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Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228203/in-vivo-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-atrophy-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Nicola J Ray, Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Umar Toseeb, Pablo Mir, George K Kountouriotis, Stefan J Teipel, Michel J Grothe
Cognitive impairments are a prevalent and disabling non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease, but with variable expression and progression. The onset of serious cognitive decline occurs alongside substantial cholinergic denervation, but imprecision of previously available techniques for in vivo measurement of cholinergic degeneration limit their use as predictive cognitive biomarkers. However, recent developments in stereotactic mapping of the cholinergic basal forebrain have been found useful for predicting cognitive decline in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163063/acetylcholine-neuromodulation-in-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-vigilance-control-in-waking-sleep-autism-amnesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Stephen Grossberg
Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, is a neural model that explains how normal and abnormal brains may learn to categorize and recognize objects and events in a changing world, and how these learned categories may be remembered for a long time. This article uses ART to propose and unify the explanation of diverse data about normal and abnormal modulation of learning and memory by acetylcholine (ACh). In ART, vigilance control determines whether learned categories will be general and abstract, or specific and concrete...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163051/young-human-cholinergic-neurons-respond-to-physiological-regulators-and-improve-cognitive-symptoms-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Annamaria Morelli, Erica Sarchielli, Giulia Guarnieri, Elisabetta Coppi, Daniela Pantano, Paolo Comeglio, Pamela Nardiello, Anna M Pugliese, Lara Ballerini, Rosanna Matucci, Stefano Ambrosini, Giuseppe Castronovo, Rosa Valente, Benedetta Mazzanti, Sandra Bucciantini, Mario Maggi, Fiorella Casamenti, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella B Vannelli
The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the basal forebrain (BF) is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs) in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104777/studying-the-specific-activity-of-the-amide-form-of-hldf-6-peptide-using-the-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
A P Bogachouk, Z I Storozheva, G B Telegin, A S Chernov, A T Proshin, V V Sherstnev, Yu A Zolotarev, V M Lipkin
The neuroprotective and nootropic activities of the amide form (AF) of the HLDF-6 peptide (TGENHR-NH2) were studied in transgenic mice of the B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1de9)85Dbo (Tg+) line (the animal model of familial Alzheimer's disease (AD)). The study was performed in 4 mouse groups: group 1 (study group): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with the peptide at a dose of 250 μg/kg; group 2 (active control): Tg+ mice intranasally injected with normal saline; group 3 (control 1): Tg- mice; and group 4 (control 2): C57Bl/6 mice...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055119/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-attenuates-early-eeg-components-associated-with-defective-sensory-gating-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-a-two-case-study
#5
Stefan Dürschmid, Christoph Reichert, Jens Kuhn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of Acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep Brain Stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD patients by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory relevant circuits...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988547/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-in-people-with-lewy-body-dementia
#6
Hamilton Morrin, Ton Fang, Donald Servant, Dag Aarsland, Anto P Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological interventions for Lewy body dementia (LBD), especially for its non-cognitive symptoms, are limited in their efficacy and tolerability. Clinicians are often uncertain about non-pharmacological interventions and their efficacy in managing cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of LBD. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the existing literature on non-pharmacological interventions for people with LBD. METHODS: We carried out a systematic search using six databases...
October 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#7
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916821/reduced-basal-forebrain-atrophy-progression-in-a-randomized-donepezil-trial-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Enrica Cavedo, Michel J Grothe, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Marie Chupin, Didier Dormont, Marion Houot, Stephane Lehéricy, Stefan Teipel, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy is reported to precede both entorhinal cortex atrophy and memory impairment in AD, challenging the traditional model of the temporal sequence of topographical pathology associated with AD. We studied the effect of one-year Donepezil treatment on the rate of BFCS atrophy in prodromal AD patients using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Donepezil (10 mg/day)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860465/damaged-fiber-tracts-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#9
Dagmar H Hepp, Elisabeth M J Foncke, Henk W Berendse, Thomas M Wassenaar, Kim T E Olde Dubbelink, Henk J Groenewegen, Wilma D J van de Berg, Menno M Schoonheim
Damage to fiber tracts connecting the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) to the cerebral cortex may underlie the development of visual hallucinations (VH) in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to a loss of cholinergic innervation. This was investigated by comparing structural connectivity of the NBM using diffusion tensor imaging in 15 PD patients with VH (PD + VH), 40 PD patients without VH (PD - VH), and 15 age- and gender-matched controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of pathways connecting the NBM to the whole cerebral cortex and of regional NBM fiber tracts were compared between groups...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852204/tub-gene-expression-in-hypothalamus-and-adipose-tissue-and-its-association-with-obesity-in-humans
#10
V J M Nies, D Struik, M G M Wolfs, S S Rensen, E Szalowska, U A Unmehopa, K Fluiter, T P van der Meer, G Hajmousa, W A Buurman, J W Greve, F Rezaee, R Shiri-Sverdlov, R J Vonk, D F Swaab, B H R Wolffenbuttel, J W Jonker, J V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and adiposity. Aside from the function in central nervous system, TUB has also been implicated in energy metabolism in adipose tissue in rodents. We aimed to determine the expression and distribution patterns of TUB in man as well as its potential association with obesity...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835999/glucocerebrosidase-expression-patterns-in-the-non-human-primate-brain
#11
Iria G Dopeso-Reyes, Diego Sucunza, Alberto J Rico, Diego Pignataro, David Marín-Ramos, Elvira Roda, Ana I Rodríguez-Pérez, José L Labandeira-García, José L Lanciego
Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is a lysosomal enzyme encoded by the GBA1 gene. Mutations in GBA1 gene lead to Gaucher's disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GBA1 mutations reduce GCase activity, therefore promoting the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, a common neuropathological finding underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, it is also worth noting that a direct link between GBA1 mutations and alpha-synuclein aggregation indicating cause and effect is still lacking, with limited experimental evidence to date...
