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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792466/the-science-of-team-science-a-review-of-the-empirical-evidence-and-research-gaps-on-collaboration-in-science
#1
Kara L Hall, Amanda L Vogel, Grace C Huang, Katrina J Serrano, Elise L Rice, Sophia P Tsakraklides, Stephen M Fiore
Collaborations among researchers and across disciplinary, organizational, and cultural boundaries are vital to address increasingly complex challenges and opportunities in science and society. In addition, unprecedented technological advances create new opportunities to capitalize on a broader range of expertise and information in scientific collaborations. Yet rapid increases in the demand for scientific collaborations have outpaced changes in the factors needed to support teams in science, such as institutional structures and policies, scientific culture, and funding opportunities...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792453/team-composition-and-the-abcs-of-teamwork
#2
Suzanne T Bell, Shanique G Brown, Anthony Colaneri, Neal Outland
In teams, some combinations of people work together better than others. A large body of literature with a rich history suggests that the configuration of team member attributes, called team composition, has a fundamental influence on teamwork. Team composition shapes the emergence of affective states, behavioral processes, and cognitive states (the ABCs of teamwork), which ultimately affect how teams meet their objectives. The purpose of this article is to describe what is known about team composition and its influence on the ABCs of teamwork...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#3
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791682/body-dissatisfaction-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-female-adolescents
#4
Valter Paulo Neves Miranda, Núbia Sousa de Morais, Eliane Rodrigues de Faria, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos Amorim, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Paula Costa Teixeira, Silvia Eloiza Priore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body image with physical activity level, body composition, and sedentary behavior (SB) of female adolescents. METHODS: Exploratory cross-sectional study conducted with 120 female adolescents aged between 14-19 years, from the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Body image was evaluated with a Body Silhouette Scale (BSS) and a Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Weight, height, and waist circumference values were analyzed, as well as the waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage...
May 21, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791651/relationship-between-adiponectin-and-leptin-on-osteocalcin-in-obese-adolescents-during-weight-loss-therapy
#5
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Joana Pereira de Carvalho-Ferreira, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Lian Tock, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the presence of the pro-inflammatory state associated with the development of many comorbidities, including bone turnover marker alterations. This study aimed to investigate the role of the inflammatory state on bone turnover markers in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss treatment for one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty four post-pubescent obese adolescents with primary obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than > 95th percentile of the CDC reference growth charts, participated in the present investigation...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790949/fecal-microbiota-composition-changes-after-a-body-weight-loss-diet-in-beagle-dogs
#6
A Salas, I Jeusette, I Castillo, C L Manuelian, C Lionnet, N Iraculis, N Sanchez, S Fernández, L L Vilaseca, C Torre
In developed countries, dogs and cats frequently suffer from obesity. Recently, gut microbiota composition in humans has been related to obesity and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition, and gut microbiota composition in obese Beagle dogs after a 17-week body weight (BW) loss program. A total of six neutered adult Beagle dogs with an average initial BW of 16.34 ± 1.52 kg and BCS of 7.8 ± 0.1 points (9-point scale) were restrictedly fed with a hypocaloric, low-fat and high-fiber dry-type diet...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790827/the-effect-of-maternal-hiv-status-and-treatment-duration-on-body-composition-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-preterm-very-and-extremely-low-birthweight-infants
#7
Klara Strydom, Daniel Gerhardus Nel, Muhammad Ali Dhansay, Evette Van Niekerk
BACKGROUND: There is an evidence gap regarding the relationship between HIV exposure, body composition (and the quality thereof) and preterm infants. AIM: This study determined the body composition of HIV-exposed, preterm very low-birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants and to assess the effect of maternal HAART duration on the body composition of this vulnerable population. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790679/the-influence-of-a-3-week-body-mass-reduction-program-on-the-metabolic-parameters-and-free-amino-acid-profiles-in-adult-polish-people-with-obesity
