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Afsaneh Yakhforoshha, Mandana Shirazi, Naser Yousefzadeh, Amin Ghanbarnejad, Mohammadali Cheraghi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Seyed Amir Hossein Emami
Introduction: Communication skill (CS) has been regarded as one of the fundamental competencies for medical and other health care professionals. Student's attitude toward learning CS is a key factor in designing educational interventions. The original CSAS, as positive and negative subscales, was developed in the UK; however, there is no scale to measure these attitudes in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristic of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), in an Iranian context and to understand if it is a valid tool to assess attitude toward learning communication skills among health care professionals...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Cedric Thiel, Jin Yang, Brianna Crawley, Priya Krishna, Thomas Murry
BACKGROUND: Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
C Casteleyn, P Cornillie, S Van Cruchten, W Van den Broeck, C Van Ginneken, P Simoens
This work reviews the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds including the chicken and pigeon. Non-exhaustive additional information on other bird species, illustrating the extraordinary diversity in the biological class Aves, can be found in several footnotes. The described anatomical structures are functionally considered in view of avian sound production. In particular, the Syrinx is invaluable. Its most important structures are the Labia and the lateral and medial tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds and songbirds, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Dakota E McCoy, Teresa Feo, Todd Alan Harvey, Richard O Prum
Many studies have shown how pigments and internal nanostructures generate color in nature. External surface structures can also influence appearance, such as by causing multiple scattering of light (structural absorption) to produce a velvety, super black appearance. Here we show that feathers from five species of birds of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) structurally absorb incident light to produce extremely low-reflectance, super black plumages. Directional reflectance of these feathers (0.05-0.31%) approaches that of man-made ultra-absorbent materials...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Christopher C Kyriazis, Bushra Alam, Mark Wjodyla, Shannon Hackett, Peter Hosner, Herman L Mays, Lawrence R Heaney, Sushma Reddy
Molecular phylogenetic approaches have greatly improved our knowledge of the pattern and process of biological diversification across the globe; however, many regions remain poorly documented, even for well-studied vertebrate groups. The Philippine archipelago, one of the least-studied 'biodiversity hotspots', is an ideal natural laboratory for investigating the mechanisms driving diversification in an insular and geologically dynamic setting. We investigated the history and geography of diversification of the Philippine populations of a widespread montane bird, the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana)...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mark N Puttick
Macroevolutionary theory predicts high rates of evolution should occur early in a clade's history as species exploit ecological opportunity. Evidence from the fossil record has shown a high prevalence of early bursts in morphological evolution, but recent work has provided little evidence for early high rates in the evolution of extant clades. Here I test the prevalence of early bursts in extant data using phylogenetic comparative methods. Existing models are extended to allow a shift from a background Brownian motion (BM) process to an early burst process within sub-clades of phylogenies, rather than an early burst being applied to an entire phylogenetic tree...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Lijun Wang, Xiao Xiao, Lin Zhao, Yi Zhang, Jianming Wang, Aiyi Zhou, Jianchao Wang, Qian Wu
BACKGROUND: Incision size plays a critical role in the efficacy of cataract surgery, but the available evidence on ideal incision size is inconsistent. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of coaxial microincisional phacoemulsification surgery (MICS) compared with that of standard-incision phacoemulsification surgery (SICS) in patients with age-related cataracts. METHODS: The Cochrane Library (Wiley Online Library), PubMed, Medline, National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP databases were searched to identify reports of clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing MICS to SICS for the treatment of age-related cataracts...
December 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Isabel B Rodrigues, Jonathan D Adachi, Karen A Beattie, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND: Despite the widely known benefits of exercise and physical activity, adherence rates to these activities are poor. Understanding exercise facilitators, barriers, and preferences may provide an opportunity to personalize exercise prescription and improve adherence. The purpose of this study was to develop the Personalized Exercise Questionnaire (PEQ) to identify these facilitators, barriers, and preferences to exercise in people with osteoporosis. METHODS: This study comprises two phases, instrument design and judgmental evidence...
December 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Caitlin Anderson, India Reiss, Cyrus Zhou, Annie Cho, Haziq Siddiqi, Benjamin Mormann, Cameron M Avelis, Peter Deford, Alan Bergland, Elijah Roberts, James Taylor, Daniel Vasiliauskas, Robert J Johnston
Each individual perceives the world in a unique way, but little is known about the genetic basis of variation in sensory perception. In the fly eye, the random mosaic of color-detecting R7 photoreceptor subtypes is determined by stochastic on/off expression of the transcription factor Spineless (Ss). In a genome-wide association study, we identified a naturally occurring insertion in a regulatory DNA element in ss that lowers the ratio of SsON to SsOFF cells. This change in photoreceptor fates shifts the innate color preference of flies from green to blue...
