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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245144/the-myorobot-a-novel-automated-biomechatronics-system-to-assess-voltage-ca2-biosensors-and-active-passive-biomechanics-in-muscle-and-biomaterials
#1
M Haug, B Reischl, G Prölß, C Pollmann, T Buckert, C Keidel, S Schürmann, M Hock, S Rupitsch, M Heckel, T Pöschel, T Scheibel, C Haynl, L Kiriaev, S I Head, O Friedrich
We engineered an automated biomechatronics system, MyoRobot, for robust objective and versatile assessment of muscle or polymer materials (bio-)mechanics. It covers multiple levels of muscle biosensor assessment, e.g. membrane voltage or contractile apparatus Ca2+ ion responses (force resolution 1µN, 0-10mN for the given sensor; [Ca2+] range ~ 100nM-25µM). It replaces previously tedious manual protocols to obtain exhaustive information on active/passive biomechanical properties across various morphological tissue levels...
December 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244971/developing-antimicrobial-calcium-alginate-fibres-from-neem-and-papaya-leaves-extract
#2
F Hussain, M F Khurshid, R Masood, W Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative approach to developing antimicrobial alginate fibres using plant extracts, such as those from neem and papaya leaves. METHOD: Aqueous leaves extract from neem, papaya and their hybrid combinations were used as solvent to develop sodium alginate fibres. Sodium alginate polymer containing these extracts was extruded in a calcium chloride (CaCl2) bath to develop neem (NE), papaya (PE) and their hybrid combinations-based calcium alginate fibres (H-1 to H-5)...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243316/effect-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-treated-king-grass-silage-on-the-performance-traits-and-serum-metabolites-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#3
A A Shah, X Yuan, R U Khan, T Shao
This study examined the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici-treated silage of King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) on the productive traits and blood biochemistry of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. King grass was ensiled without or with L. plantarum (T1), P. acidilactici (T2) and P. acidilactici + L. plantarum (T3). A total of 72 male NZW rabbits (6 weeks) of similar weight and appearance were housed in groups in metallic cages in a completely randomized design. The performance traits, daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed convention ratio were not affected by the silage treatment...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242653/awake-orotracheal-fibre-optic-intubation-comparison-of-two-different-doses-of-dexmedetomidine-on-intubation-conditions-in-patients-undergoing-cervical-spine-surgery
#4
Jaya Sharma, Shobha Purohit, Sonali Bhatia, Poonam Kalra, Mamta Sharma, Reema Meena
Background and Aims: Awake fibre-optic intubation (AFOI) is an integral part of anaesthetic management of difficult airways. Conscious sedation is essential to assist AFOI. This study compared two different doses of dexmedetomidine in combination with topical spray and airway blocks for awake orotracheal fibre-optic intubation in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery with rigid cervical collar in situ. Methods: A randomized, prospective, comparative study design was conducted in sixty patients divided into two groups: Group (L) (n = 30) patients received low dose of dexmedetomidine (0...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242527/correlates-of-overall-and-central-obesity-in-adults-from-seven-european-countries-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#5
Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Alexander Affleck, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, J Alfredo Martinez, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Eileen R Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Lorraine Brennan, Mike Gibney, George Moschonis, Christina-Paulina Lambrinou, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Julie A Lovegrove, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241046/increase-in-post-activation-potentiation-in-females-following-a-cycling-warmup
#6
Carey L Simpson, Marina M Flatman, Brian D H Kim, Nikita M Bouwmeester, Jennifer M Jakobi
Post activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon in which muscular force is acutely enhanced as a result of prior contractile activity. The net augmentation is dependent upon the intensity of the preceding conditioning contraction influencing calcium release and phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chain. This phenomenon has been recorded after various types of conditioning contractions, however the interaction of a warmup on PAP remains uncertain and whether this differs between males and females requires consideration...
