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Tumor infiltrating neutrophils

Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Jad Chahoud, Miao Zhang, Amishi Shah, Sue-Hwa Lin, Louis L Pisters, Shi-Ming Tu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs, with recent evidence showing that the adverse health outcomes of etoposide and cisplatin for four cycles in comparison to bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for three cycles appear to be similar. Recent data showed that multidisciplinary clinic approach and management in experienced academic centers were associated with improved overall survival in GCT patients...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Pan Pan, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Kimberle A Agle, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Jianying Zhang, Martha M Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber. FFAR2 has been suggested to regulate colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer and is also linked to epigenetic dysregulation in colon carcinogenesis. The current study assessed whether FFAR2, acting as an epigenetic regulator, protects against colon carcinogenesis. To mimic the mild inflammation that promotes human colon cancer, we treated mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) overnight, which avoids excessive inflammation but induces mild inflammation that promotes colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ and the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Constantinos Roufas, Dimitrios Chasiotis, Anestis Makris, Christodoulos Efstathiades, Christos Dimopoulos, Apostolos Zaravinos
Background: Recently, immune-checkpoint blockade has shown striking clinical results in different cancer patients. However, a significant inter-individual and inter-tumor variability exists among different cancers. The expression of the toxins granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin 1 (PRF1), secreted by effector cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, were recently used as a denominator of the intratumoral immune cytolytic activity (CYT). These levels are significantly elevated upon CD8+ T-cell activation as well as during a productive clinical response against immune-checkpoint blockade therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Naserddine Hamadi, Badreldin H Ali
Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects...
February 26, 2018: Nutrients
Juan Lu, Xiao-Mei Chen, Hao-Ran Huang, Fei-Peng Zhao, Fan Wang, Xiong Liu, Xiang-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: One of the most striking characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the presence of a very abundant immune cells infiltrate containing mainly T-lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to present our analysis providing a comprehensive characterization of antitumor inflammatory response in NPC. METHODS: The densities of 9 types of inflammatory cells were assessed in 197 patients with NPC, including CD3 + T-lymphocytes, CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, CD20 + B-lymphocytes, CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells, FOXP3 + regulatory T-lymphocytes, CD1a + immature dendritic cells, CD83 + mature dendritic cells, neutrophil elastase + neutrophils, and tryptase + mast cells...
March 1, 2018: Head & Neck
Cui Li, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Gui-Qiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Cheng-Ye Che, Nan Jiang, Na Li, Jie Zhang, Kun He, Xu-Dong Peng
AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ) ketatitis. METHODS: Expression of VIP was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 and BALB/c normal and A. fumigatus infected corneas. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant (r) VIP, while BALB/c mice were pretreated with VIP antagonist, and then infected with A. fumigatus . Clinical score was recorded. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), and neutrophil infiltration were tested by PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Mate Kiss, Sofie Van Gassen, Kiavash Movahedi, Yvan Saeys, Damya Laoui
Tumors of various histological origins show abundant infiltration of myeloid cells from early stages of disease progression. These cells have a profound impact on antitumor immunity and influence fundamental processes that underlie malignancy, including neoangiogenesis, sustained cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and therapy resistance. For these reasons, development of therapeutic approaches to deplete or reprogram myeloid cells in cancer is an emerging field of interest. However, knowledge about the heterogeneity of myeloid cells in tumors and their variability between patients and disease stages is still limited...
February 14, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Xiaohang Chen, Bingqing Yan, Huihuang Lou, Zhenji Shen, Fangjia Tong, Aixia Zhai, Lanlan Wei, Fengmin Zhang
Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) exhibits a better prognosis than HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC. This difference may in part be due to enhanced immune activation in the HPV+ HNSCC tumor microenvironment. To characterize differences in immune activation between HPV+ and HPV- HNSCC tumors, we identified and annotated differentially expressed genes based upon mRNA expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Immune network between immune cells and cytokines was constructed by using single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and conditional mutual information...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Kristian Taipale, Siri Tähtinen, Riikka Havunen, Anniina Koski, Ilkka Liikanen, Päivi Pakarinen, Riitta Koivisto-Korander, Matti Kankainen, Timo Joensuu, Anna Kanerva, Akseli Hemminki
After the landmark approval of T-VEC, oncolytic viruses are finding their way to the clinics. However, response rates have still room for improvement, and unfortunately there are currently no available markers to predict responses for oncolytic immunotherapy. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) production is upregulated in many cancers and it also connects to several pathways that have been shown to impair the efficacy of adenoviral immunotherapy. We studied the role of IL-8 in 103 cancer patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Mei Chen, Jiawu Zhao, Imran H A Ali, Stephen Marry, Josy Augustine, Mohajeet Bhuckory, Aisling Lynch, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Heping Xu
The suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 3 (SOCS3) critically controls immune cell activation, although its role in macrophage polarization and function remains controversial. Using experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) as a model, we show that inflammation-mediated retinal degeneration is exaggerated and retinal angiogenesis is accelerated in mice with SOCS3 deficiency in myeloid cells (LysMCre/+ SOCS3fl/fl ). At the acute stage of EAU, the population of infiltrating neutrophils was increased and the population of macrophages decreased in LysMCre/+ SOCS3fl/fl mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Jisup Kim, Beom Jin Lim, Soon Won Hong, Ju Yeon Pyo
Background: Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (WLV-PTC) is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with favorable prognosis. However, preoperative diagnosis using fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens is challenging especially with lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by Hürthle cells and lymphocytic background. To determine a helpful cytological differential point, we compared WLV-PTC FNA findings with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-LT) and conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC) regarding infiltrating inflammatory cells and their distribution...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Hanan Khairy, Hanan Saleh, Abeer M Badr, Mohamed-Assem S Marie
Several mediators were associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease such as oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen metabolites, neutrophils infiltration and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of osthole against dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) induced-colitis in rats through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Colitis was induced in rats by single intracolonic instillation of (250 μl DNBS-25 mg/rat)...
