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Zsuzsanna H McMahan, Robyn T Domsic, Lei Zhu, Thomas A Medsger, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A Shah
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of anti-RNPC3 antibodies in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma or SSc) patients with selected gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications. METHODS: Sera from SSc patients with or without severe GI dysfunction (total parenteral nutrition-dependence) from the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center were screened for anti-RNPC3 antibodies. We then examined anti-RNPC3-positive cases and negative SSc controls from the University of Pittsburgh and UMPC Scleroderma cohort to confirm our findings and to examine whether specific GI features were associated with anti-RNPC3 antibodies...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Anita Somborac-Bačura, Lada Rumora, Ruđer Novak, Dubravka Rašić, Jerka Dumić, Ivana Čepelak, Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in lungs. Our aim was to examine the effect of cigarette smoke on cell death, oxidative damage, expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? Cigarette smoke induces cytotoxicity and oxidative damage to A549 cells, increases expression of different HSPs and activates MAPK signaling pathways...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Yangyang Feng, Yue Gao, Juanhan Yu, Guiyang Jiang, Xiupeng Zhang, Xuyong Lin, Qiang Han, Xuezhu Rong, Hongtao Xu, Qingchang Li, Xueshan Qiu, Enhua Wang
Coiled-coil domain containing 85 B (CCDC85B) is involved in diverse biological processes; however, its expression patterns and functions in human cancers are yet unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression of CCDC85B in the cytoplasm of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor cells was significantly higher compared to adjacent normal lung tissues (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CCDC85B expression correlated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.004) and positive regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Shan-Shan Meng, Feng-Mei Guo, Xi-Wen Zhang, Wei Chang, Fei Peng, Hai-Bo Qiu, Yi Yang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect the endothelial barrier complex and survival, implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) via paracrine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). However, the mechanism of HGF in endothelial regulation remains unclear. Here, we introduced a coculture protocol of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) and overexpression of the HGF gene of MSCs (MSC-HGF). Immunofluorescence and endothelial permeability analysis revealed that MSC-HGF protected endothelial tight junction protein occludin expression and attenuated cellular permeability as well as endothelial apoptosis...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jian Wu, Xin Yan, Guoqiang Jin
Sepsis is usually accompanied by pulmonary inflammations, leading to acute lung injury. During this process, endogenous factors that play a regulatory role could be exploited to therapeutically alleviate such lethal tissue injury. Here, we showed that ulinastatin (UTI) administration could reduce lung tissue necrosis and swelling during sepsis in rats. UTI treatment also decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators both in the lung and in the serum. Mechanistically, we showed that the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 in the lung of UTI-treated rats were lower than control rats and were correlated with the decreased levels of inflammatory mediators...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mohsen Nikseresht, Maryam Shahverdi, Mehdi Dehghani, Hassan Abidi, Reza Mahmoudi, Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Leila Manzouri, Saeid Ghavami
Autophagy is a mechanism that is involved in the regulation of cellular life, apoptosis, and stemness while its intervening genes play important functions in various cancers including lung cancer. ATG5 is one of the key genes for the regulation of the autophagy pathway. In this study, our team has investigated the potential relationship between ATG5 gene polymorphism rs2245214 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a subpopulation of patients from southern Iran. In this study, 34 patients with NSCLC (20 males and 14 females [mean age: 12...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Kate H Regan, Adam T Hill
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by persistent productive cough and recurrent chest infections secondary to permanent structural airway damage. The current treatment strategies for this debilitating disorder are limited to prompt antibiotic treatment of infective exacerbations and regular airway clearance techniques. Despite its high morbidity and associated mortality across all age groups, it has been a neglected area of research in respiratory medicine and there remain no licensed disease-modifying therapies...
September 21, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Christian Monsé, Birger Jettkant, Bernd Karl Heinrich Schramm, Horst Christoph Broding, Matthias Knappe, Manfred Michl, Frank Hoffmeyer, Kirsten Sucker, Thomas Brüning, Jürgen Bünger
Potash miners can become exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) during the blasting of basalt intrusions or loading and transporting the blasted salt. In a cross-shift study, we compared physiological effects of acute exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations in miners after long-term exposure to evaluate the possible health risks. A group of 119 miners was assessed by clinical examination, lung function tests, and blood gas content directly before and after the shift. A cumulative CO2 exposure was measured using personal monitors...
September 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Peter Baluk, Donald M McDonald
Lymphatic malformations and other conditions where lymphatic function is disturbed in the respiratory tract present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Advances in lymphatic development, growth regulation, function, and imaging have increased the understanding of lymphatics, but the airways and lungs have not received as much attentions as many other organs. The lung presents challenges for studies of lymphatics because of the complex, densely packed three-dimensional architecture of the airways and vasculature, and because it cannot readily be examined in its entirety...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xin Dong, Junfei Zhou, Xiaojuan Guo, Yifan Li, Yuetong Xu, Qiang Fu, Yong Lu, Yi Zheng
To characterize the distinctive chest high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) features and clinical manifestations of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). The demographic data, clinical manifestations, and laboratory and radiological findings of 527 pSS patients were retrospectively analyzed. ILD was defined based on the presences of pulmonary signs in HRCT. Two hundred six of 527 patients were diagnosed as pSS-ILD, and the prevalence was 39.1%. The three most frequent abnormalities in HRCT were reticular pattern (92...
September 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Emran Habibi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Amirhossein Ahmadi, Aroona Chabra, Farshad Naghshvar, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Fatemeh Salehi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effect of Zataria multiflora extract, an antioxidative medicinal plant, against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced oxidative lung damage in mice. METHODS: Mice were intraperitoneally pre-treated with various doses of Zataria multiflora extract (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) once daily for 7 consecutive days. Animals were then injected with a single 200 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of CP 1 h after the last administration of O. vulgare...
