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Tumor budding

Peng Zhang, Li Zhang, Hui Liu, Lei Zhao, Yong Li, Jing-Xian Shen, Qing Liu, Meng-Zhong Liu, Mian Xi
Purpose: Previous studies reported an association between an increased risk of tongue cancer and radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study compared the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) in patients with and without a history of radiotherapy for NPC. Materials and Methods: From 1965 to 2009, a total of 73 patients were diagnosed with TSCC with a history of radiotherapy for NPC. The patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio with patients with sporadic TSCC according to age, sex, and year of the TSCC diagnosis...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Hye Eun Park, Tae Hun Lee, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Reetesh K Pai, Yuwei Chen, Maureen A Jakubowski, Bonnie L Shadrach, Thomas P Plesec, Rish K Pai
Submucosally invasive colorectal carcinoma (pT1) has the potential to be cured by local excision. In US surgical intervention is reserved for tumors with high-grade morphology, lymphvascular invasion, and close/positive margin. In other countries, particularly Japan, surgical therapy is also recommended for mucinous tumors, tumors with >1000 μm of submucosal invasion, and those with high tumor budding. These histological features have not been well evaluated in a western cohort of pT1 carcinomas. In a cohort of 116 surgically resected pT1 colorectal carcinomas, high tumor budding (P<0...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Sandy Liu, Radu M Cadaneanu, Baohui Zhang, Lihong Huo, Kevin Lai, Xinmin Li, Colette Galet, Tristan R Grogan, David Elashoff, Stephen J Freedland, Matthew Rettig, William J Aronson, Beatrice S Knudsen, Michael S Lewis, Isla P Garraway
BACKGROUND: Benign human prostate tubule-initiating cells (TIC) and aggressive prostate cancer display common traits, including tolerance of low androgen levels, resistance to apoptosis, and microenvironment interactions that drive epithelial budding and outgrowth. TIC can be distinguished from epithelial and stromal cells that comprise prostate tissue via cell sorting based upon Epcam, CD44, and CD49f antigenic profiles. Fetal prostate epithelial cells (FC) possess a similar antigenic profile to adult TIC and are capable of inducing tubule formation...
2016: PloS One
Luciana Strieder, Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho-Camillo, Victor Costa, Danyel Elias da Cruz Perez, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Estela Kaminagakura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate three histologic grading methods for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip, the conventional 3-grade model proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), tumor budding and depth of invasion (BD) model, and histologic risk assessment (HRA) model, and to correlate them with prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients with lip SCC were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age was 65 years, 69...
September 26, 2016: Oral Diseases
Simona Gurzu, Haruhiko Sugimura, Janina Orlowska, Janos Szederjesi, Zoltan Szentirmay, Tivadar Bara, Tivadar Bara, Ananmaria Fetyko, Ioan Jung
The aim of this study was to present an epidemiological update regarding the classical prognostic parameters of gastric cancer (GC) in 3 countries from Eastern Europe and to suggest a modification of the pTNM staging system. In 333 consecutive cases which were diagnosed between 2003 and 2012 in 3 departments of pathology from Romania, Hungary, and Poland, the following parameters were analyzed: age and gender of patients, tumor localization, macroscopic and microscopic aspects including the degree of discohesivity, depth of tumor infiltration, and pTNM stage...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Kazuya Arai, Takanori Eguchi, M Mamunur Rahman, Ruriko Sakamoto, Norio Masuda, Tetsuya Nakatsura, Stuart K Calderwood, Ken-Ichi Kozaki, Manabu Itoh
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar...
2016: PloS One
Jason P Stanko, Grace E Kissling, Vesna A Chappell, Suzanne E Fenton
The potential of chemicals to alter susceptibility to mammary tumor formation is often assessed using a carcinogen-induced study design in various rat strains. The rate of mammary gland (MG) development must be considered so that the timing of carcinogen administration is impactful. In this study, in situ MG development was assessed in females of the Harlan Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD), Charles River Sprague-Dawley (Crl:SD), and Charles River Long-Evans (Crl:LE) rat strains at postnatal days 25, 33, and 45. Development was evaluated by physical assessment of growth parameters, developmental scoring, and quantitative morphometric analysis...
October 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Mengdie Wang, Raymond B Nagle, Beatrice S Knudsen, Gregory C Rogers, Anne E Cress
Basal cells in a simple secretory epithelium adhere to the ECM, providing contextual cues for ordered repopulation of the luminal cell layer. Early high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) has enlarged nuclei/nucleoli, luminal layer expansion and genomic instability. Additional HG-PIN markers include loss of α6β4 integrin or its ligand, laminin-332, and budding of tumor clusters into laminin-511 rich stroma. We modeled the invasive budding phenotype by reducing expression of α6β4 integrin in spheroids formed from two normal human, stable isogenic prostate epithelial cell lines (RWPE-1 and PrEC 11220)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Cristina Casalou, Alexandra Faustino, Duarte C Barral
Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTP-binding (G) proteins regulate several aspects of membrane trafficking, such as vesicle budding, tethering and cytoskeleton organization. Arf family members, including Arf-like (Arl) proteins have been implicated in several essential cellular functions, like cell spreading and migration. These functions are used by cancer cells to disseminate and invade the tissues surrounding the primary tumor, leading to the formation of metastases. Indeed, Arf and Arl proteins, as well as their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) have been found to be abnormally expressed in different cancer cell types and human cancers...
