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Tumor infiltrating neutrophils

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299363/does-histology-really-influence-gastric-cancer-prognosis
#1
Carrie Luu, Ram Thapa, Katherine Woo, Domenico Coppola, Khaldoun Almhanna, Jose M Pimiento, Dung-Tsa Chen, Daissy Dominguez Marquez, Pamela J Hodul
Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is associated with poor survival despite curative-intent surgical resection and systemic therapy. Our objective is to examine the impact of histology on prognosis as well as the impact of linitis plastica (LP) on survival. Methods: The GC database at a single institution was evaluated for patients who underwent resection from 2000 to 2015. Clinicopathologic characteristics were examined and descriptive statistics was used to analyze four groups of patients based on Lauren classification: intestinal (n=93), diffuse (n=20), diffuse with signet-ring cell features (n=57), and LP (n=40)...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290790/changes-in-the-microarchitecture-of-the-pancreatic-cancer-stroma-are-linked-to-neutrophil-dependent-reprogramming-of-stellate-cells-and-reflected-by-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Philipp Mayer, Christine Dinkic, Ralf Jesenofsky, Miriam Klauss, Peter Schirmacher, Ulrike Dapunt, Thilo Hackert, Florian Uhle, G Maria Hänsch, Matthias M Gaida
In pancreatic cancer (PDAC) intratumor infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is associated with histologically apparent alterations of the tumor growth pattern. The aim of this study was to examine possible associations between PMN infiltration, tumor microarchitecture, and water diffusivity in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), and to further asses the underlying mechanisms. Methods: DW-MRI was performed in 33 PDAC patients prior to surgery. In parallel, tissue specimen were examined histologically for growth pattern, azurocidin-positive PMN infiltrates, and the presence of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)-positive myofibroblastic cells...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273486/merkel-cell-carcinomas-infiltrated-with-cd33-myeloid-cells-and-cd8-t-cells-are-associated-with-improved-outcome
#3
Thibault Kervarrec, Pauline Gaboriaud, Patricia Berthon, Julia Zaragoza, David Schrama, Roland Houben, Yannick Le Corre, Eva Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Francois Aubin, Guido Bens, Jorge Domenech, Serge Guyétant, Antoine Touzé, Mahtab Samimi
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumor of the skin with an aggressive behavior. Immunity is the main regulator of MCC development, and many interactions between lymphocytes and tumor cells have been proven. However, the impact of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) needs better characterization. OBJECTIVE: To characterize TIMs in MCC and their association with other immune effectors and patient outcome. METHODS: MCC cases were reviewed from a historical/prospective cohort...
December 19, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259703/prostaglandin-e2-ep2-signaling-as-a-node-of-chronic-inflammation-in-the-colon-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development remain obscure. Further, careful attention is needed to use these drugs for a long time because of adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of physiological PG production in addition to pathological one, making the development of alternatives to aspirin important...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259464/expression-of-cytokine-induced-neutrophil-chemoattractant-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-expression-and-thereby-prevents-the-follicles-from-undergoing-atresia-and-apoptosis
#5
Yu Tanaka, Akira Kuwahara, Kenjiro Ushigoe, Yuya Yano, Yuka Taniguchi, Yuri Yamamoto, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki Yasui, Minoru Irahara
Aim: Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/gro) is a CXC family chemokine, similar to interleukin-8 in rats, and is one of the factors that regulates ovulation. However, the mechanism that regulates atresia of the ovaries postovulation is not clearly defined. Methods: Whether antibody-blocking of CINC/gro can alter the number of ovulated oocytes and modulate neutrophil infiltration was investigated. The effect of the antibody on the level of inflammatory cytokine production and follicular atresia was examined...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259036/loss-of-acid-ceramidase-in-myeloid-cells-suppresses-intestinal-neutrophil-recruitment
#6
Mel Pilar Espaillat, Ashley J Snider, Zhijuan Qiu, Breana Channer, Nicolas Coant, Edward H Schuchman, Richard R Kew, Brian S Sheridan, Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid
Bioactive sphingolipids are modulators of immune processes and their metabolism is often dysregulated in ulcerative colitis, a major category of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While multiple axes of sphingolipid metabolism have been investigated to delineate mechanisms regulating ulcerative colitis, the role of acid ceramidase (AC) in intestinal inflammation is yet to be characterized. Here we demonstrate that AC expression is elevated selectively in the inflammatory infiltrate in human and murine colitis...
