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Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Laura Skrip, Daniel L Hertenstein, Cameron M Avelis, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Carla Tilchin, Eric O Dumonteil, Alison Galvani
BACKGROUND: The 2020 Sustainable Development goals call for 100% certified interruption or control of the three main forms of Chagas disease transmission in Latin America. However, how much will achieving these goals to varying degrees control Chagas disease; what is the potential impact of missing these goals and if they are achieved, what may be left? METHODS: We developed a compartmental simulation model that represents the triatomine, human host, and non-human host populations and vector-borne, congenital, and transfusional T...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Brian Tilston Smith, Robert W Bryson, William M Mauck, Jaime Chaves, Mark B Robbins, Alexandre Aleixo, John Klicka
The New World avian family Polioptilidae (gnatcatchers and gnatwrens) is distributed from Argentina to Canada and includes 15 species and more than 60 subspecies. No study to date has evaluated phylogenetic relationships within this family and the historical pattern of diversification within the group remains unknown. Moreover, species limits, particularly in widespread taxa that show geographic variation, remain unclear. In this study, we delimited species and estimated phylogenetic relationships using multilocus data for the entire family...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Anne Laure Dalle Ave, David M Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Manuel Schweizer, Yang Liu, Urban Olsson, Hadoram Shirihai, Qin Huang, Paul J Leader, José Luis Copete, Guy M Kirwan, Guoling Chen, Lars Svensson
Species not only responded idiosyncratically to past climate changes, there were also regionally contrasting effects on spatio-temporal diversification patterns. Studies of closely related species appear to be a particularly promising comparative approach to disentangle such regionally differential impacts. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive geographic sampling to investigate the evolutionary history of the Holarctic Sand Martin Riparia riparia and the chiefly Central and East Asian Pale Martin R. diluta...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ave Suija, Pieter van den Boom, Erich Zimmermann, Mikhail P Zhurbenko, Paul Diederich
The lichenicolous taxa currently included in the genus Hainesia were studied based on the nuclear rDNA (18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) genes. The authors found that lichenicolous taxa form a distinct lineage sister to Epiglia gloeocapsae (Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), only distantly related to the type species of Hainesia (Chaetomellaceae, Helotiales). Owing to morphological similarities, the authors include the lichenicolous species into the previously monotypic genus Epithamnolia. A new species, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, is described, several names are reduced into synonymy, and a key to the species of Epithamnolia is provided...
December 13, 2017: Mycologia
Menachem Katz, Francis Corson, Shachar Iwanir, David Biron, Shai Shaham
Glia have been suggested to regulate sleep-like states in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sleep is associated with molting between larval stages. To understand if glia modulate neural circuits driving sleep in C. elegans larvae, we ablated the astrocyte-like CEPsh glia. We found that glia-ablated animals exhibit episodes of immobility preceding sleep, prolonged sleep, molting-independent short-duration locomotory pausing, and delayed development. CEPsh glia ensheath synapses between the sleep-associated ALA neuron and its postsynaptic partner AVE, a major locomotion interneuron...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Camila Costa Schramm, Carolina Silveira Mascarenhas, Silvia Bainy Gastal, Simone Scheer, Gertrud Müller, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Acuariidae nematodes are normally found in the digestive tract of aquatic birds, including Procellariiformes. Were examined Calonectris borealis (n = 4), Diomedea exulans (n = 1), Macronectes giganteus (n = 8), Thalassarche chlororhynchos (n = 5), Thalassarche melanophrys (n = 15), Procellaria aequinoctialis (n = 4), Puffinus gravis (n = 2) and Puffinus puffinus (n = 6), collected on the southern coast of RS, Brazil. A total of 16 birds (35.5%) were parasitized by two species of Acuariidae. Stegophorus diomedeae and Seuratia shipleyi were identified, with prevalences of 26...
March 5, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Kai K Lie, Ole K Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Ivar Rønnestad, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, Alexander J Nederbragt, Sissel Jentoft, Øystein Sæle
BACKGROUND: The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) belongs to a large teleost family containing more than 600 species showing several unique evolutionary traits such as lack of stomach and hermaphroditism. Agastric fish are found throughout the teleost phylogeny, in quite diverse and unrelated lineages, indicating stomach loss has occurred independently multiple times in the course of evolution. By assembling the ballan wrasse genome and transcriptome we aimed to determine the genetic basis for its digestive system function and appetite regulation...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jayeesh Bakshi
Radiation exposure is a limiting factor to work in sensitive environments seen in nuclear power and test reactors, medical isotope production facilities, spent fuel handling, etc. The established choice for high radiation shielding is lead (Pb), which is toxic, heavy, and abidance by RoHS. Concrete, leaded (Pb) bricks are used as construction materials in nuclear facilities, vaults, and hot cells for radioisotope production. Existing transparent shielding such as leaded glass provides minimal shielding attenuation in radiotherapy procedures, which in some cases is not sufficient...