February 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shiva Hamidian Jahromi, Catalina Estrada, Yunqing Li, Elaine Cheng, John E Davies
Intravenously administered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are rapidly entrapped in the lungs, where they display an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Intramuscular (IM) delivery provides an increased MSC dwell-time, which could result in a sustained modulation of an inflammatory milieu. We studied the therapeutic effects of IM delivered MSCs to treat a distant (contralateral) inflammation, and compared the efficacy of neonatal (umbilical cord) and adult bone marrow (BM) MSCs. Inflammation decreased over 48h but neonatal cells showed an earlier response than BMMSCs...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Min-Jeong Go, Jung-Ran Noh, Jung Hwan Hwang, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Jong-Soo Lee, Yong-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Lee
Binge drinking among alcohol consumers is a common occurrence, and may result in the development of numerous diseases, including liver disorders. It has previously been reported that natural killer T (NKT) cells induce alcohol‑associated liver injury by promoting neutrophil infiltration. In the present study, the role of the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP), which is encoded by the NR0B2 gene, in acute binge drinking‑induced liver injury was investigated. SHP‑knockout (KO) and wild‑type (WT) control mice were intragastrically administered single doses of alcohol...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dan Zhou, Yun Zhu, Min-Zhi Ouyang, Ming Zhang, Kui Tang, Cheng-Cheng Niu, Ling Li
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane pattern‑recognition receptor expressed in immune cells and the heart. Activation of TLR4 signaling during sepsis results in the release of cardiac depression mediators that may impair heart function. The present study aimed to determine whether TLR4 contributes to development of severe sepsis‑induced myocardial dysfunction. A cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure was employed to establish severe sepsis models. Wild type (WT) and TLR4 knock‑out (TLR4‑KO) mice were divided into four groups: WT‑sham, TLR4‑KO‑sham, WT‑CLP, and TLR4‑KO‑CLP...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ruili Shi, Jiancheng Zhang, Zhang Peng, Shiying Yuan, Sumin Gao, Lin Chen, Yin Yuan
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical illness with a high morbidity and mortality rate due to severe inflammation in the lungs. The effects and underlying mechanism of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells‑1 (TREM‑1)‑like transcript‑1‑derived peptide (LR12) on ALI remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LR12 attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ALI and elucidate the mechanism underlying it. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups as follows: Sham group, LPS + scramble group and LPS + LR12 group...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yoshimi Kobayashi, Akinori Shimada, Takehito Morita, Kenichiro Inoue, Hirohisa Takano
The frequency and volume of Asian sand dust (ASD) (Kosa) are increasing in Japan, and it has been reported that ASD may cause adverse respiratory effects. The pulmonary toxicity of ASD has been previously analyzed in mice exposed to ASD particles by intratracheal instillation. To study the pulmonary toxicity induced by inhalation of ASD, ICR mice were exposed by inhalation to 50 or 200 mg/m³ Kanto loam powder, which resembles ASD in elemental composition and particle size, for 6 h a day over 1, 3, 6, 9, or 15 consecutive days...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jennifer A Westwood, Sarah Ellis, Jill Danne, Chad Johnson, Viola Oorschot, Georg Ramm, David C Tscharke, Alexander J Davenport, James C Whisstock, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw, Clare Y Slaney
While immunotherapy employing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can be effective against a variety of tumor types, little is known about what happens within the tumor at an ultrastructural level during tumor regression. Here, we used transmission electron microscopy to investigate morphologic and cellular features of tumors responding to immunotherapy composed of adoptive transfer of dual-specific CAR T cells and a vaccine, supported by preconditioning irradiation and interleukin-2. Tumors responded rapidly, and large areas of cell death were apparent by 4 days after treatment...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Anastasia Drobysheva, Julie Fuller, Cory M Pfeifer, Dinesh Rakheja
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old male who presented with new symptoms of left eyelid swelling and ptosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing orbital mass suspicious for a neoplasm. Excisional biopsy was performed. Microscopic examination revealed fibrovascular tissue with dense collagenous fibrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltrate that included many plasma cells. Many small and medium-sized blood vessels showed granulomatous and necrotizing vasculitis with disruption of the vessel walls and fibrinoid necrosis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
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