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Leho Tedersoo, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, Sten Anslan
Second-generation, high-throughput sequencing methods have greatly improved our understanding of the ecology of soil microorganisms, yet the short barcodes (< 500 bp) provide limited taxonomic and phylogenetic information for species discrimination and taxonomic assignment. Here, we utilized the third-generation Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RSII and Sequel instruments to evaluate the suitability of full-length internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcodes and longer rRNA gene amplicons for metabarcoding Fungi, Oomycetes and other eukaryotes in soil samples...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
Andrea Stephenson, Justin W Adams, Mauro Vaccarezza
Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Matthew L Knecht, Ning Wang, April Vassantachart, Rachel Mifflin, Jerry D Slater, Gary Y Yang
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to determine whether a phase or reconstruction of a 10-phase 4 dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scan can be used as the primary planning scan for proton treatment of the pancreas, thus eliminating the need for second a slow CT or free breathing CT. METHODS: Ten patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were simulated with 4D CT and a proton treatment plan generated based upon one of three primary planning scans, the T0 phase, T50 phase or average reconstruction...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Nirmala Ganji, Vijay Kumar Chityala, Pradeep Kumar Marri, Rambabu Aveli, Vamsikrishna Narendrula, Sreenu Daravath, Shivaraj
Two new series of binary metal complexes [M(L(1))2] and [M(L(2))2] where, M=Cu(II), Ni(II) & Co(II) and L(1)=4-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)benzene-1,3-diol; L(2)=2-((3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-5-methoxyphenol were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, ESI mass, UV-Visible, magnetic moment, ESR, SEM and powder XRD studies. Based on these results, a square planar geometry is assigned for all the metal complexes where the Schiff base acts as uninegatively charged bidentate chelating agent via the hydroxyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Theresa Aves, Katherine S Allan, Daeria Lawson, Robby Nieuwlaat, Joseph Beyene, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
INTRODUCTION: There has been increasing interest in pragmatic trials methodology. As a result, tools such as the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary-2 (PRECIS-2) are being used prospectively to help researchers design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) within the pragmatic-explanatory continuum. There may be value in applying the PRECIS-2 tool retrospectively in a systematic review setting as it could provide important information about how to pool data based on the degree of pragmatism...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
Edwin C Ho, Sheldon Cheskes, Paul Angaran, Laurie J Morrison, Theresa Aves, Cathy Zhan, Dennis T Ko, Paul Dorian
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) for the secondary prevention of sudden death after a cardiac arrest not from a reversible cause, but "real world" implantation rates are not well described. METHODS: Adults with out of hospital cardiac arrest attended by Emergency Medical Services are captured in the Toronto Regional RescuNET database. We analyzed those who survived to hospital discharge and collected data on age, sex, initial rhythm, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on presenting electrocardiogram (ECG), in-hospital revascularization, neurologic status (Modified Rankin Scale [MRS]) at discharge, and admission hospital type...
August 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Claudio Mota-Vargas, Jorge Galindo-González, Octavio R Rojas-Soto
In Mexico, the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is distributed in the mountains of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca; while the Bearded Wood-Partridge (D. barbatus) is distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO). There is a controversial overlap in distribution (sympatry) between these two species (on the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, SMO and Sierra Norte de Oaxaca), based on the ambiguity and current lack of information regarding the distribution of these two species...
2017: PloS One
Clive A Slaughter
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, MCG-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens GA 30606, USA. Tel: (706) 713-2216; Fax: (706) 713-2221; E-mail;, or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.
September 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
C Zhang, G P Yang, Z Li, X N Li, Y Li, J Hu, F Y Zhang, X J Zhang
Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among medical students in China and to provide correct way of application on the recommended scales. Methods: An E-questionnaire was developed and sent to medical students in five different colleges. Students were all active volunteers to accept the testings. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of AUDIT while content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scales...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
D Angst, A Chinsamy, L Steel, J P Hume
The dodo, Raphus cucullatus, a flightless pigeon endemic to Mauritius, became extinct during the 17(th) century due to anthropogenic activities. Although it was contemporaneous with humans for almost a century, little was recorded about its ecology. Here we present new aspects of the life history of the dodo based on our analysis of its bone histology. We propose that the dodo bred around August and that the rapid growth of the chicks enabled them to reach a robust size before the austral summer or cyclone season...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mamta Tripathy, Manisha Priyam, Umesh Rai
Analysis of ovarian transcriptome of Indian wall lizard demonstrates the existence of several bone morphogenetic proteins (bmp1, 2, 3, 3b, 7, 8, 15) and growth/differentiation factors (gdf5, 9) for the first time in reptilian ovary. The characterization of putative full-length/partial protein sequences of BMPs (BMP2, 3, 3b, 7, 15) and GDF9 showed high homology of their TGF-β domain with that of other vertebrates while BMP1 bore homology to zinc-dependent metalloprotease. Phylogenetic analyses showed clustering of BMPs and GDF9 from wall lizards with that of squamates lying in close proximity to chelonia, crocodilia and aves...
