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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145427/do-microplastic-particles-affect-daphnia-magna-at-the-morphological-life-history-and-molecular-level
#1
Hannes K Imhof, Jakub Rusek, Michaela Thiel, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Laforsch
Microplastic particles are ubiquitous not only in marine but also in freshwater ecosystems. However, the impacts of microplastics, consisting of a large variety of synthetic polymers, on freshwater organisms remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of two polymer mixtures on the morphology, life history and on the molecular level of the waterflea Daphnia magna (three different clones). Microplastic particles of ~40 μm were supplied at a low concentration (1% of the food particles) leading to an average of ~30 particles in the digestive tract which reflects a high microplastic contamination but still resembles a natural situation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144537/thermotolerant-mycobiota-of-israeli-soils
#2
Isabella Grishkan
Composition of thermotolerant mycobiota in the soil of Israeli deserts and northern territories was examined in spatiotemporal dynamics. A total of 165 species from 82 genera were isolated at 37 °C using the soil dilution plate method. Aspergilli (Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger) and teleomorphic ascomycetes (Canariomyces notabilis, Chaetomium nigricolor, and Ch. strumarium) comprised the basic part of the thermotolerant communities. The desert communities remarkably differed from the northern communities by a much higher abundance of A...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144430/a-correlation-study-of-dha-intake-estimated-by-a-ffq-and-concentrations-in-plasma-and-erythrocytes-in-mid-and-late-pregnancy
#3
Yu-Bo Zhou, Hong-Tian Li, Leonardo Trasande, Lin-Lin Wang, Ya-Li Zhang, Ke-Yi Si, Man-Xi Bai, Jian-Meng Liu
Adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the optimal growth and development of the fetus. Maternal DHA content fluctuates during pregnancy. The correlation of DHA content with dietary intake might be varied over the course of pregnancy. We aimed to compare the dietary DHA intake, estimated by a DHA-specific semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against its blood content, among mid- and late-term pregnant women. A total of 804 Chinese pregnant women completed the tailored FFQ and provided fasting venous blood samples...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144272/body-composition-in-children-with-chronic-illness-accuracy-of-bedside-assessment-techniques
#4
Enid E Martinez, Craig D Smallwood, Nicolle L Quinn, Katelyn Ariagno, Lori J Bechard, Christopher P Duggan, Nilesh M Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of estimated fat mass and fat-free mass from bedside methods compared with reference methods in children with chronic illnesses. STUDY DESIGN: Fat mass and fat-free mass values were obtained by skinfold, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium dilution method in children with spinal muscular atrophy, intestinal failure, and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143793/marrubium-vulgare-l-leave-extract-phytochemical-composition-antioxidant-and-wound-healing-properties
#5
Bédis Amri, Emanuela Martino, Francesca Vitulo, Federica Corana, Leila Bettaieb-Ben Kaâb, Marta Rui, Daniela Rossi, Michela Mori, Silvia Rossi, Simona Collina
Several factors contribute in wound generation, e.g., accidental traumas or surgery, and in certain cases, this dermal injury may have a devastating outcome. When skin damage occurs, the human body puts in place a sophisticated choreography, which involves numerous repairing processes to restore physiological conditions. Nevertheless, natural healing mechanisms are ineffective towards chronic or non-healing wounds and thus, therapeutic strategies may represent the only beneficial alternative to counteract these tissue insults...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143443/multiscale-characterisation-of-cortical-bone-composition-microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-in-experimentally-induced-osteoporosis
#6
Furqan A Shah, Adrian Stoica, Carina Cardemil, Anders Palmquist
Cortical bone plays a vital role in determining overall bone strength. We investigate the structural, compositional, and nanomechanical properties of cortical bone following ovariectomy (OVX) of 12 week old Sprague Dawley rats, since this animal model is frequently employed to evaluate the performance of implantable biomaterials in compromised bone healing conditions. Morphological parameters and material properties of bone in the geometrical centre of the femoral cortex were investigated four and eight weeks post-OVX and in unoperated controls (Ctrl), using X-ray micro-computed tomography, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143290/increased-free-testosterone-levels-in-men-with-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-five-years-after-randomization-to-bariatric-surgery
#7
Nathan H Pham, James Bena, Deepak L Bhatt, Laurence Kennedy, Philip R Schauer, Sangeeta R Kashyap
Hypogonadism frequently occurs in male patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is linked to insulin resistance and inflammation. Testosterone levels rise acutely in obese patients following bariatric surgery, though long-term changes have not been investigated in a randomized controlled trial. This study evaluated obese men with T2DM randomized to either bariatric surgery or medical therapy. Testosterone, gonadotropins, body composition, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in 32 patients at baseline and at 5 years...
November 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143243/seasonal-variation-and-diet-quality-among-spanish-people-aged-over-55%C3%A2-years
#8
R Aparicio-Ugarriza, C Rumi, R Luzardo-Socorro, J Mielgo-Ayuso, G Palacios, M M Bibiloni, A Julibert, E Argelich, J A Tur, M González-Gross
There is evidence supporting the importance of a healthy diet; however, there are few studies analyzing the seasonal variation of food intake. The present study was aimed to evaluate seasonal variation of food and energy intake in Spanish elderly also to investigate diet quality based on the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score. From a cross-sectional study, 28 individuals (39% males) aged over 55 years volunteered for a longitudinal follow-up. Dietary assessment was evaluated through 24-h dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using DIAL software...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141973/energy-metabolism-profile-in-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome-and-implications-for-clinical-management-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Maha Alsaif, Sarah A Elliot, Michelle L MacKenzie, Carla M Prado, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with excessive weight gain. Hyperphagia associated with PWS may result in higher energy intake, but alterations in energy expenditure may also contribute to energy imbalance. The purpose of this critical literature review is to determine the presence of alterations in energy expenditure in individuals with PWS. Ten studies that measured total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE), sleep energy expenditure (SEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) were included in this review...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141856/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-outcomes-in-patients-supported-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices-a-single-institutional-9-year-experience
#10
Rabea Asleh, Alexandros Briasoulis, Sarah D Schettle, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Naveen L Pereira, Brooks S Edwards, Alfredo L Clavell, Simon Maltais, David L Joyce, Lyle D Joyce, Richard C Daly, Sudhir S Kushwaha, John M Stulak
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. The effect of DM on post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation outcomes is unclear. This study sought to investigate whether patients with DM had worse outcomes than patients without DM after LVAD implantation and whether LVAD support resulted in a better control of DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 341 consecutive adults who underwent implantation of LVAD from 2007 to 2016...
