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neonate sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650938/outbreak-caused-by-escherichia-coli-o18-k1-h7-sequence-type-95-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-barcelona-spain
#1
Emma Sáez-López, Jordi Bosch, Maria Dolors Salvia, Dietmar Fernández-Orth, Virginio Cepas, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Jordi Vila, Sara M Soto
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to characterize an outbreak of neonatal sepsis occurring in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from April to August 2013. METHODS: After presentation of the index case, all E. coli isolates from previously hospitalized neonates, health care workers, and neonates admitted to the NICU from April to October 2013 were tested for K1 antigen positivity and epidemiologically compared by pulse-field gel electrophoresis...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647272/outcomes-of-preterm-infants-following-discussions-about-withdrawal-or-withholding-of-life-support
#2
Jennifer James, David Munson, Sara B DeMauro, John C Langer, April R Dworetz, Girija Natarajan, Margarita Bidegain, Christine A Fortney, Ruth Seabrook, Betty R Vohr, Jon E Tyson, Edward F Bell, Brenda B Poindexter, Seetha Shankaran, Rosemary D Higgins, Abhik Das, Barbara J Stoll, Haresh Kirpalani
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of postnatal discussions about withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapy (WWLST), ensuing WWLST, and outcomes of infants surviving such discussions. We hypothesized that such survivors have poor outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective review included registry data from 18 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants born at 22-28 weeks of gestation who survived >12 hours during 2011-2013 were included...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#3
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646960/the-controversial-role-of-breast-milk-in-gbs-late-onset-disease
#4
Petra Zimmermann, Amanda Gwee, Nigel Curtis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most common causes of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis does not play a significant role in reducing the risk of GBS late-onset disease. One of the proposed mechanisms for GBS late-onset disease is infection through contaminated breast milk. Infants in whom breast milk is thought to be the source for GBS late-onset disease are more heavily colonised and reports suggest they have a higher recurrence rate compared to infants with other potential sources...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644358/early-empiric-antibiotic-use-is-associated-with-delayed-feeding-tolerance-in-preterm-infants-a-retrospective-analysis
#5
Francisco E Martinez, Walusa A G Ferri, Clea R Leone, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Ruth Guinsburg, Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Marynéa Silva do Vale, Sergio Tadeu Martins Marba, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Ligia Maria Suppo de Souza Rugolo, José Maria de Andrade Lopes, Manoel A Ribeiro, Renato S Procianoy, José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte, Maria Cândida Ferrarez Bouzada, Daniela Marques de Lima Mota Ferreira, Navantino Alves Filho, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Dulce Maria Toledo Zanardi, Daniela Testoni, Cristina Nunes Dos Santos, Maria Rafaela Conde Gomzález, Paulyne Stadler Venzon, Jaques Belik
The causative factors of neonatal feeding intolerance are poorly understood, but potentially related to clinical practices such as empiric antibiotic usage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early empiric antibiotic exposure negatively affects preterm infants' enteral feeding tolerance. Data from infants without risk factors for sepsis, 500 to 1499 g birth weight and 24 to 34 weeks gestational age were analyzed. The primary outcomes were the empiric antibiotic exposure effects on the infants' total parenteral nutrition usage duration and prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642139/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-review
#6
Dawood Yusef, Tala Shalakhti, Samah Awad, Hana'a Algharaibeh, Wasim Khasawneh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality, especially for preterm newborns. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis in NICU. Therefore, studying the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome caused by MDROs vs. non-MDROs, and identifying risk factors that may predispose patients to sepsis by MDROs are important. METHODS: Episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis (age: 0-90 days) in the NICU at our institution from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#7
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638306/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-preoperative-cefazolin-at-cesarean-section
#8
Stephanie McKenney Groff, Wareef Fallatah, Samuel Yang, Jamie Murphy, Christopher Crutchfield, Mark Marzinke, Joanne Kurtzberg, Carlton K K Lee, Irina Burd, Azadeh Farzin
OBJECTIVES: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis before all cesarean sections (C/S). This recommendation is based on pharmacokinetic studies that include only non-obese patients. We sought to evaluate 1) cefazolin plasma concentrations among obese and non-obese patients after administration of a 2-g cefazolin dose for prevention of surgical wound infections, and 2) whether cefazolin concentration in fetal circulation may be protective against pathogens that cause early onset neonatal sepsis...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634578/neonatal-venous-thromboembolism
#9
REVIEW
Kristina M Haley
Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#10
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633556/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-newborns-born-to-mothers-with-hyperglycemia-%C3%A2-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
K Dulasi Durga, B Adhisivam, G Vidya, B Vishnu Bhat, Bobby Zachariahc, Chand Parkashd
