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Nucleus Basalis of Meynert

E V Aleksandrova, A V Oshorov, A A Sychev, A A Polupan, N E Zakharova, K K Kryukova, A I Batalov, I A Savin, A D Kravchuk, A A Potapov
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (ACBF) is a system of mechanisms for maintaining stable adequate perfusion of the brain despite changes in systemic arterial pressure. In recent years, new data on the numerous metabolic and systemic mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation have been obtained, but the role of neurogenic regulation has not yet been fully understood and, therefore, not considered in clinical practice. AIM: The study aim was to assess the effect of anatomical injuries to deep brain structures on the extent and duration of ACBF abnormalities in a model of severe diffuse axonal injury (DAI)...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Heidi I L Jacobs, Lisa Müller-Ehrenberg, Nikos Priovoulos, Alard Roebroeck
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays a crucial role in modulating several higher order cognitive functions via its widespread projections to the entire brain. We set out to investigate the hypothesis that LC functional connectivity (FC) may fluctuate nonlinearly with age and explored its relation to memory function. To that end, 49 cognitively healthy individuals (19-74 years) underwent ultra high-resolution 7T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing. FC patterns from the LC to regions of the isodendritic core network and cortical regions were examined using region of interest-to-region of interest analyses...
May 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Qing Lv, Ailian Du, Wenshi Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Gailing Liu, Xiao Ping Wang
Damage to memory circuits may lead to dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a novel means of memory neuromodulation when critical nodes in the memory circuit are targeted, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and fornix. Potential memory improvements have been observed after DBS in patients with AD and PDD. DBS for the treatment of AD and PDD may be feasible and safe, but it is still preliminary...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Giacobini Ezio, Pepeu Giancarlo
This review has two aims. First, to examine whether or not sex and gender may influence the brain cholinergic system in animals and in humans. Second, to examine the available evidence of sexually dimorphic response to the therapeutic and toxic effects of cholinesterase inhibitors. Animal research reveals no marked difference in the general morphology of the brain cholinergic system but subtle functional gender differences have been reported. In humans, gender differences in nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) exist...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Chelsea T Tiernan, Stephen D Ginsberg, Bin He, Sarah M Ward, Angela L Guillozet-Bongaarts, Nicholas M Kanaan, Elliott J Mufson, Scott E Counts
Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) regulate attentional and memory function and are exquisitely prone to tau pathology and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). nbM neurons require the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), its cognate receptor TrkA, and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR for their maintenance and survival. Additionally, nbM neuronal activity and cholinergic tone are regulated by the expression of nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) acetylcholine receptors as well as receptors modulating glutamatergic and catecholaminergic afferent signaling...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Thomas Foltynie, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Diego de Castro Dos Santos, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Rubens Gisbert Cury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Ruifeng Liu, Jonathan Crawford, Patrick M Callahan, Alvin V Terry, Christos Constantinidis, David T Blake
Sustained attention is essential in important behaviors in daily life. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by a compromised ability to sustain attention, making this cognitive domain an important therapeutic target. In this study, we tested a novel method of improving sustained attention. Monkeys were engaged in a continuous performance task (CPT) while the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NB), the main source of cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, was stimulated. Intermittent NB stimulation improved the animals' performance by increasing the hit rate and decreasing the false alarm rate...