August 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807788/adolescent-binge-ethanol-exposure-alters-specific-forebrain-cholinergic-cell-populations-and-leads-to-selective-functional-deficits-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Gina M Fernandez, Lisa M Savage
Adolescence has been identified as a vulnerable developmental time period during which exposure to drugs can have long-lasting, detrimental effects. Although adolescent binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a significant reduction in forebrain cholinergic neurons, EtOH's functional effect on acetylcholine (ACh) release during behavior has yet to be examined. Using an adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure model (AIE), rats were exposed to binge-like levels of EtOH from postnatal days (PD) 25 to 55. Three weeks following the final EtOH exposure, cholinergic functioning was assessed during a spontaneous alternation protocol...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709847/topographical-projections-from-the-nucleus-basalis-magnocellularis-meynert-to-the-frontal-cortex-a-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-study-in-rats
#13
Kazuaki Nagasaka, Yumiko Watanabe, Ichiro Takashima
BACKGROUND: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis/Meynert (NBM) has been explored as a new target for deep brain stimulation for neurological disorders. Although anatomical studies suggest the existence of cholinergic topographical projections of the NBM, it is still unknown whether NBM subregions differentially activate the frontal cortex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topography between the NBM and frontal cortex. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied to the anterior and posterior sites of the NBM in rats, and the evoked frontal activity was investigated using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging...
September 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656644/activation-of-gsk-3-disrupts-cholinergic-homoeostasis-in-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-and-frontal-cortex-of-rats
#14
Yue Wang, Qing Tian, En-Jie Liu, Li Zhao, Jie Song, Xin-An Liu, Qing-Guo Ren, Xia Jiang, Juan Zeng, Yu-Tao Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
The cholinergic impairment is an early marker in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while the mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated here the effects of glycogen synthase kinse-3 (GSK-3) activation on the cholinergic homoeostasis in nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and frontal cortex, the cholinergic enriched regions. We activated GSK-3 by lateral ventricular infusion of wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX), the inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC), respectively, and significantly decreased the acetylcholine (ACh) level via inhibiting choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) rather than regulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653404/neuroanatomical-characteristics-associated-with-response-to-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Juan Carlos Baldermann, Katja Hardenacke, Xiaochen Hu, Phillip Köster, Andreas Horn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Karl Zilles, Volker Sturm, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Frank Jessen, David Maintz, Jens Kuhn
OBJECTIVES: First reports on the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) showed feasibility and safety of the intervention in patients with Alzheimer´s disease. However, clinical effects vary and the mechanisms of actions are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize neuroimaging changes that are associated with the responsiveness to the treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined preoperative T1-weighted MR images of ten patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with DBS of the NBM and correlated the clinical outcome with volumetric differences of cortical thickness...
June 27, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651750/reduced-orexin-immunoreactivity-in-perry-syndrome-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Takayasu Mishima, Koji Kasanuki, Shunsuke Koga, Monica Castanedes-Casey, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Yoshio Tsuboi, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Orexin is a neuropeptide that plays a key role in maintaining a state of arousal, and possibly associates with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Reduced orexin immunoreactivity has been reported in various neurologic conditions such as narcolepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease and multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, there has been no report investigating orexin in Perry syndrome, a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by four clinical cardinal signs (parkinsonism, depression/apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation)...
September 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491038/yokukansan-and-yokukansankachimpihange-ameliorate-aggressive-behaviors-in-rats-with-cholinergic-degeneration-in-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#17
Masahiro Tabuchi, Keita Mizuno, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Tomohisa Hattori, Yoshio Kase
Yokukansan (YKS) and yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH) are traditional Japanese Kampo medicines. The latter comprises YKS along with the medicinal herbs Citrus unshiu peel and Pinellia tuber. Both of these Kampo medicines are indicated for the treatment of night crying and irritability in children and for neurosis and insomnia in adults. In recent clinical trials, YKS exhibited ameliorative effects on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, such as aggressiveness, excitement, and irritability. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the involvement of cholinergic degeneration in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the development of aggressiveness in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436389/ethical-considerations-for-deep-brain-stimulation-trials-in-patients-with-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
John Noel M Viaña, Merlin Bittlinger, Frederic Gilbert
Several studies of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the fornix or the nucleus basalis of Meynert have been recently conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease, with several recruiting participants <65 and thus have early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Although EOAD accounts for less than 5.5% of AD cases, ethical considerations must still be made when performing DBS trials including these participants since a portion of people with EOAD, especially those possessing autosomal-dominant mutations, have an atypical and more aggressive disease progression...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289381/white-matter-damage-in-the-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-cognitive-impairment-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-no-dementia
#19
Qing Liu, Zude Zhu, Stefan J Teipel, Jianwei Yang, Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Jianping Jia
Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#20
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
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