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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728405/effect-of-rapeseed-meal-supplementation-to-gestation-diet-on-reproductive-rerformance-blood-profiles-and-milk-composition-of-sows
#1
Hyunbong Choi, Song Shan Jin, Sung Woong Jung, Jae Cheol Jang, Jin Su Hong, Jae Hark Jeong, Y Y Kim
Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood profiles and milk composition of sows and performance of their progeny. Methods: A total of 55 mixed-parity sows (Yorkshire × Landrace; average parity = 3.82) with an initial body weight (BW) of 193.0 kg were used in this experiment. Sows were allotted to one of 5 treatments at breeding based on BW and backfat thickness in a completely randomized design...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728397/effects-of-dietary-valine-lysine-ratio-on-the-performance-amino-acid-composition-of-tissues-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-of-weaned-piglets
#2
Yetong Xu, Xiaokang Ma, Chunli Wang, Mingfeng Yuan, Xiangshu Piao
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 ± 4 days of age (8.79 ± 0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine: lysine ratios of 50, 60, 70 or 80%...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728386/the-relationship-between-odd-and-branched-chain-fatty-acids-and-microbial-nucleic-acid-bases-in-rumen
#3
Keyuan Liu, Xiaoyan Hao, Yang Li, Guobin Luo, Yonggen Zhang, Hangshu Xin
Objective: This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid base in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods: To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows was obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728373/substituting-oat-hay-or-maize-silage-for-portion-of-alfalfa-hay-affects-growth-performance-ruminal-fermentation-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-weaned-calves
#4
Yang Zou, XinPing Zou, XiZhi Li, Gang Guo, Peng Ji, Yan Wang, ShengLi Li, YaJing Wang, ZhiJun Cao
Objective: The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods: Forty-five female Holstein calves (BW = 79.79±0.38 kg) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (DM basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including 1) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); 2) alfalfa hay (26...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727953/fatty-acid-composition-of-plasma-phosphatidylcholine-determines-body-fat-parameters-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-related-traits
#5
Miroslav Zeman, Marek Vecka, Michal Burda, Eva Tvrzická, Barbora Staňková, Jaroslav Macášek, Aleš Žák
BACKGROUND: This study examines the associations of fatty acids (FAs) in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) with the anthropometrical and biochemical characteristic of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related traits. METHODS: We analyzed the FA profiles of PC in 300 persons with MetS-related traits (152 M/148F, mean age 46.9 ± 9.0 years) and in 70 healthy controls of the same age using a balanced men/women ratio and gas-liquid chromatography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine the coefficients of determination (R(2)) using FA proportions of the mentioned proband characteristics...
July 20, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727846/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-versus-mild-intensity-endurance-training-on-metabolic-phenotype-and-corticosterone-response-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-or-control-diet
#6
Youqing Shen, Guoyuan Huang, Bryan P McCormick, Tao Song, Xiangfeng Xu
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727231/nulliparity-is-associated-with-subtle-adverse-metabolic-outcomes-in-overweight-obese-mothers-and-their-offspring
#7
Sumudu N Seneviratne, José G B Derraik, Yannan Jiang, Lesley M E McCowan, Silmara Gusso, Janene B Biggs, Graham K Parry, Valentina Chiavaroli, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate metabolic outcomes in overweight/obese nulliparous and multiparous women and their offspring. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-two overweight and obese women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of exercise in pregnancy were included in the study, comparing 18 nulliparous and 54 multiparous women and their singleton offspring. Women were assessed at 19 and 36 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth was measured using standard obstetric ultrasound techniques...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727165/increased-fibre-and-reduced-trans-fatty-acid-intake-are-primary-predictors-of-metabolic-improvement-in-overweight-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-substudy-of-randomized-trial-between-diet-exercise-and-diet-plus-exercise-for-weight-control
#8
Åsa Nybacka, Per M Hellström, Angelica L Hirschberg
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly affected by obesity. PCOS phenotypes are prone to increased waist/hip ratio, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. This substudy was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lifestyle interventions on metabolic biomarkers in overweight/obese PCOS women, and the interventional effects of dietary components related to metabolic outcomes. DESIGN: Randomized three-arm parallel study. PATIENTS: Fifty-seven PCOS women (BMI >27kg/m(2) , age 18-40) were randomly assigned to diet (D, n=19), exercise (E, n=19) or diet plus exercise (DE, n=19) in three-arm fashion over 16 weeks...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#9
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727039/application-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-assess-rabbit-s-body-composition-from-25-to-77-days-of-age
#10
A Saiz, A I García-Ruiz, J Fuentes-Pila, N Nicodemus
The aim of the study was to develop prediction equations for assessing, in vivo, the whole body composition of growing rabbits. The accuracy of the models obtained was externally validated with independent data sets. One hundred fifty rabbits grouped at 5 different ages (25, 35, 49, 63, and 77 d) were used. A body composition analyzer with 4 terminals was used to obtain resistance (Rs; Ω) and reactance (Xc; Ω) values. The distance between internal electrodes (D; cm), body length (Len; cm), and live BW (g) were also registered...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#11
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727015/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-related-to-bovine-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-the-longissimus-muscle