September 22, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Qian-Qian Zhang, Qiang Li, Lin Dong, Wan-Fang Li, Chao Li, Ai-Ping Wang, Jin-Feng Wei, Hong-Tao Jin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the genotoxicity and embryotoxicity of bicyclol methyl ether (BME), the main impurity in bicyclol. METHODS: Five concentrations of BME (0.5, 5, 50, 500 and 5000 μg/plate) were used in the Ames test to detect gene mutation. In the chromosome aberration test, Chinese hamster lung cells were used to detect chromosomal aberration of BME (15, 30, 60, 120 μg/mL) with or without S9 mixture. Embryotoxicity test was also conducted to determine any embryotoxicity of BME (7...
September 22, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Shinji Tsukamoto, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Giulio Leone, Alberto Righi, Manabu Akahane, Piergiuseppe Tanzi, Akira Kido, Kanya Honoki, Yasuhito Tanaka, Davide Maria Donati, Costantino Errani
Last and second name of an author have been mixed up. It shows Piergiuseppe as the last name, but his second name is Tanzi and the first name is Piergiuseppe.
September 21, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Kristina Magaard Koldby, Michael Bau Mortensen, Sönke Detlefsen, Per Pfeiffer, Mads Thomassen, Torben A Kruse
The applicability of liquid biopsies is studied intensively in all types of cancer and analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently been implemented clinically for mutation detection in lung cancer. ctDNA may provide information about tumor quantity and mutations present in the tumor, and as such have many potential applications in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It has been suggested that ctDNA analysis may overcome the issue of intra-tumor heterogeneity faced by tissue biopsies and serve as an additional diagnostic tool...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
P J Sarate, S Heinl, S Poiret, M Drinić, C Zwicker, I Schabussova, C Daniel, U Wiedermann
Allergic poly-sensitization affects a large number of allergic patients and poses a great challenge for their treatment. In this study we evaluated the effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) expressing a birch and grass pollen allergen chimera 'Bet v 1, Phl p 1 and Phl p 5' (EcN-Chim) on allergy prevention after oral or intranasal application in poly-sensitized mice. In contrast to oral application, intranasal pretreatment with EcN-Chim prior to poly-sensitization led to a significant reduction of lung inflammation (eosinophils, IL-5, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage) along with suppressed levels of allergen-specific serum IgE...
September 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Stéfanie P Muraro, Gabriela F De Souza, Stephanie W Gallo, Bruna K Da Silva, Sílvia D De Oliveira, Marco Aurélio R Vinolo, Elvira M Saraiva, Bárbara N Porto
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of diseases of the respiratory tract in young children and babies, being mainly associated with bronchiolitis. RSV infection occurs primarily in pulmonary epithelial cells and, once infection is established, an immune response is triggered and neutrophils are recruited. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying NET production induced by RSV. We show that RSV induced the classical ROS-dependent NETosis in human neutrophils and that RSV was trapped in DNA lattices coated with NE and MPO...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harilaos Filippakis, Amine Belaid, Brian Siroky, Constance Wu, Nicola Alesi, Thomas Hougard, Julie Nijmeh, Hilaire C Lam, Elizabeth P Henske
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a rare genetic disorder with mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation, is characterized by multi-organ hamartomatous benign tumors including brain, skin, kidney, and lung (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis). mTORC1 hyperactivation drives metabolic reprogramming including glucose and glutamine utilization, protein, nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. To investigate the mechanisms of exogenous nutrients uptake in Tsc2-deficient cells, we measured dextran uptake, a polysaccharide internalized via macropinocytosis...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Avilash Cramer, Jake Hecla, Dufan Wu, Xiaochun Lai, Tim Boers, Kai Yang, Tim Moulton, Steven Kenyon, Zaven Arzoumanian, Wolfgang Krull, Keith Gendreau, Rajiv Gupta
Computed tomography (CT) is used to diagnose many emergent medical conditions, including stroke and traumatic brain injuries. Unfortunately, the size, weight, and expense of CT systems make them largely inaccessible for patients outside of major hospitals. We have designed a module containing multiple miniature x-ray sources that could allow for CT systems to be significantly lighter, smaller, and cheaper, and to operate without any moving parts. We have developed a novel photocathode-based x-ray source, created by depositing a thin film of magnesium on an electron multiplier...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jie Lan, Haiquan Lu, Debangshu Samanta, Shaima Salman, You Lu, Gregg L Semenza
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are characterized by a capacity for unlimited self-renewal and for generation of the bulk cancer cell population, play a critical role in cancer relapse and metastasis. Hypoxia is a common feature of the cancer microenvironment that stimulates the specification and maintenance of BCSCs. In this study, we found that hypoxia increased expression of adenosine receptor 2B (A2BR) in human breast cancer cells through the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1...
September 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James Odame Aboagye, Chow Wenn Yew, Oi-Wing Ng, Vanessa M Monteil, Ali Mirazimi, Yee-Joo Tan
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes respiratory diseases in humans and has a high mortality rate. During infection, MERS-CoV regulates several host cellular processes including antiviral response genes. In order to determine if the nucleocapsid protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-N) plays a role in viral-host interactions, a murine monoclonal antibody was generated so as to allow detection of the protein in infected cells as well as in overexpression system. Then, MERS-N was stably overexpressed in A549 cells and a PCR array containing 84 genes was used to screen for genes transcriptionally regulated by it...
September 21, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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