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Charlie Ave, D Ramaiah Kapa, Eric Ottesen
Background: The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. Methods: All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
G B Olea, M V Aguirre, D M Lombardo
In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations...
May 16, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Stephen A Smith, Joseph W Brown, Joseph F Walker
Phylogenomic datasets have been successfully used to address questions involving evolutionary relationships, patterns of genome structure, signatures of selection, and gene and genome duplications. However, despite the recent explosion in genomic and transcriptomic data, the utility of these data sources for efficient divergence-time inference remains unexamined. Phylogenomic datasets pose two distinct problems for divergence-time estimation: (i) the volume of data makes inference of the entire dataset intractable, and (ii) the extent of underlying topological and rate heterogeneity across genes makes model mis-specification a real concern...
2018: PloS One
Maria Claudia Bernardes Spexoto, Sergio Vicente Serrano, Vanessa Halliday, João Maroco, Andrew Wilcock, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties, along with cross-cultural invariance analysis, of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ). METHOD: Data from 555 United Kingdom (UK) cancer patients were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CASQ. Construct validity was assessed through factorial and convergent validity. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis using as indices the chi-square ratio by degrees of freedom (χ2/df), the comparative fit index (CFI), the goodness of fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)...
May 14, 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Anneli Uusküla, David M Barnes, Mait Raag, Ave Talu, Susan Tross, Don C Des Jarlais
Injection drug use is expanding in numerous regions in the world. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) play an important role encouraging new persons into injecting, by providing injection initiation assistance ("assisting" behaviors) and stimulating interest in injection ("promoting" behaviors). OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of assisting and promoting behaviors, and to identify factors associated with assisting, among PWID in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: In 2016, PWID were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), interviewed, and HIV tested...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tak Kyu Oh, You Hwan Jo, Jae Wook Choi
PURPOSE: Patients receiving palliative care make avoidable emergency department visits (AvED), which may increase economic and social costs. However, the proportion of AvED among all patients, including cancer patients after curation, and the resulting costs are unknown in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the proportion, characteristics, and costs regarding factors associated with AvED among cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the medical records of patients who visited the emergency department (ED) at a tertiary care hospital in Korea in 2016...
May 8, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Hiroshi Doi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Rie Nakashima-Sasaki, Tabito Kino, Lin Chen, Kentaro Arakawa, Sae Teranaka, Shintaro Minegishi, Kaito Abe, Toshiyuki Ishikawa, Teruyasu Sugano, Kouichi Tamura
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness gradually develop before the manifestation of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Therefore, detection and assessment of vascular function are required to address pre-existing pathological conditions. However, the currently available diagnostic devices and methods are insufficient due to variability among investigators and the time-consuming nature of manual procedures. METHODS: Recently, novel devices were developed for the detection of both arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in a single blood pressure measurement using a cuff-oscillometric technique (AVE-1500, Shisei Datum, Japan)...
May 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Meng Yu, Zhigang Guo, Xuchen Wang, Timothy Ian Eglinton, Zineng Yuan, Lei Xing, Hailong Zhang, Meixun Zhao
Aerosol deposition is an important mechanism for the delivery of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) to marginal seas, but OC age characteristics of aerosols are not well constrained and their contributions to sediment OC burial have not been quantified. Total suspended particle samples were collected along the east coast of China at Changdao (CD), Qingdao (QD) and Huaniao Island (HNI), and were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) isotopes (13 C and 14 C) in order to bridge this information gap. TOC δ13 C and Δ14 C values ranged from -23...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Hee Moon, Sung Hye Koh, Sun-Young Park, Ji-Young Hwang, Ji Young Woo
Background The maximum value of the strain ratio (SR) is a newly developed measure in strain-elastography. Purpose To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of three different measures of strain-elastography, the maximum value of the SR (SRmax ), the average value of the SR (SRave ), and the color map, for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions. Material and Methods We obtained the SRmax and SRave of 314 lesions from 290 patients with the tissue to nodule SR and color map using a five-degree scoring system...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Richard J Hill, Peter Kammel, William J Marciano, Alberto Sirlin
Weak capture in muonic hydrogen (μH) as a probe of the chiral properties and nucleon structure predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. A recent determination of the axial-vector charge radius squared, rA 2 (z exp.) = 0.46(22) fm2 , from a model independent z expansion analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering data is employed in conjunction with the MuCap measurement of the singlet muonic hydrogen capture rate, ΛMuCap singlet = 715.6(7.4) s-1 , to update the induced pseudoscalar singlet nucleon coupling: gP MuCap = 8...
