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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647284/the-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-muscle-size-and-quality-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#1
Malia N M Blue, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646476/the-relationship-between-circulating-adiponectin-leptin-and-vaspin-with-bone-mineral-density-bmd-arterial-calcification-and-stiffness-a-cross-sectional-study-in-post-menopausal-women
#2
N Tanna, K Patel, A E Moore, D Dulnoan, S Edwards, G Hampson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between circulating adiponectin, leptin and vaspin with bone mineral density (BMD), arterial stiffness and vascular calcification in post-menopausal women. We hypothesised that adipokines produced by adipose tissue may be mediators of bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and explain, in part, the observed association between osteoporosis and CVD. DESIGN: We studied 386 ambulant community dwelling postmenopausal women aged (mean [SD] 61 [6...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646338/chemotherapy-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity-is-associated-with-changes-in-serum-and-urine-metabolome-and-fecal-microbiota-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Richard A Forsgård, Vannina G Marrachelli, Katri Korpela, Rafael Frias, Maria Carmen Collado, Riitta Korpela, Daniel Monleon, Thomas Spillmann, Pia Österlund
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity (CIGT) is a complex process that involves multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. We have previously shown that commonly used chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan damage the intestinal mucosa and increase intestinal permeability to iohexol. We hypothesized that CIGT is associated with alterations in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Our aim was to characterize these changes and examine how they relate to the severity of CIGT...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646200/mesenchymal-stem-cells-secretome-induced-axonal-outgrowth-is-mediated-by-bdnf
#4
Luís F Martins, Rui O Costa, Joana R Pedro, Paulo Aguiar, Sofia C Serra, Fabio G Teixeira, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado, Ramiro D Almeida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, with increasing importance in central and peripheral nervous system repair. However, MSCs grafting present disadvantages, such as, a high number of cells required for transplantation and low survival rate when transplanted into the central nervous system (CNS). In line with this, MSCs secretome which present on its composition a wide range of molecules (neurotrophins, cytokines) and microvesicles, can be a solution to surpass these problems...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646101/serum-androgen-profile-and-physical-performance-in-women-olympic-athletes
#5
Emma Eklund, Bo Berglund, Fernand Labrie, Kjell Carlström, Lena Ekström, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
BACKGROUND: The role of endogenous androgens for body composition and physical performance in women athletes is still not elucidated. AIM: To examine the serum androgen profile in relation to body composition and physical performance in women Olympic athletes and to compare endocrine variables and body composition to controls. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, conducted between 2011 and 2015 at the Women's Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645949/double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-independent-and-synergistic-effect-of-spirulina-maxima-with-exercise-isese-on-general-fitness-lipid-profile-and-redox-status-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-study-protocol
#6
Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, José Alberto López-Díaz, Laura Alejandra de la Rosa, Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Marco Antonio Juarez-Oropeza, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#7
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645662/development-of-a-3d-printable-maxillofacial-silicone-part-ii-optimization-of-moderator-and-thixotropic-agent
#8
Swati K Jindal, Martyn Sherriff, Mark G Waters, James E Smay, Trevor J Coward
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Conventionally, maxillofacial prostheses are fabricated by hand carving the missing anatomic defect in wax and creating a mold into which pigmented silicone elastomer is placed. Digital technologies such as computer numerical control milling and 3-dimensional (3D) printing have been used to prepare molds, directly or indirectly, into which a biocompatible pigmented silicone elastomer can be placed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a silicone elastomer that could be 3D printed directly without a mold to create facial or body prostheses by varying its composition...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#9
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644883/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-high-concentrations-of-crude-glycerin-on-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-feedlot-fed-nellore-bulls
#10
Eric H C B van Cleef, André P D'Áurea, Vanessa R Fávaro, Flavia O S van Cleef, Robson S Barducci, Marco T C Almeida, Otávio R Machado Neto, Jane M B Ezequiel
Crude glycerin, the main by-product of biodiesel production, can replace dietary energy sources, such as corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% of crude glycerin in dry matter (DM) of the total diets, and its effects on meat quality parameters of feedlot Nellore bulls. Thirty animals (227.7 ± 23.8 kg body weight; 18 months old) were housed in individual pens and fed 5 experimental diets, containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30% crude glycerin (DM basis). After 103 d (21 d adaptation) animals were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644742/new-legal-requirements-for-submission-of-product-information-to-poisons-centres-in-eu-member-states
#11
Ronald de Groot, Pieter Brekelmans, Herbert Desel, Irma de Vries