December 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240235/three-dimensional-digital-reconstruction-of-skin-epidermis-and-dermis
#7
P Liu, J-Y Zhu, B Tang, Z-C Hu
This study describes how three-dimensional (3D) human skin tissue is reconstructed, and provides digital anatomical data for the physiological structure of human skin tissue based on large-scale thin serial sections. Human skin samples embedded in paraffin were cut serially into thin sections and then stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Images of serial sections obtained from lighting microscopy were scanned and aligned by the scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. 3D reconstruction of the skin tissue was generated using Mimics software...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#8
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesise that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T-cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardised skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239608/choline-based-amino-acid-ils-collagen-interaction-enunciating-its-role-in-stabilization-destabilization-phenomena
#9
Aafiya Tarannum, Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao, Nishter Nishad Fathima
Given the potential for productive interaction between choline based amino acid ionic liquid (CAAILs) and collagen, we investigated the role of four CAAILs, viz., choline serinate, threoninate, lysinate, phenylalaninate and the changes mediated by them in the structure of collagen at different hierarchical ordering of the same viz., at molecular and fibrillar level. The rheological, dielectric behaviour and the secondary structural changes signify the alteration in triple helical structure of collagen at higher concentration of CAAILs...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236846/neutral-detergent-fibre-in-piglet-diets-digestibility-performance-and-deposition-of-body-nutrients
#10
Rafael C Nepomuceno, Pedro H Watanabe, Ednardo R Freitas, Luiz E DE Carvalho, Emanuela L DE Oliveira, Thalles R Gomes, Germana C Aguiar, Rayssa S Candido, Jordânia L Ferreira, Alini M Veira
A total 120 piglets with an average live weight of 7.00 kg, weaned at 21 days, were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent fibre levels on the digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diets, productive performance, and the composition and rate of deposition of nutrients and energy in the bodies of piglets in the nursery phase. The animals were distributed according to a randomized-block design into five treatments, which consisted of neutral detergent fibre levels, with six replicates and four animals per plot...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236749/transcriptomic-analysis-of-chicken-myozenin-3-regulation-reveals-its-potential-role-in-cell-proliferation
#11
Maosen Ye, Fei Ye, Liutao He, Bin Luo, Fuling Yang, Can Cui, Xiaoling Zhao, Huadong Yin, Diyan Li, Hengyong Xu, Yan Wang, Qing Zhu
Embryonic muscle development and fibre type differentiation has always been a topic of great importance due to its impact on both human health and farm animal financial values. Myozenin3 (Myoz3) is an important candidate gene that may regulate these processes. In the current study, we knocked down and overexpressed Myoz3 in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and chicken myoblasts, then utilized RNA-seq technology to screen genes, pathways and biological processes associated with Myoz3. Multiple differentially expressed genes were identified, including MYH10, MYLK2, NFAM1, MYL4, MYL9, PDZLIM1; those can in turn regulate each other and influence the development of muscle fibres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234031/modelling-of-the-impact-of-universal-added-sugar-reduction-through-food-reformulation
#12
Chris Ho Ching Yeung, Paayal Gohil, Anna M Rangan, Victoria M Flood, Jayashree Arcot, Timothy P Gill, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie
Food reformulation has been suggested to be one of the strategies to reduce population added sugar (AS) intake. This study aims to investigate the untested assumption that a reduction in AS through reformulation will result in a reduction in population intakes of AS and energy. Plausible dietary data from 4,140 respondents of an Australian national nutrition survey were used. Dietary modelling was performed at AS reductions of 10%, 15%, and 25% using four strategies: simple removal of AS or replacement with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), and replacement of AS with NNS and either: polyols, 50% fibres or 50% maltodextrin...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232750/-a-novel-technique-for-the-preparation-of-a-3-or-5-stranded-hamstring-graft-for-individualised-single-bundle-acl-or-pcl-reconstruction
#13
Philip Peter Rößler, Karl-Friedrich Schüttler, Turgay Efe
Objective Development of a preparation technique for hamstring tendons to ensure a maximum of intraoperative flexibility during individualised cruciate ligament surgery. Indications Primary ACL- and PCL-reconstruction as well as cases of later revision. Method Three- or five-stranded grafts can be obtained with the use of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with fiber tape enforcement and use of a conventional femoral cortical suspensory fixation device. Fibre tape and knotting style ensure free motion of the continous loop...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231883/silver-nanoparticles-in-the-lung-toxic-effects-and-focal-accumulation-of-silver-in-remote-organs
#14
Martin Wiemann, Antje Vennemann, Franziska Blaske, Michael Sperling, Uwe Karst
The distribution of silver (Ag) into remote organs secondary to the application of Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NP) to the lung is still incompletely understood and was investigated in the rat with imaging methods. Dose-finding experiments were carried out with 50 nm- or 200 nm-sized polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP)-coated Ag-NP using alveolar macrophages in vitro and female rats, which received Ag-NP via intratracheal instillation. In the main study, we administered 37.5-300 µg per rat lung of the more toxic Ag50-PVP and assessed the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for inflammatory cells, total protein and fibronectin after three and 21 days...