May 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Izhar Wallach, Abraham Heifets
Undetected overfitting can occur when there are significant redundancies between training and validation data. We describe AVE, a new measure of training-validation redundancy for ligand-based classification problems that accounts for the similarity amongst inactive molecules as well as active. We investigated seven widely-used benchmarks for virtual screening and classification, and show that the amount of AVE bias strongly correlates with the performance of ligand-based predictive methods irrespective of the predicted property, chemical fingerprint, similarity measure, or previously-applied unbiasing techniques...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Xiang Guo, Ming Tian Wang, Guo Zhi Zhang
The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Na Na Luo, Bake Batur
Based on daily data of 25 meteorological stations in North Xinjiang during 1961-2013, the FAO Penman Monteith equation and crop coefficient method were used to estimate water requirements as well as irrigation water demands of cotton during all growth stages. The results suggested that cotton water requirement in each growth period had been decreasing in the past 53 years. Besides, crop water demand declined most significantly at the blossing and boll forming stage, with change rate of -0.15 mm·a-1 . Furthermore, there were various multiscale cycle changes during the growth period...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ji Kun Xu, Zhen Wen Yu, Yu Shi, Jun Ye Zhao, Xi Zhi Wang, Yu Qiu Wang
A two-year field experiment was conducted in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 wheat growing seasons to study the effects of micro-sprinkling hose length and width on field water condition, and flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics in different sampling districts (D1 to D6 along with the hose laying direction). Six micro-sprinkling hose treatments were set: 60 m (T1 ), 80 m (T2 ) and 100 m (T3 ) lengths under 65 mm width; 60 m (T4 ), 80 m (T5 ) and 100 m (T6 ) lengths under 80 mm width. The results showed that after irrigation at jointing, the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (Cu ) of T1 was significantly higher than T2 and T3 under 65 mm hose width...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Floyd E Hayes, Oscar RodrÍguez, Erika R Thalman, Emily A Castellanos, John Sterling
The Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis Conover is endemic to the Chaco of western Paraguay. Originally described as a subspecies of the Spotted Nothura N. maculosa (Temminck), it has been regarded by many authorities as a distinct species based on alleged sympatry with N. maculosa. However, an earlier study revealed no differences in cytochrome b sequences between the two taxa. We reanalyzed the geographic distribution and morphological variation of N. chacoensis and N. maculosa in western Paraguay based on museum specimens...
March 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Ricardo L Palma
Alexander (1954: 489) recorded a petrel (Aves: Procellariiformes) captured alive on board a ship in the Indian Ocean by Mr W.W.A. Phillips who, after removing some lice, liberated it the following morning. Alexander (1954) identified that petrel as the species "Pterodroma aterrima Bonaparte", now placed in the genus Pseudobulweria. The lice were kept in the collection of the then British Museum (Natural History), now the Natural History Museum, London, England. Jouanin (1955) published a new species of petrel from the Indian Ocean as Bulweria fallax...
April 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Oona M Takano, David W Steadman
We describe a late Pleistocene species of extinct rail, Rallus gracilipes n. sp., from Sawmill Sink blue hole on Abaco Island, Little Bahama Bank, The Bahamas. The only other extinct rail known from any Bahamian island is the smaller Rallus cyanocavi, also from late Pleistocene contexts at Sawmill Sink. No fossils of R. gracilipes or R. cyanocavi have been found in Holocene sites on Abaco; the loss of both of these species is likely to be due to changes in climate, habitat, and island area during the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition...
April 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Anthony S Cheke, Julian P Hume
An essential requirement of the current edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) is to designate a holotype or syntypes for a species or subspecies newly described after 1999. Where specimens exist this makes sense (and is indeed essential), but is meaningless when describing a species-group taxon from an old illustration or written account in which specimens were not preserved or even necessarily taken at all. The naming of two species which one or both of us described post-1999 from old accounts without designating types has been singled out as invalid on this basis...
February 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Jiamin Qiu, Wanxia Wang, Shenqiang Hu, Yushi Wang, Wenqiang Sun, Jiwei Hu, Jiwen Wang
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, β, δ (C/EBP α, β, δ) are essential transcriptional factors in regulating adipose development. However, information about their sequence characteristics and functions during adipocyte development still remains scarce in birds. In present study, we found that duck C/EBP α, β, δ differed in their phosphorylation sites and low complexity regions (LCRs) among their orthologs and paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C/EBP α, β, δ had different evolutionary patterns, and each of duck C/EBP α, β, δ was strikingly diverged from orthologs of other Aves...
April 20, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Edwin Scholes, Timothy G Laman
The birds-of-paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) are a quintessential example of elaborate ornamental diversification among animals. Ornamental evolution in the birds-of-paradise is exemplified by the presence of a highly integrated courtship phenotype, which is the whole package of plumage ornaments, behaviors and sounds that each species uses during courtship. Characterizing a species' courtship phenotype is therefore a key part of evolutionary and taxonomic investigation in the group. With its unprecedented transmogrification from bird-like form into something abstract and otherworldly, the courtship phenotype of the Superb Bird-of-Paradise, Lophorina superba, is one of the most remarkable of all...
2018: PeerJ
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