#8
Małgorzata Moszak, Agnieszka Klupczyńska, Alina Kanikowska, Zenon Kokot, Agnieszka Zawada, Małgorzata Grzymisławska, Marian Grzymisławski
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed differences in the amino acid (AA) composition in the plasma of people with obesity when compared to lean individuals, but the perturbations of AA concentrations in obesity and the dynamics of AA changes after weight loss is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a short-term weight reduction program on the metabolic status and plasma AA levels in individuals with obesity...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790635/the-effect-of-12-week-garlic-supplementation-on-symptom-relief-in-overweight-or-obese-women-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Ahmad Salimzadeh, Elham Alipoor, Sahar Dehghani, Mehdi Yaseri, Mostafa Hosseini, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
AIMS: Chronic joint pain and stiffness, and functional disability, are the major debilitating features of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 12-week supplementation with a garlic supplement on knee osteoarthritis outcomes in overweight or obese women. METHODS: Seventy-six postmenopausal overweight or obese women (25≤BMI≤40 kg/m2 ) with medically diagnosed knee OA participated in this randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design trial...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790376/plateau-hypoxia-attenuates-the-metabolic-activity-of-intestinal-flora-to-enhance-the-bioavailability-of-nifedipine
#10
Juanhong Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Yuemei Sun, Rong Wang, Junmin Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789785/chronic-intake-of-commercial-sweeteners-induces-changes-in-feeding-behavior-and-signaling-pathways-related-to-the-control-of-appetite-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Alberto A Barrios-Correa, José A Estrada, Caroline Martel, Martin Olivier, Rubén López-Santiago, Irazú Contreras
Nonnutritive sweetener use is a common practice worldwide. Although considered safe for human consumption, accumulating evidence suggests these compounds may affect metabolic homeostasis; however, there is no consensus on the role of frequent sweetener intake in appetite and weight loss. We sought to determine whether frequent intake of commercial sweeteners induces changes in the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in the brain of mice, as it is involved in the regulation of appetite and body composition. We supplemented adult BALB/c mice with sucrose, steviol glycosides (SG), or sucralose, daily, for 6 weeks...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789712/distribution-and-determinants-of-retinol-in-norwegian-adolescents-and-its-relation-to-bone-mineral-density-the-troms%C3%A3-study-fit-futures
#12
M S W Teigmo, T E Gundersen, N Emaus, G Grimnes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sufficient vitamin A levels are important for many functions-and both too little and too much may have detrimental health effects. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of retinol levels in Norwegian adolescents, the relation between lifestyle factors and retinol levels, and the relation between retinol levels and bone mineral density (BMD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum retinol was measured in 414 girls and 474 boys aged 15-19 years, participating in the Tromsø Study: Fit Futures...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789646/age-related-differences-in-limb-fat-free-mass-and-fat-mass-in-healthy-chinese-adults
#13
Mei Bai, Rui Wang, Linhao Zhu, Guixin Li, Dongya Yuan, Li Wang, Tianbo Jin
Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) are important elements to evaluate nutritional status. The aims of this study were to establish reference values for FM and FFM of limbs, develop percentile distributions and assess age-related regional differences in body composition by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) in healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3419 healthy subjects, 1595 men and 1824 women. Regional FM and FFM were measured by BIA. FM in men remained stable in both upper and lower limbs, with reference values (25-75th percentile) of 1-1...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789442/ovine-prenatal-growth-restriction-impacts-glucose-metabolism-and-body-composition-throughout-life-in-both-sexes
#14
Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Raymond P Aitken, Graham W Horgan, Clare L Adam
Low birthweight is a risk factor for later adverse health. Here the impact of placentally-mediated prenatal growth-restriction followed by postnatal nutrient abundance on growth, glucose metabolism and body composition was assessed in both sexes at key stages from birth to mid-adult life. Singleton-bearing adolescent dams were fed control or high nutrient intakes to induce normal or growth-restricted pregnancies, respectively. Restricted lambs had ~40% reduced birthweight. Fractional growth rates were higher in restricted lambs of both sexes predominantly during suckling/juvenile phases...