April 2018: Health Physics
Yukine Urano, Kyo Tanoue, Ryoko Matsumoto, Soichiro Kawabe, Tomoyuki Ohashi, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
The beak has independently been evolved accompanied by the edentulism in many tetrapod linages, including extant Testudinata and Aves, and its form and function have been greatly diversified. The beak is formed by beak bones and the overlying keratinous cover, although their profiles are different from each other. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably reconstruct the entire profile of the beak in extinct taxa, whose keratinous tissues are rarely preserved. For elucidation of the morphological relationship between beak bone and overlying keratinous cover, we compared the curvature distribution of the culminal profiles of the upper beak bone and the overlying keratinous cover (rhinotheca) with each other using CT-scan, in 66 extant testudinatan and avian specimens (Aves: 33 genera, 24 families; Testudinata: 12 genera seven families)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Matthew J Stower, Shankar Srinivas
The establishment of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is a fundamental event during early development and marks the start of the process by which the basic body plan is laid down. This axial information determines where gastrulation, that generates and positions cells of the three-germ layers, occurs. A-P patterning requires coordinated interactions between multiple tissues, tight spatiotemporal control of signaling pathways, and the coordination of tissue growth with morphogenetic movements. In the mouse, a specialized population of cells, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) undergoes a migration event critical for correct A-P pattern...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Rafael Kretschmer, Thays Duarte de Oliveira, Ivanete de Oliveira Furo, Fabio Augusto Oliveira Silva, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas
An extensive karyotype variation is found among species belonging to the Columbidae family of birds (Columbiformes), both in diploid number and chromosomal morphology. Although clusters of repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in chromosomal instability, and therefore in chromosomal rearrangements, little is known about their distribution and amount in avian genomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of 11 distinct microsatellite sequences, as well as clusters of 18S rDNA, in nine different Columbidae species, correlating their distribution with the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements...
February 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Diego Silva da Silva, Simone Scheer, Gertrud Muller
Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil...
February 19, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Clive A Slaughter
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail:, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
February 12, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Benilson S Rodrigues, Rafael Kretschmer, Ricardo J Gunski, Analia D V Garnero, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo H C de Oliveira
Tyrannidae is the largest family of Passeriformes in the Neotropical region. However, despite an interesting chromosomal diversity, there are only few cytogenetic studies of this family, and most of these are based on conventional cytogenetics. Hence, we analyzed here the chromosomal diversity and karyotypical evolution of this group by chromosome painting in 3 different species - Pitangus sulphuratus, Serpophaga subcristata, and Satrapa icterophrys - and make comparisons with previous data. In addition to chromosome painting with Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) probes, karyotypes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, and FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes...
February 21, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
María Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, Vicente Javier Prado-Gascó
BACKGROUND: Patient communication is a key skill for nurses involved in clinical care. Its measurement is a complex phenomenon that can be addressed through attitude evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To develop and psychometrically test a measure of nurses' attitudes towards communication with patients (ACO), to study the relationship between these dimensions, and to analyse nursing attitudes. DESIGN: To develop and psychometrically test the ACO questionnaire...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry, Nathalie Seddon, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Santiago Claramunt, Glenn Fairbanks Seeholzer, Robb Thomas Brumfield, Joseph Andrew Tobias
Environmental differences influence the evolutionary divergence of mating signals through selection acting either directly on signal transmission ("sensory drive") or because morphological adaptation to different foraging niches causes divergence in "magic traits" associated with signal production, thus indirectly driving signal evolution. Sensory drive and magic traits both contribute to variation in signal structure, yet we have limited understanding of the relative role of these direct and indirect processes during signal evolution...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yangjing Bai, Jiping Li, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang, Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Most organizations invest in people for training to improve human capital and maximize profitability. Yet it is reported in industry and nursing as well that training effectiveness is constrained because of inadequate transfer of training and the underlying reasons for the transfer problem remain unknown. And there is lack of tool to measure transfer problem. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to evaluate the scores of factors influencing training transfer (FITT) among nursing professionals...
February 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Marc Pirson, André Clippe, Bernard Knoops
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-dependent peroxidases that represent a major antioxidant defense in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic organisms. Among the six vertebrate peroxiredoxin isoforms, peroxiredoxin-5 (PRDX5) appears to be a particular peroxiredoxin, displaying a different catalytic mechanism, as well as a wider substrate specificity and subcellular distribution. In addition, several evolutionary peculiarities, such as loss of subcellular targeting in certain species, have been reported for this enzyme...
February 8, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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