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Michael Korenkov
The video-assisted subcutaneous destruction of the sinus tract (VADST) is a novel, minimally-invasive technique for the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD). This is an advancement of the previously described subcutaneous destruction of the sinus tract and the removal of hairs as well as the long-term vessel-loop drainage of the wound channel (DST). Although the first results of this operation seemed to be promising, some of my colleagues felt that the blind approach to this procedure could be its potential "weak point"...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Joseph J Kavolus, David Sia, Hollis G Potter, David E Attarian, Paul F Lachiewicz
BACKGROUND: Surgeon-performed periarticular injections and anesthesiologist-performed femoral nerve or adductor canal blocks with local anesthetic are in common use as part of multimodal pain management regimens for patients undergoing TKA. However, femoral nerve blocks risk causing quadriceps weakness and falls, and anesthesiologist-performed adductor canal blocks are costly in time and resources and may be unreliable. We investigated the feasibility of a surgeon-performed saphenous nerve ("adductor canal") block from within the knee at the time of TKA...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Neng-Min Zhu, Yan-Sheng Xu, Lichun Dai, Yun-Fei Zhang, Guo-Quan Hu
Zerovalent iron (ZVI) is an environmental-friendly reactive reagent for recovering heavy metals. However, the detailed recovery mechanism remains unclear due to a lack of quantitative analysis of recovery products. Herein, microscale ZVI, nanoscale ZVI and Ni/Fe nanoparticles were used to recover Pb(II) in aqueous solution and a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to determine the formed lead species quantitatively. At high initial Pb(II) concentration (500 mg L-1 ), more than 99.5% of Pb(II) was immobilized by Ni/Fe and n-ZVI, whereas m-ZVI caused inferior recovery efficiency (<25%)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Guangming Wang, Jinlu Yu
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subdural hematoma(CSDH) can be treated by a relatively simple burr hole surgery. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurring after surgery for CSDH has been reported as a rare but severe complication. CASE REPORT: An 88-year-old female complained of progressive headache and dizziness for one month. A right fronto-temporo-parietal CSDH with a shift in the midline structures and lateral ventricle compression was shown by computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Satish V Khadilkar, Akash H Chheda
OBJECTIVES: Systematic and quantitative evaluation of the plantar reflex has been infrequently studied in the past and can help assess the vexing variables encountered in its elicitation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of type, pattern and force of stimulation in eliciting an accurate plantar response in patients with pyramidal dysfunction and healthy individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A special instrument was designed to give a predesigned force of stimulus...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Andras Szeitz, Jayesh Kulkarni, Pieter Cullis, Shyh-Dar Li
The solvent-assisted active loading technology (SALT) was developed for encapsulating a water insoluble weak base into the liposomal core in the presence of 5% DMSO. In this study, we further examined the effect of various water miscible solvents in promoting active loading of other types of drugs into liposomes. To achieve complete drug loading, the amount of solvent required must result in complete drug solubilization and membrane permeability enhancement, but must be below the threshold that induces liposomal aggregation or causes bilayer disruption...
March 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Orestis G Andriotis, Sylvia Desissaire, Philipp J Thurner
Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play pivotal role for collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar non-covalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains...
March 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Joseph Michael Dennis, Nicholas A White, Richard Y Liu, Stephen L Buchwald
Due to the low intrinsic acidity of amines, palladium-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling has been plagued continuously by the necessity to employ strong, inorganic, and/or insoluble bases. To surmount the many practical obstacles associated with these reagents, we utilized a commercially available, dialkyl triarylmonophosphine-supported palladium catalyst that facilitates a broad range of C-N coupling reactions in the presence of weak, soluble bases. The mild and general reaction conditions show extraordinary tolerance for even highly base-sensitive functional groups...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
X Zhang, S Tsuruta, S Andonov, D A L Lourenco, R L Sapp, C Wang, I Misztal
Four performance-related traits [growth trait (GROW), feed efficiency trait 1 (FE1) and trait 2 (FE2), and dissection trait (DT)] and 4 categorical traits [mortality (MORT) and 3 disorder traits (DIS1, DIS2, and DIS3)] were analyzed using linear and threshold single- and multi-trait models. Field data included 186,596 records of commercial broilers from Cobb-Vantress, Inc. Average-information restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling-based methods were used to obtain estimates of the (co)variance components, heritabilities, and genetic correlations in a traditional approach using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP)...