May 22, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789280/factors-affecting-bone-mineral-density-among-snowy-region-residents-in-japan-analysis-using-multiple-linear-regression-and-bayesian-network-model
#15
Teppei Suzuki, Tomoko Shimoda, Noriko Takahashi, Kaori Tsutsumi, Mina Samukawa, Sadako Yoshimura, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: As the onset of osteoporosis leads to reduced activities of daily living and may result in patients being bedridden, efforts to prevent decreased bone density are necessary. Various studies on the relationship between sex, age, nutrients, and exercise habits and bone mineral density have been conducted to date. However, for snowy region residents, the magnitude of influence of various factors affecting bone mineral density and the influence level have not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the degree of influence and factors influencing bone mineral density based on survey results on health conditions and lifestyle habits in heavy snow areas...
May 22, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789036/dietary-cp-and-amino-acid-restriction-has-a-different-impact-on-the-dynamics-of-protein-amino-acid-and-fat-deposition-in-entire-male-castrated-and-female-pigs
#16
I Ruiz-Ascacibar, P Stoll, M Kreuzer, G Bee
Breeding efforts over the last decades altered markedly empty body (EB) composition of pigs. This study aimed to re-evaluate the dynamics of changes in the composition and deposition rate of fat, protein and amino acids (AA) in the EB from birth to 140 kg BW depending on the dietary CP and AA supply in a current pig genotype. In the experiment 66 entire male, 58 castrated and 66 female Swiss Large White pigs were used. From 20 kg BW onwards, they had either ad libitum access to a control (C) diet or a diet (LP) compared to diet C only 80% of CP, lysine, methione+cystine, threonine and tryptophan...
May 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788723/biomineralization-of-osteoblasts-on-dlc-coated-surfaces-for-bone-implants
#17
Subramanian B, Thanka Rajan S, P J Martin, Vijay Vaithilingam, Penelope A Bean, Margaret D M Evans, A Bendavid
Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto Ti6Al4V and Si wafer substrates by RF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of dopants such as fluorine (F), silicon (Si), and nitrogen (N) on composition, structure, and biocompatibility was investigated. Ion scattering spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of dopant atoms in the outer-most layers of the films. Raman studies showed that the position of the G-band shifts to higher frequencies with the fluorine and nitrogen content in the DLC film, whereas the incorporation of Si into DLC induces a decrease of the position of the G peak...
May 22, 2018: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788444/norepinephrine-and-thyroxine-are-predictors-of-fat-mass-gain-in-humans-with-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation
#18
Brittany Begaye, Paolo Piaggi, Marie S Thearle, Kaitlyn Haskie, Mary Walter, Mathias Schlögl, Susan Bonfiglio, Jonathan Krakoff, Karyne L Vinales
Context: In healthy adults with detectable cold-induced brown fat activation (CIBA), the relationships between sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or thyroid activity during energy balance (EBL) with CIBA and body composition change are undetermined. Objective: To investigate the relationships between CIBA and thermoneutral catecholamines and thyroid hormones measured during EBL and to determine if CIBA, catecholamines, or thyroid hormones predict body composition changes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788213/carcass-and-meat-quality-of-dual-purpose-chickens-lohmann-dual-belgian-malines-schweizerhuhn-in-comparison-to-broiler-and-layer-chicken-types
#19
S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M Siegrist, K Mannale, R E Messikommer, I D M Gangnat
Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus)...
May 18, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787831/oleoylethanolamide-increases-the-expression-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-reduces-appetite-and-body-weight-in-obese-people-a-clinical-trial
#20
Payahoo Laleh, Khaje-Bishak Yaser, Barzegari Abolfazl, Alipour Shahriar, Asghari Jafarabadi Mohammad, Farrin Nazila, Ostadrahimi Alireza
Obesity is a crucial public health problem worldwide and is considered as the main cause of many chronic diseases. The present study evaluated the effects of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) supplementation on proximal proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) gene expression, appetite sensations, and anthropometric measurements in obese people. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 healthy obese people in Tabriz, Iran, in 2016. The eligible subjects were divided into an intervention group (who received two 125 mg OEA capsules daily) and a placebo group (who received the same amount of starches) and treated for 60 days...
May 19, 2018: Appetite
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