December 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245072/phloretin-attenuates-mucus-hypersecretion-and-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoke
#7
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241546/neutrophils-and-snail-orchestrate-the-establishment-of-a-pro-tumor-microenvironment-in-lung-cancer
#8
Julien Faget, Svenja Groeneveld, Gael Boivin, Martial Sankar, Nadine Zangger, Miguel Garcia, Nicolas Guex, Inti Zlobec, Loïc Steiner, Alessandra Piersigilli, Ioannis Xenarios, Etienne Meylan
Understanding the immune compartment of tumors facilitates the development of revolutionary new therapies. We used a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse model of lung cancer to establish an immune signature and identified a contribution of Gr1+ neutrophils to disease progression. Depletion experiments showed that Gr1+ cells (1) favor tumor growth, (2) reduce T cell homing and prevent successful anti-PD1 immunotherapy, and (3) alter angiogenesis, leading to hypoxia and sustained Snail expression in lung cancer cells. In turn, Snail accelerated disease progression and increased intratumoral Cxcl2 secretion and neutrophil infiltration...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237455/molecular-and-histological-effects-of-mr-guided-pulsed-focused-ultrasound-to-the-rat-heart
#9
Kee W Jang, Tsang-Wei Tu, Matthew E Nagle, Bobbi K Lewis, Scott R Burks, Joseph A Frank
BACKGROUND: Image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound has been used as an extracorporeal cardiac pacing tool and to enhance homing of stem cells to targeted tissues. However, molecular changes in the myocardium after sonication have not been widely investigated. Magnetic-resonance (MR)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) was targeted to the rat myocardium over a range of pressures and the microenvironmental and histological effects were evaluated over time. METHODS: Eight-to-ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received T2-weighted MR images to target pFUS to the left ventricular and septum without cardiac or respiratory gating...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226422/pathogenesis-of-psoriasis-and-development-of-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Eisaku Ogawa, Yuki Sato, Akane Minagawa, Ryuhei Okuyama
The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be explained by dysregulation of immunological cell function as well as keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Recently, the immunological pathomechanism has been clarified substantially. Whereas T-helper (Th)1 overactivation was thought to induce occurrence of psoriasis, it has been demonstrated that Th17 cells play a key role. Th17 development is maintained by interleukin (IL)-23 mainly produced by dendritic cells. Th17 cells produce various cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225479/density-of-cd8-lymphocytes-in-biopsy-samples-combined-with-the-circulating-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-pathologic-complete-response-to-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#11
Binyi Xiao, Jianhong Peng, Rongxin Zhang, Jing Xu, Yongchun Wang, Yujing Fang, Junzhong Lin, Zhizhong Pan, Xiaojun Wu
Objectives: The systemic status and local immune status, as determined by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or the lymphocyte ratio (LYMR) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) count, respectively, have been suggested as predictors of the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in rectal cancer, although the utility of these measures remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the values of the LYMR, NLR and TIL count and their combinations (TIL-LYMR/TIL-NLR) in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) after nCRT...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222189/osteoblasts-promote-release-of-tumor-promoting-siglecfhi-neutrophils
#12
(no author information available yet)
Lung tumors activate OCN+ osteoblasts in distant bone stroma to supply tumor-infiltrating neutrophils.
December 8, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220536/cd36-deficiency-attenuates-immune-mediated-hepatitis-in-mice-by-modulating-the-proapoptotic-effects-of-cxcl10
#13
Che Xu, Chen Zhang, Jie Ji, Chao Wang, Jing Yang, Biao Geng, Ting Zhao, Hong Zhou, Xianmin Mu, Jinshun Pan, Shi Hu, Yuanfang Lv, Xingguo Chen, Hao Wen, Qiang You
The scavenger receptor, CD36, recognizes a diverse set of ligands, and has been implicated in a wide variety of normal and pathological processes, including lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and phagocytosis. In particular, recent findings have demonstrated its crucial functions in sterile inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the role of CD36 in immune-mediated hepatitis remains unclear. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury is a well-established experimental T cell-mediated hepatitis...
December 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216803/neutrophil-mediated-delivery-of-nanotherapeutics-across-blood-vessel-barrier
#14
Xinyue Dong, Dafeng Chu, Zhenjia Wang
Nanotherapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with drugs, show the ability of tissue targeting, long circulation and low toxicity compared with free drugs. Endothelium lying the lumen of a blood vessel is a barrier to restrain tissue deposition of nanotherapeutics. Neutrophils, a type of white blood cells, migrate across endothelium during inflammation. There is an emerging concept that in situ targeting of neutrophils allows delivery of nanotherapeutics into deep tissues at disease sites. Here we summarize the recent advances in delivery of nanotherapeutics to inflammatory tissues or tumor microenvironments via neutrophil infiltration...
