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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#1
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925899/effect-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-adt-on-bone-health-status-in-men-with-prostate-cancer
#2
Nur Vaizura Mohamad, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Kok Yong Chin
Backgraoung and Objective: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer in men, which causes significant mortality among the patients. Since prostate cancer cells are stimulated by androgen, effective androgen ablation in men is one of the essential strategies in the management of prostate cancer. DISCUSSION: Several treatment options are available for different stages of prostate cancer. Hormone therapy known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first line treatment used to treat advanced prostate cancer...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925410/adiponectin-leptin-and-insulin-in-breast-milk-associations-with-maternal-characteristics-and-infant-body-composition-in-the-first-year-of-life
#3
D Chan, S Goruk, A B Becker, P Subbarao, P J Mandhane, S E Turvey, D Lefebvre, M R Sears, C J Field, M B Azad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding may protect against excessive weight gain during infancy. However, the breast milk components responsible for this effect are unknown. We examined the variation of three breast milk hormones (adiponectin, leptin and insulin) according to maternal characteristics and determined their association with infant body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied a representative subset of 430 breastfed infants in the CHILD birth cohort...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925405/intermittent-energy-restriction-improves-weight-loss-efficiency-in-obese-men-the-matador-study
#4
N M Byrne, A Sainsbury, N A King, A P Hills, R E Wood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924612/water-on-the-surface-of-the-moon-as-seen-by-the-moon-mineralogy-mapper-distribution-abundance-and-origins
#5
Shuai Li, Ralph E Milliken
A new thermal correction model and experimentally validated relationships between absorption strength and water content have been used to construct the first global quantitative maps of lunar surface water derived from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared reflectance data. We find that OH abundance increases as a function of latitude, approaching values of ~500 to 750 parts per million (ppm). Water content also increases with the degree of space weathering, consistent with the preferential retention of water originating from solar wind implantation during agglutinate formation...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924220/towards-addressing-the-body-electrolyte-environment-via-sweat-analysis-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-supports-assessment-of-plasma-potassium-concentration
#6
Donato Vairo, Laurie Bruzzese, Marion Marlinge, Lea Fuster, Nabil Adjriou, Nathalie Kipson, Philippe Brunet, Jennifer Cautela, Yves Jammes, Giovanna Mottola, Stephane Burtey, Jean Ruf, Regis Guieu, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923317/calcified-cartilage-or-bone-collagens-in-the-tessellated-endoskeletons-of-cartilaginous-fish-sharks-and-rays
#7
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Elisabeth-Judith Pechriggl, Kady Lyons, Brian K Hall, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like bone (Coll 1-based) or calcified cartilage in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based "cap" that merges into a lower Coll II-based "body" zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923178/diet-quality-and-osteosarcopenic-obesity-in-community-dwelling-adults-50-years-and-older
#8
Jinhee Kim, Yunhwan Lee, Seunghee Kye, Yoon-Sok Chung, Jae-Hyun Kim, Doukyoung Chon, Kyung Eun Lee
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between diet quality and osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO), low bone and muscle mass with concurrent high fat mass, in middle-aged and older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Data were from a cross-sectional study of 2579 men and 3550 women aged 50 years and older who completed the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected using 24-h dietary recall, and diet quality was determined by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), on which higher scores denote better quality...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922328/minor-salivary-gland-transplantation-for-severe-dry-eyes
#9
Tais Hitomi Wakamatsu, Ana Estela Besteti Pires Ponce SantʼAnna, Priscila Cardoso Cristovam, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Alda Wakamatsu, José Alvaro Pereira Gomes
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease comprising a wide spectrum of ocular surface alterations and symptoms of discomfort. In most patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye, pharmaceutical tear substitutes are used to control symptoms and prevent ocular surface damage. However, in severe dry eye conditions caused by cicatricial disorders, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and ocular cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid, noninvasive treatments are insufficient, and patients are at risk of developing complications that can lead to blindness...