February 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Maja Bencun, Olaf Klinke, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Severina Klaus, Ming-Han Tsai, Remy Poirey, Henri-Jacques Delecluse
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome encodes several hundred transcripts. We have used ribosome profiling to characterize viral translation in infected cells and map new translation initiation sites. We show here that EBV transcripts are translated with highly variable efficiency, owing to variable transcription and translation rates, variable ribosome recruitment to the leader region and coverage by monosomes versus polysomes. Some transcripts were hardly translated, others mainly carried monosomes, showed ribosome accumulation in leader regions and most likely represent non-coding RNAs...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
James Iveniuk
Objectives: This article examines the implications of personality traits for social network connectedness in older adulthood, across different social relationships. Methods: This article uses data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally-representative, longitudinal survey of community-dwelling older Americans (N = 2,261). Network characteristics were predicted using Poisson and negative binomial regression (for network size) as well as multilevel identity-linked and ordinal-logit-linked regressions (for tie strength)...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Jamie S McPhee, James Cameron, Thomas Maden-Wilkinson, Mathew Piasecki, Moi Hoon Yap, David A Jones, Hans Degens
The contributions of fibre atrophy, fibre loss, in situ specific force and voluntary activation to weakness in sarcopenia remain unclear. To investigate, forty older (20 women; age 72±4yrs) and 31 younger adults (15 women, age 22±3yrs) completed measurements. The knee extensor maximal voluntary torque (MVC) was measured as well as voluntary activation, patella tendon moment arm length, muscle volume and fascicle architecture to estimate in situ specific force. Fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA), fibre numbers and connective tissue contents were also estimated from vastus lateralis biopsies...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Daniela Di Felice, Yannick J Dappe, César González
A theoretical study of a graphene-like tip used in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is presented. Based on first principles simulations, we have proved the low reactivity of this kind of tip, using a MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; monolayer as the testing sample. Our simulations show that the tip-MoS&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; interaction is mediated through weak van der Waals (vdW) forces. Even on the defective monolayer, the interaction is reduced one order of magnitude with respect to the values obtained using a highly reactive metallic tip...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Farhana Sakloth, S Stevens Negus
Pharmacotherapy to treat stimulant use disorders continues to be an unmet medical need. Some evidence supports both the role of opioids in mediating abuse-related amphetamine effects and the potential utility of opioid antagonists as therapeutic candidates for treating amphetamine abuse. This study used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to evaluate effects of exposure to and termination of naltrexone maintenance on rewarding amphetamine effects in an ICSS procedure in rats. Morphine and cocaine were included as positive and negative controls, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kai Wang, Jian-Bo Xiong, Bin Xia, Qing-Lun Wang, Yu-Zhang Tong, Yue Ma, Zhe-Ming Wang, Song Gao
The five heterometallic formate frameworks [EtA][GaIII FeII (HCOO)6 ] (1; EtA = CH3 CH2 NH3 + ), [DMA][GaIII FeII (HCOO)6 ] (2; DMA = (CH3 )2 NH2 + ), [DEtA][GaIII FeII (HCOO)6 ] (3; DEtA = (CH3 CH2 )2 NH2 + ), [MA][GaIII NiII (HCOO)6 ] (4; MA = CH3 NH3 + ), and [DMA][GaIII NiII (HCOO)6 ] (5) were synthesized through solvothermal methods. Complexes 1-5 are isotructural, and all crystallize in the trigonal P3̅1 c space group. Each metal center is 6-connected, with each HCOO- bridging ligand in an anti-anti mode to build a three-dimensional niccolite-like architecture...
March 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sayan Dutta, Bholanath Maity, D Thirumalai, Debasis Koley
Detailed investigations of the electronic structure and bonding scenario in different carbene-phosphinidenes have been presented using state-of-the-art computational methods (BP86/def2-TZVPP//BP86/def2-SVP). We have endeavored to find the correlation of the calculated31 P chemical shifts with different bonding parameters of compounds to access the relative π-acceptor strengths of the carbenes.31 P chemical shifts exhibit a weak correlation with σ-polarizations of Ccarb -P bonds toward phosphorus; however excellent correlations are obtained in the case of π-polarizations of Ccarb -P bonds toward the carbene carbon (Ccarb ) and NPA charges on phosphorus atoms...
March 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Wenzhuo Wu, Cong Wei, Xiangcheng Lin, Qun Xu
As a promising non-precious metal photoelectrochemical (PEC) catalyst, MoS2 exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and stability, while the weak light absorption efficiency and low photoresponse current limit its practical application. Herein, a facile coassembly approach was proposed to construct the porphyrin-MoS2 composite photoelectrocatalysts. The as-prepared photoelectro-catalysts show significantly enhanced photocurrent response as high as 16 μA cm-2, which is about 2 times higher than that of bare MoS2...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Soujanya Sunkaraneni, Elizabeth A Ludwig, Julie A Passarell, David Blum, Todd Grinnell, Jill Fiedler-Kelly
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily oral antiepileptic drug (AED) indicated for partial-onset seizures (POS). ESL pharmacokinetics (PK) and exposure-response analyses were supported by 2 phase 3 conversion to ESL (1200, 1600 mg) monotherapy studies. The PK model development included 10 phase 1-2 studies (ESL 600-1200 mg daily). Seizure diaries were completed daily; subjects exited if seizures worsened. Exposure-response models were developed for time to study exit, probability of seizure freedom, time to first occurrence of dizziness, headache, and nausea; serum sodium levels were explored...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jan Christian Sievers, Jörg Londong
The knowledge of loads and concentrations is fundamental for the design of graywater treatment units, but the data on the characteristics of graywater and in particular graywater solids are weak. As general design values regarding graywater treatment facilities are not available for Germany, the objective of this article is to elaborate the characteristics of graywater and graywater solids. This paper describes the results of six sampling campaigns carried out on graywater systems in the German cities Berlin, Lübeck and Kiel...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
J H Hu, H Mi, N Wang, H Y Zhu, W Y Guo, S R Zhang, F Shi, Z B Lei, Z-H Liu, R B Jiang
The catalytic activity of metal nanocrystals is mainly tuned through the control of their shapes and sizes. However, the shapes and sizes of many metal nanocrystals are difficult to control and therefore their catalytic activity is hard to tune. Here, we demonstrate another approach, using differently charged surfactants, for tuning the catalytic activity of metal nanocrystals. Au and Pd nanocrystals capped with cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic citrate are chosen to study the effect of surfactant charges on the catalytic activity...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
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