November 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141853/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-on-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-prognosis-a-pooled-analysis-of-three-randomized-trials
#11
Kerri Winters-Stone, Lisa J Wood, Sydnee Stoyles, Nathan Dieckmann
BACKGROUND: Using a secondary data analysis from randomized controlled trials comparing one year of resistance exercise (N=109) to a placebo control condition (N=106) in postmenopausal, post-treatment breast cancer survivors, we investigated the influence of resistance training and changes in body composition on markers associated with cancer progression. METHODS: Measures included serum levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP1-3, leptin, serum amyloid A (SAA), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and body composition (total, lean and fat mass in kg) by DXA at baseline, 6, and 12-months...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141575/the-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-on-immune-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#12
Rosa Casas, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Sacanella
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) hinges on the relevant role it plays in inflammatory diseases. Several clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidences suggest that consumption of the MeDiet reduces the incidence of certain pathologies related to oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and immune system diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). DISCUSSION: These reductions can be partially attributed to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption which has been described as a key bioactive food because of its high nutritional quality and its particular composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols...
November 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141044/high-dimensional-linear-state-space-models-for-dynamic-microbial-interaction-networks
#13
Iris Chen, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Yu Gu, Jie Zhou, Xing Qiu, Hulin Wu
Medical researchers are increasingly interested in knowing how the complex community of micro-organisms living on human body impacts human health. Key to this is to understand how the microbes interact with each other. Time-course studies on human microbiome indicate that the composition of microbiome changes over short time periods, primarily as a consequence of synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the members of the microbiome with each other and with the environment. Knowledge of the abundance of bacteria-which are the predominant members of the human microbiome-in such time-course studies along with appropriate mathematical models will allow us to identify key dynamic interaction networks within the microbiome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140900/associations-between-bmi-change-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-retired-football-players
#14
Eric T Trexler, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, J D DeFreese, Stephen W Marshall, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Zachary Y Kerr
PURPOSE: Elevated rates of cardiometabolic diseases have been observed in former American football players. The current study sought to determine if change in body mass index (ΔBMI) following retirement influences the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, or high blood pressure (HBP) in former professional football players. METHODS: Retired professional football players (n=3,729) were sent a survey with questions regarding health status, playing history, and demographic information...
November 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#15
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140440/cord-metabolic-profiles-in-obese-pregnant-women-insights-into-offspring-growth-and-body-composition
#16
Nashita Patel, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Keith Godfrey, Annette Briley, Paul Welsh, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Paul Seed, Berthold Koletzko, Lucilla Poston
Context: Offspring exposed in-utero to maternal obesity have an increased risk of later obesity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention in obese women on the offspring's cord blood metabolic profile, and examine associations of cord blood metabolic profile with maternal clinical characteristics and offspring anthropometry at birth and age 6 months. Design: Randomised controlled trial and cohort study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140420/growth-trajectories-breast-size-and-breast-tissue-composition-in-a-british-pre-birth-cohort-of-young-women
#17
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Martin O Leach, David J Hawkes, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
Mammographic % density, the proportion of fibroglandular tissue in the breast, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its determinants in young women are unknown. We examined associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast-tissue composition at age 21 years and prospectively-collected measures of body size and composition from birth to early adulthood, and markers of puberty (all standardized), in a sample of 500 nulliparous women from a pre-birth cohort of children born in Avon, England, in 1991-1992 and followed up to 2011-2014...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140314/self-perceived-fatigue-in-adolescents-in-relation-to-body-composition-and-physical-outcomes
#18
Stijn Vantieghem, Ivan Bautmans, Jonathan Tresignie, Steven Provyn
BackgroundIncreased self-perceived fatigue (SpF) has already been identified in chronic conditions such as obesity, but it is also a growing problem in school-attending adolescents (±25%). This study tried to link body composition to SpF and physical activity/performance. Additionally, indicators for fatigue were determined.MethodsA total of 452 adolescents were recruited. Body composition was measured and physical activity, physical performance, and SpF were assessed. Based on the total SpF (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) outcomes, three groups were created: low fatigue (LF) medium fatigue (MF) and high fatigue (HF)...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140157/case-study-body-composition-periodization-in-an-olympic-level-female-middle-distance-runner-over-a-9-year-career
#19
Trent Stellingwerff
This case-study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data is emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n=44), hematological, other health measures and 1500m race performances (n=83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ~2 to 4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%) with optimal energy availability being prioritized...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139645/finger-length-ratio-and-body-composition-in-chuvashians
#20
Leonid Kalichman, Valery Batsevich, Eugene Kobyliansky
Very few studies that evaluated the association between fi nger length ratio and body composition in adult population showed very diverse results. We carried out a radiographic study on a large population sample who had participated in a Chuvashian skeletal aging study investigating different aspects of skeletal aging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between 2D:4D ratio and various indices of body composition in Chuvashian males and females. The study sample included 802 males (mean age 46...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
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