#12
M Baik, H J Kang, S J Park, S W Na, M Piao, S Y Kim, D M Fassah, Y S Moon
The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726997/body-composition-protein-and-energy-efficiencies-and-requirements-for-growth-of-f1-boer-%C3%A3-saanen-goat-kids
#13
I A M A Teixeira, M H M R Fernandes, J M Pereira Filho, R C Canesin, R A Gomes, K T Resende
We conducted a study in which body composition, energy and protein requirements, and efficiency of MP and ME were determined in F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids of 5 to 25 kg BW by using the comparative slaughter technique. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 estimated the maintenance requirements of kids from 15 to 25 kg BW, and Exp. 2 estimated the gain requirements of kids from 5 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 28 intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids were utilized, with 7 kids slaughtered (BW of 15.0 ± 0.35 kg) at the onset for estimation of initial body composition and the remaining 21 kids assigned to a randomized block design...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726334/insulin-sensitivity-across-the-lifespan-from-obese-adolescents-to-obese-adults-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-who-is-worse-off
#14
Silva Arslanian, Joon Young Kim, Alexis Nasr, Fida Bacha, Hala Tfayli, SoJung Lee, Frederico G S Toledo
OBJECTIVE: Youth type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs decades earlier than adult T2DM and is characterized by high therapeutic failure rates and decreased response to insulin sensitizers suggesting a more severe disease process than in adults. To explain these observations, we hypothesized that insulin resistance is worse in obese youth than adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a state of high-risk for T2DM. As proof-of-concept, we compared insulin sensitivity between BMI-, sex-, and race-matched obese youth vs adults with IGT...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725316/post-prandial-plasma-glucose-less-than-or-equal-to-70-mg-dl-is-not-uncommon-in-young-japanese-women
#15
Ayaka Tsuboi, Mika Takeuchi, Kaori Kitaoka, Satomi Minato, Miki Kurata, Tsutomu Kazumi, Keisuke Fukuo
BACKGROUND: Post-breakfast/post-challenge plasma glucose (PG) concentrations were studied less in young normal weight Japanese women. We addressed these issues. METHODS: Two separate groups of female collegiate athletes and female untrained students underwent either a standardized meal test or a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, but not both. Frequency of women whose post-breakfast/post-load PG fell to 70 mg/dL or lower (termed as low glycemia) was compared between athletes and non-athletes, who also underwent measurements of serum adipokines, markers of insulin resistance and inflammation and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725257/study-protocol-an-investigation-of-mother-infant-signalling-during-breastfeeding-using-a-randomised-trial-to-test-the-effectiveness-of-breastfeeding-relaxation-therapy-on-maternal-psychological-state-breast-milk-production-and-infant-behaviour-and-growth
#16
N H M Shukri, J Wells, F Mukhtar, M H S Lee, M Fewtrell
BACKGROUND: The physiological and psychological signalling between mother and infant during lactation is one of the prominent mother-infant factors that may influence breastfeeding outcomes. The infant can 'signal' his needs through vocalisation, and the mother can respond by allowing or restricting nipple access, which might alter the breast milk composition or volume. This may lead to parent-offspring conflict during the lactation period. Challenging infant behaviour has also been associated with maternal psychological distress, which might affect breastfeeding performance...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724846/metabolic-and-inflammatory-changes-with-orlistat-and-sibutramine-treatment-in-obese-malaysian-subjects
#17
Belqes Abdullah Mohammad Al-Tahami, Ab Aziz Al-Safi Ismail, Zulkefli Sanip, Zurkurnai Yusoff, Tg Muzaffar Tm Shihabudin, Taran Singh Pall Singh, Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with numerous health problems, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the effects that, nine months of pharmacological intervention with orlistat or sibutramine, on obese Malaysians' body weight and compositions, metabolic profiles and inflammatory marker. METHODS: Seventy-six obese subjects were randomly placed into two groups. The first group received three daily 120 mg dosages of orlistat for nine months (n=39), and the second group received a once daily 10 or 15 mg dosage of sibutramine for nine months (n=37)...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724687/direct-and-trans-generational-effects-of-male-and-female-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724628/stiffness-distribution-in-insect-cuticle-a-continuous-or-a-discontinuous-profile
#19
H Rajabi, M Jafarpour, A Darvizeh, J-H Dirks, S N Gorb
Insect cuticle is a biological composite with a high degree of complexity in terms of both architecture and material composition. Given the complex morphology of many insect body parts, finite-element (FE) models play an important role in the analysis and interpretation of biomechanical measurements, taken by either macroscopic or nanoscopic techniques. Many previous studies show that the interpretation of nanoindentation measurements of this layered composite material is very challenging. To develop accurate FE models, it is of particular interest to understand more about the variations in the stiffness through the thickness of the cuticle...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724570/childhood-thyroid-function-body-composition-and-cardiovascular-function
#20
Mirjana Barjaktarovic, Tim Korevaar, Romy Gaillard, Yolanda B de Rijke, Theo J Visser, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Robin P Peeters
OBJECTIVE: The cardiovascular system is a known target for thyroid hormone. Early-life cardiovascular alterations may lead to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Little is known about the effects of thyroid hormone on cardiovascular function during childhood, including the role of body composition in this association. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort of children (N=4251, median age 6 years, 95% range 5.7-8.0 years). METHODS: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were measured to assess thyroid function...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
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