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemic mothers have increased oxidative stress during pregnancy which can adversely affect the outcome in their neonates Objectives: To measure the oxidative stress and DNA damage in newborns born to mothers with hyperglycemia and correlate their immediate outcome with the amount of oxidative stress and DNA damage. METHODS: This prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 3 groups - newborns born to pregestational diabetic mothers (PGDM), gestational diabetic mothers (GDM) and euglycemic mothers with 24 newborns in each...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632837/-conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Alejandra Sandoval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632822/-strategies-to-reduce-infections-and-antibiotic-use-and-its-effects-in-a-neonatal-care-unit
#13
Soledad Urzúa, Marcela Ferrés, Patricia García, Amparo Sánchez, Matías Luco
INTRODUCTION: Late onset sepsis (LOS) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The empirical use of vancomycin and other broad spectrum antibiotics is very frequent and is associated with the emergence of resistant agents, infection by gram-negative bacilli (GNB), fungal infections and increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of 5 intervention protocols designed to reduce infections and promote the rational use of antibiotics (AB) in a single NICU...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631494/a-study-on-preterm-births-during-2013-2015-shiraz-iran
#14
Elham Jaberi, Mirkazemi Roksana
Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality and a substantial portion of neonatal morbidities. The perinatal mortality and morbidity statistics in developing countries are inadequate. In this study, we assessed prevalence and health outcomes of preterm deliveries in tertiary care university hospitals. A retrospective study of hospital records of premature babies born in all the five governmental tertiary care settings during the time interval of 2013-2015 in Shiraz was conducted. Result of this study showed that there was an overall 127...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630687/emerging-antimicrobial-resistance-in-early-and-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#15
Lamiaa Mohsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona M Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly
BACKGROUND: Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629714/-clinical-observation-of-newborns-with-infection-risk-a-safe-practice
#16
Carla Escribano García, María Del Mar Montejo Vicente, Raquel Izquierdo Caballero, Carmen María Samaniego Fernández, Sara Isabel Marín Urueña, María Elena Infante López, Sonia Caserío Carbonero
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset neonatal sepsis refers to an infection which starts during the first 72hours of birth, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific evidence shows that infected infants present with symptoms during the first hours after delivery. There has been a significant decrease in this condition with the implementation of guidelines for its prevention. However, International guidelines still recommend the evaluation of these infants using painful tests...
June 16, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624098/utility-of-neurovascular-imaging-in-acute-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#17
Ishita Siddiq, Derek Armstrong, Ann-Marie Surmava, Nomazulu Dlamini, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Rand Askalan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings and clinically characterize neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) who have abnormal or variable vasculature. STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients with neonatal stroke from 1991 to 2012. We reviewed charts and neuroimaging, including MRA, in neonates with AIS. Clinical data of patients with MRA findings were compared with the control group of neonates with AIS and a normal MRA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622279/hydrogen-sulphide-in-exhaled-gases-from-ventilated-septic-neonates-and-children-a-preliminary-report
#18
Natalie Bee, Ruth White, Andy J Petros
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing interest in hydrogen sulphide as a marker of pathologic conditions or predictors of outcome. We speculate that as hydrogen sulphide is a diffusible molecule, if there is an increase in plasma hydrogen sulphide in sepsis, it may accumulate in the alveolar space and be detected in exhaled gas. "We wished to determine whether we could detect hydrogen sulphide in exhaled gases of ventilated children and neonates and if the levels changed in sepsis." DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619811/full-genome-sequence-of-listeria-monocytogenes-strain-h34-isolated-from-a-newborn-with-sepsis-in-uruguay
#19
Francis Muchaamba, Claudia Guldimann, Taurai Tasara, María Inés Mota, Valeria Braga, Gustavo Varela, Gabriela Algorta, Jochen Klumpp, Marco Jermini, Roger Stephan
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes severe disease mainly in the vulnerable populations of the young, old, pregnant, and immunocompromised. Here, we present the genome sequence of L. monocytogenes H34, a serotype 1/2b, lineage I, sequence type 489 (ST489) strain, isolated from a neonatal sepsis case in Uruguay.
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617764/oropharyngeal-colostrum-administration-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Yuxia Zhang, Futing Ji, Xiaojing Hu, Yun Cao, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed the safety of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on immune system is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin in very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Forty-bedded neonatal ICU in a university children's hospital in the People's Republic of China...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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