In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644562/efficacy-of-ipragliflozin-as-monotherapy-or-as-add-on-therapy-with-other-oral-antidiabetic-medications-in-treating-type-2-diabetes-in-japanese-patients-with-inadequate-glycemic-control-a-subgroup-analysis-based-on-patient-characteristics
#12
Takeshi Osonoi, Shinya Nakamoto, Miyoko Saito, Atsuko Tamasawa, Hidenori Ishida, Yusuke Osonoi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in treating Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycemic control by investigating diurnal variations of blood glucose and body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective study with a 6-month treatment period. The primary outcome investigated was change in hemoglobin A1c levels from baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, variations in 24-h glucose levels detected by continuous glucose monitoring, body weight, body composition, waist circumference, and serum lipids...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644382/metal-ion-loaded-nanofibre-matrices-for-calcification-inhibition-in-polyurethane-implants
#13
Charanpreet Singh, Xungai Wang
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg(2+) ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe(3+) ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643622/lung-microbiota-and-its-impact-on-the-mucosal-immune-phenotype
#14
Benjamin G Wu, Leopoldo N Segal
The use of culture-independent techniques has allowed us to appreciate that the upper and lower respiratory tract contain a diverse community of microbes in health and disease. Research has only recently explored the effects of the microbiome on the host immune response. The exposure of the human body to the bacterial environment is an important factor for immunological development; thus, the interaction between the microbiome and its host is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of disease. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms that determine the composition of the airway microbiome and its effects on the host immune response...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643356/bimagrumab-improves-body-composition-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-insulin-resistant-subjects
#15
Tania Garito, Ronenn Roubenoff, Marcus Hompesch, Linda Morrow, Katherine Gomez, Daniel Rooks, Charles Meyers, Monte Buchsbaum, Srikanth Neelakantham, Therese Swan, Lee Anne Filosa, Didier Laurent, Olivier Petricoul, Marjorie Zakaria
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a key mediator of insulin resistance. Bimagrumab, an antibody against activin receptor type II (ActRII), prevents binding of negative muscle regulators, like myostatin, and increases lean mass and decreases fat mass in animal models. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that an improving body composition in insulin resistant individuals could enhance insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with mean body mass index (BMI) = 29...
June 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642810/association-of-the-composite-inflammatory-biomarker-glyca-with-exercise-induced-changes-in-body-habitus-in-men-and-women-with-prediabetes
#16
David B Bartlett, Cris A Slentz, Margery A Connelly, Lucy W Piner, Leslie H Willis, Lori A Bateman, Esther O Granville, Connie W Bales, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus
GlycA is a new composite measure of systemic inflammation and a predictor of many inflammatory diseases. GlycA is the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived signal arising from glucosamine residues on acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to evaluate how exercise-based lifestyle interventions modulate GlycA in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes. GlycA, fitness, and body habitus were measured in 169 sedentary adults (45-75 years) with prediabetes randomly assigned to one of four six-month exercise-based lifestyle interventions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642702/amorpha-fruticosa-a-noxious-invasive-alien-plant-in-europe-or-a-medicinal-plant-against-metabolic-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ekaterina Kozuharova, Adam Matkowski, Dorota Woźniak, Rumiana Simeonova, Zheko Naychov, Clemens Malainer, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Atanas G Atanasov
Amorpha fruticosa L. (Fabaceae) is a shrub native to North America which has been cultivated mainly for its ornamental features, honey plant value and protective properties against soil erosion. It is registered amongst the most noxious invasive species in Europe. However, a growing body of scientific literature also points to the therapeutic potential of its chemical constituents. Due to the fact that A. fruticosa is an aggressive invasive species, it can provide an abundant and cheap resource of plant chemical constituents which can be utilized for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#18
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641831/two-components-of-the-new-espen-diagnostic-criteria-for-malnutrition-are-independent-predictors-of-lung-function-in-hospitalized-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#19
Arora Ros Ingadottir, Anne Marie Beck, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes, Olof Gudny Geirsdottir, Alfons Ramel, Thorarinn Gislason, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
INTRODUCTION: Low fat free mass index (FFMI) is a component of the ESPEN diagnosis criteria of malnutrition, that only when accompanied with weight loss is considered to be a determinant of malnutrition. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) applying the ESPEN criteria, and to examine the ability of different components of the criteria to predict COPD severity, length of stay (LOS), hospital readmissions within 30 days and mortality...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641384/acute-testosterone-deficiency-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage
#20
Sylvia Santosa, Nikki C Bush, Michael D Jensen
Context: Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. Objective: We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. Design: This was a prospective, randomized trial. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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