August 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Angelo J d'Antonio-Bertagnolli, Matthew J Anderson
Hemispheric laterality and its provision of potential fitness advantages to aves is a widespread topic of research in budgerigars and other parrot species [e.g., Magat, M. & Brown, C. (2009). Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276, 4155-4162]. In the current study, lateral preferences were tracked for 11 captive-reared budgerigars that subsequently underwent 2 cognitive problem-solving tests: a tool-use problem and a dig-discrimination task...
August 22, 2017: Laterality
Hanneke J M Meijer, Rokus Awe Due, Thomas Sutikna, Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Sri Wasisto, Matthew W Tocheri, Gerald Mayr
BACKGROUND: Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day). Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. METHODS: We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8...
2017: PeerJ
Katherine S Allan, Shaunattonie Henry, Theresa Aves, Laura Banfield, J Charles Victor, Paul Dorian, Jeff S Healey, Jason Andrade, Sandra Carroll, Michael McGillion
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia and causes patients considerable burden; symptoms such as palpitations and dyspnoea are common, leading to frequent emergency room visits. Patients with AF report reduced health-related quality of life (HQOL) compared with the general population; thus, treatments focus on the restoration of sinus rhythm to improve symptoms. Catheter ablation (CA) is a primary treatment strategy to treat AF-related burden in select patient populations; however, repeat procedures are often needed, there is a risk of major complications and the procedure is quite costly in comparison to medical therapy...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Michael J Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yizhi Shao, Jinglun Li, Hongliang Chai, Mingwei Xing
DNA and Cell Biology (DNA&CB) is officially retracting the paper by Zhao H, Wang Y, Liu J, Shao Y, Li J, Chai H, Xing M, entitled, "Molecular Characterization and Biological activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)," [Epub ahead of print]; 2017, DOI: 10.1089/dna.2017.3798. The Editor-in-Chief of DNA&CB, Dr. Carol Shoshkes Reiss, was alerted to a discrepancy between the findings in the article by Zhao et al., and those of others, about the absence of expression of ISG15 in chickens. Dr. Reiss requested from the authors a clarification in their observations and inquired about the failure to include relevant citations in the reference section of the paper...
August 7, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
M Knoff, J N Santos, E G Giese, D C Gomes, Â T Silva-Souza
A new species of the genus Diomedenema, a spiruromorph nematode, collected from the lung of Spheniscus magellanicus (Sphenisciformes) found on the southern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described. The new species is differentiated from the only previously described species of the genus, D. diomedeae Johston & Mawson, 1952, by males possessing a set of caudal papillae with three pairs of precloacal, two pairs of adcloacal and one pair of postcloacal papillae; precloacal papillae with the papillae of the first two pairs being closer to each other than those of the third pair; a longer and pointed tail in males; and females with the vulva at mid-body...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
E Bagnato, M Frixione, M C Digiani, F Cremonte
Procyrnea choique n. sp. is described from the lesser rhea, Rhea pennata d´Orbigny (Aves: Rheidae), from the Protected Natural Area Península Valdés, Chubut province, Argentina. The new species resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. excisiformis, P. dollfusi, P. haliasturi, P. anterovulvata, P. graculae, P. brevicaudata, P. uncinipenis, P. javaensis, P. ameerae, P. ornata, P. aegotheles, P. spiralis, P. ruschii and P. aptera, mainly in the absence of lateral alae; but differs from its congeners by having a left spicule without barbs, the position of the vulva which is post-equatorial, the absence of lateral ridges, absent median precloacal papilla, asymmetrical caudal alae, males more than 6 mm long, left spicule 1 mm long and spicule ratio 1:3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Lev Vidmar, Lucas Hackl, Eugenio Bianchi, Marcos Rigol
In a seminal paper [D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1291 (1993)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1291], Page proved that the average entanglement entropy of subsystems of random pure states is S_{ave}≃lnD_{A}-(1/2)D_{A}^{2}/D for 1≪D_{A}≤sqrt[D], where D_{A} and D are the Hilbert space dimensions of the subsystem and the system, respectively. Hence, typical pure states are (nearly) maximally entangled. We develop tools to compute the average entanglement entropy ⟨S⟩ of all eigenstates of quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Piera Filippi, Jenna V Congdon, John Hoang, Daniel L Bowling, Stephan A Reber, Andrius Pašukonis, Marisa Hoeschele, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Bart de Boer, Christopher B Sturdy, Albert Newen, Onur Güntürkün
Writing over a century ago, Darwin hypothesized that vocal expression of emotion dates back to our earliest terrestrial ancestors. If this hypothesis is true, we should expect to find cross-species acoustic universals in emotional vocalizations. Studies suggest that acoustic attributes of aroused vocalizations are shared across many mammalian species, and that humans can use these attributes to infer emotional content. But do these acoustic attributes extend to non-mammalian vertebrates? In this study, we asked human participants to judge the emotional content of vocalizations of nine vertebrate species representing three different biological classes-Amphibia, Reptilia (non-aves and aves) and Mammalia...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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