December 18, 2017: ELife
Ave Minajeva, Marju Kase, Mikk Saretok, Aidi Adamson-Raieste, Sandra Kase, Kristi Niinepuu, Markus Vardja, Toomas Asser, Jana Jaal
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most angiogenic tumor. Nevertheless, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess blood vessel characteristics on survival of GB patients. Surgically excised GB tissues were histologically examined for overall proportion of glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (MP) and the total number of blood vessels. Also, immunohistochemical vascular staining intensities of CD133 and ICAM-1 were determined. Vessel parameters were correlated with patients' overall survival...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
Andrea Morales-Rozo, Elkin A Tenorio, Matthew D Carling, Carlos Daniel Cadena
BACKGROUND: Characterizations of the dynamics of hybrid zones in space and time can give insights about traits and processes important in population divergence and speciation. We characterized a hybrid zone between tanagers in the genus Ramphocelus (Aves, Thraupidae) located in southwestern Colombia. We evaluated whether this hybrid zone originated as a result of secondary contact or of primary differentiation, and described its dynamics across time using spatial analyses of molecular, morphological, and coloration data in combination with paleodistribution modeling...
December 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Paul Smith
The identities of Azara's No. 315 "Ibiyau de cola extraña" and No. 316 "Ibiyau anónimo", and those of Caprimulgus sphenurus Vieillot, 1817 and C. epicurus Vieillot, 1817 which were based upon Azara's descriptions, are elucidated. All are found to refer to the taxon currently known as Little Nightjar Setopagis parvula (Gould, 1837). A hitherto overlooked 20th Century usage of the name C. sphenurus by Bertoni (1900) validates this name, and hence, according to the ICZN code it could be correctly applied to this taxon...
October 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Sergey V Mironov, C Ray Chandler
Eight new species of the feather mite genus Amerodectes Valim and Hernandes, 2010 (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Georgia, USA: Amerodectes cathari sp. n. from Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall) (Turdidae), A. haemorhous sp. n. from Haemorhous mexicanus (Muller, PLS) (Fringillidae), A. helmitheros sp. n. from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin) (Parulidae), A. hribari sp. n. from Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus) (Parulidae), A. hylocichlae sp. n. from Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin) (Turdidae), A...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
Giovanni Nachtigall Maurício, Marcos Ricardo Bornschein
The Brazilian tapaculo Scytalopus speluncae species-group has been the subject of intense taxonomic work in the past 18 years, with six new species being named in that time lapse and other taxonomic problems having been highlighted (Bornschein et al. 1998, 2007; Maurício 2005; Raposo et al. 2006, 2012; Mata et al. 2009; Whitney et al. 2010; Maurício et al. 2010, 2014; Pulido-Santacruz et al. 2016). One of the most persistent of these problems involves the oldest name in this group, S. speluncae (Ménétriès), and the taxa it may represent...
November 20, 2017: Zootaxa
F Gary Stiles, J V Jr Remsen, Jimmy A McGuire
The generic nomenclature of the hummingbirds is unusually complicated. McGuire et al.'s (2014) recent phylogeny of the Trochilidae based on DNA sequence data has greatly clarified relationships within the family but conflicts strongly with the traditional classification of the family at the genus level, especially that of the largest and most recently derived clade, the Trochilini or "emeralds". We recently presented a historical review of this classification and the generic modifications required by the Code of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature...
November 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Leonardo Esteves Lopes
The Long-tailed Reed Finch Donacospiza albifrons of south-central South America is patchily distributed in a variety of open habitats, usually near water. I present a detailed study of morphological variation based on 141 specimens, describing its plumage sequence and presenting notes on its molt and breeding. The Long-tailed Reed Finch shows no sexual dichromatism, but males average longer-winged than females. The species shows three distinct age-related plumages, which are redescribed here. It also shows marked individual variation in plumage and size, also showing marked plumage variation due to feather wear...
October 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Edwin Scholes, Bruce M Beehler, Timothy G Laman
Described from trade-skins of unknown origins, Parotia berlepschi Kleinschmidt, 1897 was the subject of a longstanding ornithological mystery that remained unresolved for well over a century. With few specimens and no known wild population, most taxonomic assessments over the last century have treated P. berlepschi as a subspecies of Parotia carolae Meyer, 1894. Following discovery of its geographical home in 2005, most authorities returned to giving P. berlepschi full species status. However, evidence supporting the delineation of P...
October 10, 2017: Zootaxa
Luke C Campillo, Carl H Oliveros, Frederick H Sheldon, Robert G Moyle
Reduced representation genomic sequencing methods efficiently gather sequence data from thousands of loci throughout the genome. These data can be used to test previous phylogenetic hypotheses produced from limited numbers of mitochondrial and nuclear loci that often reveal intriguing, but conflicting, results. In this paper, we use phylogenomic data to revisit recent molecular phylogenetic work that clarified many taxonomic relationships within spiderhunters, but also questioned the monophyly of this distinctive genus of sunbirds (AVES: Nectariniidae; Arachnothera)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
María Esther Nieto-Blázquez, Alexandre Antonelli, Julissa Roncal
The Caribbean archipelago is a region with an extremely complex geological history and an outstanding plant diversity with high levels of endemism. The aim of this study was to better understand the historical assembly and evolution of endemic seed plant genera in the Caribbean, by first determining divergence times of endemic genera to test whether the hypothesized Greater Antilles and Aves Ridge (GAARlandia) land bridge played a role in the archipelago colonization and second by testing South America as the main colonization source as expected by the position of landmasses and recent evidence of an asymmetrical biotic interchange...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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