January 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210711/an-autopsy-case-of-sudden-death-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-with-pheochromocytoma-and-myocarditis
#15
Masataka Takamiya, Hisae Niitsu, Kiyoshi Saigusa
An autopsy case of sudden death in a 33-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease), pheochromocytoma, and myocarditis is reported. The decedent was found in his bedroom in cardiopulmonary arrest. Polypoid, elastic dermal papules on the neck, chest, abdomen, and back, and flat dark-brown macules on the chest and abdomen were observed. Flat, ovoid, dark-brown freckles were present in both axillae. Examination of the right adrenal gland revealed a tumor measuring 5 cm × 5 cm × 3 cm...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207615/pik3ca-mutations-are-associated-with-increased-tumor-aggressiveness-and-akt-activation-in-gastric-cancer
#16
Ji-Won Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Kyung Han Nam, Soyeon Ahn, Jin Won Kim, Sang-Hoon Ahn, Do Joong Park, Hyung-Ho Kim, Keun-Wook Lee
PIK3CA mutations are frequent in gastric cancer. However, their pathological and clinical implications are still unclear. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics according to the PIK3CA mutation status of patients with stage IB-IV disease who underwent gastrectomy between May 2003 and Dec. 2005 (cohort 1; n = 302) and of those with stage IV disease who received gastrectomy between Jul. 2006 and Dec. 2012 (cohort 2; n = 120). PIK3CA mutations were detected in 40 patients (13.2%) in cohort 1. In these patients, PIK3CA-mutant tumors were more frequently located in the upper third of the stomach (p = 0...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201540/erythropoietin-regulates-immune-inflammatory-reaction-and-improves-neurological-function-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Zi-Wei Zhou, Fei Li, Zhi-Tong Zheng, Ya-Dan Li, Tong-Heng Chen, Wei-Wei Gao, Jie-Li Chen, Jian-Ning Zhang
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a leading cause of disability and death among young people in China. Unfortunately, no specific pharmacological agents to block the progression of secondary brain injury have been approved for clinical treatment. Recently, neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been demonstrated in addition to its principal function in erythropoiesis, and hence it is viewed as a potential drug for TBI. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of EPO associated with immune/inflammatory modulation in a mouse experimental TBI model...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191879/osteoblasts-remotely-supply-lung-tumors-with-cancer-promoting-siglecfhigh-neutrophils
#18
Camilla Engblom, Christina Pfirschke, Rapolas Zilionis, Janaina Da Silva Martins, Stijn A Bos, Gabriel Courties, Steffen Rickelt, Nicolas Severe, Ninib Baryawno, Julien Faget, Virginia Savova, David Zemmour, Jaclyn Kline, Marie Siwicki, Christopher Garris, Ferdinando Pucci, Hsin-Wei Liao, Yi-Jang Lin, Andita Newton, Omar K Yaghi, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Benoit Tricot, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Matthias Nahrendorf, Virna Cortez-Retamozo, Etienne Meylan, Richard O Hynes, Marie Demay, Allon Klein, Miriam A Bredella, David T Scadden, Ralph Weissleder, Mikael J Pittet
Bone marrow-derived myeloid cells can accumulate within tumors and foster cancer outgrowth. Local immune-neoplastic interactions have been intensively investigated, but the contribution of the systemic host environment to tumor growth remains poorly understood. Here, we show in mice and cancer patients (n = 70) that lung adenocarcinomas increase bone stromal activity in the absence of bone metastasis. Animal studies reveal that the cancer-induced bone phenotype involves bone-resident osteocalcin-expressing (Ocn+) osteoblastic cells...
December 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190774/activation-of-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-by-gts-21-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#19
Prodyot K Chatterjee, Michael M Yeboah, Malvika H Solanki, Gopal Kumar, Xiangying Xue, Valentin A Pavlov, Yousef Al-Abed, Christine N Metz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common side effect of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy drug. Although AKI occurs in up to one third of cancer patients receiving cisplatin, effective renal protective strategies are lacking. Cisplatin targets renal proximal tubular epithelial cells leading to inflammation, reactive oxygen species, tubular cell injury, and eventually cell death. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a vagus nerve-mediated reflex that suppresses inflammation via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186713/phosphatidylcholine-causes-lipolysis-and-apoptosis-in-adipocytes-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-dependent-pathway
#20
Tae Woo Jung, Sung Tae Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Soo In Chae, Kwang Woo Hwang, Yoon Hee Chung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, A M Abd El-Aty, Tae Jin Lee, Eon Sub Park, Ji Hoon Jeong
A phosphatidylcholine (PPC) formulation has been used to treat cellulite; however, its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that PPC induces lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes, and evaluated a possible tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-dependent pathway, whereby PPC exerts these effects. For in vitro study, fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, mouse adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of PPC and cell apoptosis and lipolysis were assayed. For in vivo experiments, mice fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks were injected twice to abdominal subcutaneous fat tissues of either vehicle or PPC...
November 29, 2017: Pharmacology
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