns of TUB in man as well as its potential association with obesity...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835999/glucocerebrosidase-expression-patterns-in-the-non-human-primate-brain
#19
Iria G Dopeso-Reyes, Diego Sucunza, Alberto J Rico, Diego Pignataro, David Marín-Ramos, Elvira Roda, Ana I Rodríguez-Pérez, José L Labandeira-García, José L Lanciego
Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is a lysosomal enzyme encoded by the GBA1 gene. Mutations in GBA1 gene lead to Gaucher's disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GBA1 mutations reduce GCase activity, therefore promoting the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, a common neuropathological finding underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, it is also worth noting that a direct link between GBA1 mutations and alpha-synuclein aggregation indicating cause and effect is still lacking, with limited experimental evidence to date...
August 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807788/adolescent-binge-ethanol-exposure-alters-specific-forebrain-cholinergic-cell-populations-and-leads-to-selective-functional-deficits-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Gina M Fernandez, Lisa M Savage
Adolescence has been identified as a vulnerable developmental time period during which exposure to drugs can have long-lasting, detrimental effects. Although adolescent binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a significant reduction in forebrain cholinergic neurons, EtOH's functional effect on acetylcholine (ACh) release during behavior has yet to be examined. Using an adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure model (AIE), rats were exposed to binge-like levels of EtOH from postnatal days (PD) 25 to 55. Three weeks following the final EtOH exposure, cholinergic functioning was assessed during a spontaneous alternation protocol...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
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