September 2, 2016: Small GTPases
Hong-Yeoul Ryu, Nicole R Wilson, Sameet Mehta, Soo Seok Hwang, Mark Hochstrasser
Post-translational protein modification by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) regulates numerous cellular pathways, including transcription, cell division, and genome maintenance. The SUMO protease Ulp2 modulates many of these SUMO-dependent processes in budding yeast. From whole-genome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we unexpectedly discovered that cells lacking Ulp2 display a twofold increase in transcript levels across two particular chromosomes: chromosome I (ChrI) and ChrXII. This is due to the two chromosomes being present at twice their normal copy number...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Nan Xie, Cheng Wang, Zehang Zhuang, Jinson Hou, Xiqiang Liu, Yue Wu, Haichao Liu, Hongzhang Huang
We aimed to determine the specific miRNA profile of tumor budding cells and investigate the potential role of miR-320a in invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We collected tumor budding cells and paired central tumor samples from five TSCC specimens with laser capture microdissection and examined the specimens using a miRNA microarray. The specific miRNA signature of tumor budding cells was identified. We found that miR-320a was dramatically decreased in tumor budding cells. Knockdown of miR-320a significantly enhanced migration and invasion of TSCC cell lines...
August 25, 2016: Oncotarget
Jiangfeng Liu, Weiling Wang, Ming Liu, Limin Su, Hong Zhou, Yin Xia, Jianhua Ran, Herbert Y Lin, Baoxue Yang
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a monogenetic disease that still lacks effective therapy. Repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and a ligand for neogenin, is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. Previous studies showed that RGMb plays negative roles in several types of tumors and prevents the immune system from over activation. The present study was designed to explore the effects of RGMb in ADPKD development. We found that expression of RGMb in kidney was less in PKD mice than wild-type mice...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Ui Joung Youn, Eun-Jung Park, Tamara P Kondratyuk, Tawanun Sripisut, Surat Laphookhieo, John M Pezzuto, Leng Chee Chang
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract from the apical bud of Gardenia sootepenesis Hutch. (Rubiaceae) led to the isolation of four new cycloartane triterpenes, sootepins F-I (1-4), along with four known derivatives (5-8). The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by comparison of the physicochemical data with published values. The isolates were evaluated for cancer chemopreventive potential based on their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
Simona Gurzu, Camelia Silveanu, Annamaria Fetyko, Vlad Butiurca, Zsolt Kovacs, Ioan Jung
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Supipi Duffy, Hok Khim Fam, Yi Kan Wang, Erin B Styles, Jung-Hyun Kim, J Sidney Ang, Tejomayee Singh, Vladimir Larionov, Sohrab P Shah, Brenda Andrews, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Philip Hieter
Somatic copy number amplification and gene overexpression are common features of many cancers. To determine the role of gene overexpression on chromosome instability (CIN), we performed genome-wide screens in the budding yeast for yeast genes that cause CIN when overexpressed, a phenotype we refer to as dosage CIN (dCIN), and identified 245 dCIN genes. This catalog of genes reveals human orthologs known to be recurrently overexpressed and/or amplified in tumors. We show that two genes, TDP1, a tyrosyl-DNA-phosphdiesterase, and TAF12, an RNA polymerase II TATA-box binding factor, cause CIN when overexpressed in human cells...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Egle Ramelyte, Valerie C Amann, Reinhard Dummer
INTRODUCTION: Advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are rare but still present a severe medical problem. These tumors are often disfiguring and impact the quality of life by pain or bleeding. Based on discovery of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and its role in the pathogenesis of BCCs, smoothened (SMO) inhibitors have been developed with Sonidegib being the 2nd in class. It is the only Hh pathway inhibitor investigated in a randomized trial accompanied by pharmacodynamic investigations...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Alexandra C Kölbl, Udo Jeschke, Ulrich Andergassen
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process involved in embryonic development, but it also plays a role in remote metastasis formation in tumor diseases. During this process cells lose their epithelial features and adopt characteristics of mesenchymal cells. Thereby single tumor cells, which dissolve from the primary tumor, are enabled to invade the blood vessels and travel throughout the body as so called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). After leaving the blood stream the reverse process of EMT, the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) helps the cells to seed in different tissues, thereby generating the bud of metastasis formation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kathryn E Hacker, Catherine C Fahey, Stephen A Shinsky, Yun-Chen J Chiang, Julia V DiFiore, Deepak Kumar Jha, Andy H Vo, Jordan A Shavit, Ian J Davis, Brian D Strahl, W Kimryn Rathmell
The yeast Set2 histone methyltransferase is a critical enzyme that plays a number of key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. Recently, the human homologue, SETD2, was found to be recurrently mutated in a significant percentage of renal cell carcinomas, raising the possibility that the activity of SETD2 is tumor-suppressive. Using budding yeast and human cell line model systems, we examined the functional significance of two evolutionarily conserved residues in SETD2 that are recurrently mutated in human cancers...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Junpei Yamaguchi, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Andrew S Liss, Sanjib Chowdhury, Timothy C Wang, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Keith D Lillemoe, Andrew L Warshaw, Sarah P Thayer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the origin of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) are gland-like outpouches budding off the main pancreatic ducts that function as progenitor niche for the ductal epithelium; they express gastric mucins and have characteristics of side-branch IPMN. We investigated whether PDGs are a precursor compartment for IPMN and the role of trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2)- a protein expressed by PDGs and the gastric mucosa that are involved in epithelial repair and tumor suppression...
August 11, 2016: Gastroenterology
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