April 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jonathan Schulz, Gennaro Pagano, Juan Alberto Fernández Bonfante, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Currently, no reliable predictors of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease exist. We hypothesized that microstructural changes at grey matter T1-weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the cholinergic system nuclei and associated limbic pathways underlie cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We performed a cross-sectional comparison between patients with Parkinson's disease with and without cognitive impairment. We also performed a longitudinal 36-month follow-up study of cognitively intact Parkinson's disease patients, comparing patients who remained cognitively intact to those who developed cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
George Andrew Reid, Changiz Geula, Sultan Darvesh
The basal forebrain (BFB) cholinergic neurotransmitter system is important in a number of brain functions including attention, memory and the sleep-wake cycle. The size of this region has been linked to the increase in encephalization of the brain in a number of species. Cetaceans, particularly those belonging to the family delphinidae, have a relatively large brain compared to its body size and it is expected that the cholinergic BFB in the dolphin would be a prominent feature. However, this has not yet been explored in detail...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Michael S Rafii, Mark H Tuszynski, Ronald G Thomas, David Barba, James B Brewer, Robert A Rissman, Joao Siffert, Paul S Aisen
Importance: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic factor that prevents the death and augments the functional state of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, a cell population that undergoes extensive degeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective: To determine whether stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 2)-nerve growth factor (AAV2-NGF) are well tolerated and exhibit preliminary evidence of impact on cognitive decline in mild to moderate AD-associated dementia...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Majed Aldehri, Yasin Temel, Ibrahim Alnaami, Ali Jahanshahi, Sarah Hescham
Background: Dementia is among the leading causes of severe and long-term disability worldwide, decreasing the quality of life of individuals and families. Moreover, it induces an enormous economic burden on societies. The most prevalent cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because current treatment options for AD are limited, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been considered. Methods: The aim of this review is to survey the current understanding regarding the effects of DBS in AD and possibly shed light on the mechanisms of DBS in AD...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Tracy Butler, Patrick Harvey, Anup Deshpande, Emily Tanzi, Yi Li, Wai Tsui, Caroline Silver, Esther Fischer, Xiuyuan Wang, Jingyun Chen, Henry Rusinek, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Ricardo S Osorio, Lidia Glodzik, Mony J de Leon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to be associated with loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, located in the posterior basal forebrain. Structural changes of septal nuclei, located in the anterior basal forebrain, have not been well studied in AD. Using a validated algorithm, we manually traced septal nuclei on high-resolution coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 40 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, 89 healthy controls, and 18 subjects who were cognitively normal at the time of MRI but went on to develop AD an average of 2...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ross D Markello, R Nathan Spreng, Wen-Ming Luh, Adam K Anderson, Eve De Rosa
The basal forebrain (BF) is poised to play an important neuromodulatory role in brain regions important to cognition due to its broad projections and complex neurochemistry. While significant in vivo work has been done to elaborate BF function in nonhuman rodents and primates, comparatively limited work has examined the in vivo function of the human BF. In the current study we used multi-echo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from 100 young adults (18-34 years) to assess the potential segregation of human BF nuclei as well as their associated projections...
June 2018: NeuroImage
Koji Kasanuki, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Michael G Heckman, Otto Pedraza, Fadi S Hanna Al-Shaikh, Takayasu Mishima, Nancy N Diehl, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that can occur early in the disease. Cholinergic depletion is known to be severe in DLB, even when dementia severity is mild. The nucleus basalis of Meynert serves as a primary source of cortical acetylcholine, and has a role in facilitating cortical activation and arousal. We sought to determine whether daytime sleepiness at the initial evaluation of patients with DLB was associated with neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert...
February 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
James K Rilling, Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Janita Turchi, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, Brian E Russ, David K Yu, Carlos R Cortes, Ilya E Monosov, Jeff H Duyn, David A Leopold
Patterns of spontaneous brain activity, typically measured in humans at rest with fMRI, are used routinely to assess the brain's functional organization. The mechanisms that generate and coordinate the underlying neural fluctuations are largely unknown. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the principal source of widespread cholinergic and GABAergic projections to the cortex, contributes critically to such activity. We reversibly inactivated two distinct sites of the NBM in macaques while measuring fMRI activity across the brain...
February 21, 2018: Neuron
Chelsea T Tiernan, Elliott J Mufson, Nicholas M Kanaan, Scott E Counts
Although tau is the primary constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), evidence suggests that its toxic moiety is oligomeric in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this regard, tau oligomers correlate more strongly with neuronal loss than NFTs and exhibit neurotoxicity in preclinical AD models. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal progression of oligomeric tau accumulation within the highly vulnerable cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) in AD. Tissue from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or AD was immunostained with the tau oligomeric complex 1 (TOC1) antibody, a marker of tau oligomers, and p75NTR, a cholinergic cell marker...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of nonhuman primates (NHPs; n = 2 males; Macaca mulatta ) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. However, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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