December 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230914/delta-like-4-activates-notch3-to-regulate-self-renewal-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#15
SiewHui Low, Josephine L Barnes, Peter S Zammit, Jonathan R Beauchamp
Notch signalling is essential to maintain skeletal muscle stem cells in quiescence. The precise roles of the different Notch receptors are, however, incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate a role for Notch3 in the self-renewal of muscle stem cells. We found that Notch3 is active in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells, and Notch3 over-expression and knockdown studies in C2C12 and primary satellite cells reveal a role in self-renewal. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is expressed by newly formed myotubes and interaction with this ligand is sufficient to maintain Notch3 activity in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells to prevent activation and progression into the cell cycle...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229988/dietary-habits-and-cooking-methods-could-reduce-avoidable-exposure-to-pcbs-in-maternal-and-cord-sera
#16
Weiwei Jin, Masae Otake, Akifumi Eguchi, Kenichi Sakurai, Hiroko Nakaoka, Masahiro Watanabe, Emiko Todaka, Chisato Mori
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), like other persistent organic pollutants, are accumulating throughout the food chain and pose health threats to humans, especially children and foetuses. There is no protocol for reducing the contamination levels of the PCBs in humans. This study identified food items and cooking methods that reduce serum PCB levels by analysing data collected from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health. The sample size was 194 subjects. Serum PCB levels were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229551/modulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-via-erk-and-stat3-dependent-signalling-are-involved-in-the-response-of-mesothelioma-cells-to-exemestane
#17
Barbara Nuvoli, Emanuela Camera, Arianna Mastrofrancesco, Stefania Briganti, Rossella Galati
Pleural mesothelioma is a deadly form of cancer. The prognosis is extremely poor due to the limited treatment modalities. Uptake of asbestos fibres, the leading cause of mesothelioma, lead to the accumulation of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS). Interestingly, increasing ROS production by using ROS-generating drugs may offer a strategy to selectively trigger cell death. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has previously shown anti-tumor properties in mesothelioma preclinical models suggesting a role of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in the drug response...
December 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229422/split-sciatic-nerve-surgery-a-new-microsurgical-model-in-experimental-nerve-repair
#18
Luigi Schiraldi, Lima Sottaz, Srinivas Madduri, Corrado Campisi, Carlo M Oranges, Wassim Raffoul, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Pietro G di Summa
INTRODUCTION: Sciatic experimental surgery in rat often leads to hindlimb autophagy, with considerable ethical and research issues. In this work, the distal part of the sciatic nerve was split following the natural bifurcation between tibial and peroneal branches, before applying regenerative stem cells in a fibrin conduit on the peroneal segment. The new microsurgical model was tested in terms of animal morbidity and consistency of research outcomes, particularly comparing to the standard total sciatic axotomy procedure...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226548/diffusion-tensor-imaging-determines-three-dimensional-architecture-of-human-cervix-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
J P Nott, E Pervolaraki, A P Benson, E A Bonney, J D Pickering, N Wilkinson, Nab Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the microarchitecture of the cervix using high-resolution diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Leeds, UK. SAMPLE: Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign pathology. METHODS: Ex-vivo DT-MRI measurements were obtained using a 9.4-T Bruker nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer on seven fixed human cervices obtained at hysterectomy...
October 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226509/biomimetic-electrospun-coatings-increase-the-in-vivo-sensitivity-of-implantable-glucose-biosensors
#20
Krishna Burugapalli, Shavini Wijesuriya, Ning Wang, Wenhui Song
In vivo tissue responses and functional efficacy of electrospun membranes based on polyurethane (PU) and gelatin (GE) as biomimetic coatings for implantable glucose biosensors was investigated in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Three electrospun membranes with optimized fibre diameters, pore sizes and permeability, both single PU and co-axial PU-GE fibres and a solvent cast PU film were implanted in rats to evaluate tissue responses. For functional efficacy testing, four sensor variants coated with the above mentioned electrospun membranes as mass-transport limiting and outermost biomimetic coatings were implanted in rats...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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