September 15, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922096/the-effects-of-ramadan-fasting-on-body-composition-blood-pressure-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-nafld-patients-an-observational-trial
#10
Fereshteh Aliasghari, Azimeh Izadi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Sara Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease and is a serious global health problem. Regarding the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, finding various strategies to prevent and manage the disease is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of caloric restriction during Ramadan fasting on anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) in patients with NAFLD...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921832/synthesis-and-bioactivity-assessment-of-high-silica-content-quaternary-glasses-with-ca-p-ratios-of-1-5-and-1-67-made-by-a-rapid-sol-gel-process
#11
Basam A E Ben-Arfa, Hugo R Fernandes, Isabel M Miranda Salvado, José M F Ferreira, Robert C Pullar
Sol-gel glasses in quaternary silica-sodium-calcium-phosphorous systems have been synthesised using a rotary evaporator for rapid drying without ageing. This novel fast drying method drastically decreases the total drying and ageing time from several weeks to only 1 hour, thus overcoming a serious drawback in sol-gel preparation procedures for bioglasses. This work investigates the bioactivity behaviour of two glasses synthesised by this fast method, with Ca:P ratios of 1.5, and 1.67. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductive coupled plasma (ICP), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the bioactivity of the synthesised powders...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921743/exercise-training-dose-differentially-alters-muscle-and-heart-capillary-density-and-metabolic-functions-in-an-obese-rat-with-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Marcus Vinicius Machado, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Fabiana Gomes da Conceição, Alessandro Rodrigues Nascimento, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
We evaluated the effect of frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a either standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or 8 different exercise groups that varied by the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, body composition, aerobic capacity, hemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated...
September 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921641/pharmacokinetic-guided-dosing-of-new-oral-cancer-agents
#13
Catherine J Lucas, Jennifer H Martin
Generally, licensed drug-dosing recommendations for chemotherapy are based on results from clinical trials in which subjects are usually of relatively normal body size, middle-aged, and are relatively racially homogeneous, with minimal comorbidity and specific tumor characteristics. Very few nontrial patients meet these characteristics, resulting in clinical practice having to extrapolate dosing recommendations to the specific patient. There is insufficient research on the impact of obesity-associated physiological changes prevalent in patients with common cancers on standard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921453/upper-and-lower-limbs-composition-a-comparison-between-anthropometry-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-healthy-people
#14
Danila Diano, Federico Ponti, Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Michele Amadori, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
The detection of changes in lean mass (LM) distribution can help to prevent disability. This study assessed the degree of association between anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition (BC) parameters of the upper and lower limbs in a healthy general population and collected DXA age- and sex-specific values of BC that can be useful to build a reference standard. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of some widely available anthropometric measurements in the assessment of body composition (BC) at the limbs, especially in terms of muscle mass, in a large sample of healthy subjects of different age bands and sex, using fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) parameters derived by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the gold standard...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920406/evaluation-of-high-nutrient-diets-on-litter-performance-of-heat-stressed-lactating-sows
#15
Yohan Choi, Abdolreza Hosseindoust, Minju Kim, Alip Kumar, Seungmin Oh, Young Hwa Kim, Byung Jo Chae
Objective: The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. Methods: A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; ME, 3300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST + 3% higher energy and 16...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919982/effective-management-of-spasticity-and-impacts-on-weight-change-and-resting-energy-expenditure-in-a-female-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#16
Amy N Nevin, Khanh Nguyen, Sridhar Atresh, Angela Vivanti, Ingrid J Hickman
INTRODUCTION: The impact of muscle spasticity on weight change and energy expenditure after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study reports changes to body weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a 36-year-old female (T3 AIS A SCI; 80 kg; body mass index=28 kg m(-)(2) at injury) requiring escalating therapies to manage severe spasticity. Body weight, spasticity medications and fasted REE (measured using indirect calorimetry, canopy hood) were recorded at 4, 16, 17, 20 and 44 months post injury...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#17
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#18
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919497/body-mass-index-predicts-selected-physical-fitness-attributes-but-is-not-associated-with-performance-on-military-relevant-tasks-in-u-s-army-soldiers
#19
Joseph R Pierce, David W DeGroot, Tyson L Grier, Keith G Hauret, Bradley C Nindl, Whitfield B East, Michael S McGurk, Bruce H Jones
OBJECTIVES: Army body composition standards are based upon validated criteria; however, certain field-expedient methodologies (e.g., weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI]) may disqualify individuals from service who may otherwise excel on physical performance and military-relevant tasks. The purpose was to assess soldier physical performance and military-specific task/fitness performance stratified by BMI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Male (n=275) and female (n=46) soldiers performed a wide-array of physical fitness tests and military-specific tasks, including the Army physical fitness test (APFT)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919001/pharmacological-inhibition-of-aldh1a-enzymes-suppresses-weight-gain-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Michael Haenisch, Piper M Treuting, Thea Brabb, Alex S Goldstein, Kathryn Berkseth, John K Amory, Jisun Paik
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) is known to play a role in weight regulation. Because mice without ALDH1A1, a major RA synthesizing enzyme, are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we tested a hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of RA synthesis can suppress weight gain in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then randomized to a HFD with or without WIN 18,446, an RA synthesis inhibitor, for an additional 9 weeks...
September 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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