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Tumor budding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326438/conditional-knockout-of-n-myc-and-stat-interactor-disrupts-normal-mammary-development-and-enhances-metastatic-ability-of-mammary-tumors
#1
Hawley C Pruitt, Brandon J Metge, Shannon E Weeks, Dongquan Chen, Shi Wei, Robert A Kesterson, Lalita A Shevde, Rajeev S Samant
The process of organ development requires a delicate balance between cellular plasticity and differentiation. This balance is disrupted in cancer initiation and progression. N-Myc and STAT interactor (NMI: human or Nmi: murine) has emerged as a relevant player in the etiology of breast cancer. However, a fundamental understanding of its relevance to normal mammary biology is lacking. To gain insight into its normal function in mammary gland, we generated a mammary-specific Nmi knockout mouse model. We observed that Nmi protein expression is induced in mammary epithelium at the onset of pregnancy, in luminal cells and persists throughout lactation...
January 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240583/site-specific-differences-in-colonic-adenocarcinoma-kras-mutations-and-high-tumor-budding-are-more-frequent-in-cecal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Michael A Landau, Benjamin Zhu, Frances N Akwuole, Reetesh K Pai
Recent literature indicates that adenocarcinomas of the cecum differ with respect to molecular alterations compared with noncecal proximal colon adenocarcinomas and that cecal tumor site may be a prognostically relevant variable. We compared molecular alterations, histopathologic features, and disease-specific survival in a series of 328 colonic adenocarcinomas identified over a 2-year period and stratified by tumor location (cecum, right colon, and left colon). Overall, cecal adenocarcinomas demonstrated the highest frequency of molecular abnormalities with 74% harboring either a KRAS exon 2 or 3 mutation, a BRAF mutation, or DNA mismatch repair protein deficiency...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233500/tumor-budding-is-a-prognostic-factor-linked-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-study-report-and-literature-review
#3
Ezzeddine Chouat, Alia Zehani, Ines Chelly, Manel Njima, Houcine Maghrebi, Mohammed Amine Bani, Leila Njim, Abdelfatteh Zakhama, Slim Haouet, Nidhameddine Kchir
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a devastatingly poor prognosis. Surgical resection is undertaken in only 20% of patients. Most of well-known prognostic factors reflect tumor stage more than its biology. So it is important to identify new biological indicators related to survival in order to develop new therapies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between tumor budding and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and to evaluate their impact on survival for patients after resection of PDAC...
November 21, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229667/prostate-organogenesis
#4
Jeffrey C Francis, Amanda Swain
The prostate is a male exocrine gland that secretes components of the seminal fluid. In men, prostate tumors are one of the most prevalent cancers. Studies on the development of the prostate have given a better understanding of the processes and genes that are important in the formation of this organ and have provided insights into the mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis. These developmental studies have provided evidence that some of the genes and signaling pathways involved in development are reactivated or deregulated during prostate cancer...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199609/tsg101-tumor-susceptibility-gene-101-tsg101-product-role-in-therapy-against-hiv-aids
#5
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Maria Zafar
HIV infection presents a major community health hazard, partially because the HIV virus is capable of evading antiretroviral therapies. Most anti-HIV drugs were intended to target virus-encoded mechanisms; however, some host-encoded molecules comparatively execute a vital role in the life cycle of virus. Thus, these might be considered as target sites for antiviral agents. TSG101 is important among these antiviral therapies because, as a cytoplasmic molecule, it facilitates viral budding and release. In this review, HIV-infected cells have TSG101 on their surface and thus can be used in antibody-based therapies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196724/hierarchically-porous-and-cu-and-zn-containing-%C3%AE-alooh-mesostrands-as-adjuvants-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Xia Li, Mohamed A Shenashen, Xiupeng Wang, Atsuo Ito, Akiyoshi Taniguchi, Sherif A Ei-Safty
Alum is the only licensed adjuvant by Food and Drug Administration of USA used in many human vaccines and has excellent safety record in clinical applications. However, alum hardly induces T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses that are required for anti-tumor immunity. In the present study, we fabricated hierarchical copper- and zinc- buds dressing γ-AlOOH mesostrands (Cu- and Zn-AMSs) with randomly wrinkled morphology, mesoscale void- or cave-like pockets, high-exposed surface coverage sites, and positive charge streams in saline...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192807/autophagy-in-advanced-low-and-high-grade-tubular-adenocarcinomas-of-the-stomach-an-ultrastructural-investigation
#7
Rosario Alberto Caruso, Giuseppe Angelico, Eleonora Irato, Rosalba de Sarro, Giovanni Tuccari, Antonio Ieni
Autophagy represents a catabolic process in which cellular protein and organelles are engulfed into autophagosomes, digested in lysosomes and reutilized for the cellular metabolism. In neoplastic conditions, autophagy may act either as a tumour suppressor avoiding the accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles or as a mechanism of cell survival promoting the tumour growth. Although enhanced autophagy has been reported in hypoxic areas of solid tumors, there are only few ultrastructural reports concerning the relationships between autophagy and tumor grade...
December 1, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187529/scwish-network-is-essential-for-survival-under-mechanical-pressure
#8
Morgan Delarue, Gregory Poterewicz, Ori Hoxha, Jessica Choi, Wonjung Yoo, Jona Kayser, Liam Holt, Oskar Hallatschek
Cells that proliferate within a confined environment build up mechanical compressive stress. For example, mechanical pressure emerges in the naturally space-limited tumor environment. However, little is known about how cells sense and respond to mechanical compression. We developed microfluidic bioreactors to enable the investigation of the effects of compressive stress on the growth of the genetically tractable model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae We used this system to determine that compressive stress is partly sensed through a module consisting of the mucin Msb2 and the cell wall protein Sho1, which act together as a sensor module in one of the two major osmosensing pathways in budding yeast...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184598/-exophytic-tumor-of-the-scalp
#9
Ilhame Naciri, Baderddine Hassam
Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT), still referred to as proliferative trichilemmal cyst (TC), is an uncommon malignant adnexal tumor originating from the cells of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle or, more often, from a trichilemmal cyst, following multiple trauma and/or recurrent inflammation. We report the case of a 64-year old female patient, with no particular previous history, presenting with tumor of the scalp gradually evolving over 18 months. Clinical examination showed a painless, firm, adhering ulcero-budding tumor mass measuring 12 cm along its longer axis at the level of the vertex...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162714/ablation-of-an-ovarian-tumor-family-deubiquitinase-exposes-the-underlying-regulation-governing-the-plasticity-of-cell-cycle-progression-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Animesh Dhara, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Jessica C Kissinger, E Charles Snow, Anthony P Sinai
The Toxoplasma genome encodes the capacity for distinct architectures underlying cell cycle progression in a life cycle stage-dependent manner. Replication in intermediate hosts occurs by endodyogeny, whereas a hybrid of schizogony and endopolygeny occurs in the gut of the definitive feline host. Here, we characterize the consequence of the loss of a cell cycle-regulated ovarian tumor (OTU family) deubiquitinase, OTUD3A of Toxoplasma gondii (TgOTUD3A; TGGT1_258780), in T. gondii tachyzoites. Rather than the mutation being detrimental, mutant parasites exhibited a fitness advantage, outcompeting the wild type...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119271/rnr1-s-role-in-telomere-elongation-cannot-be-replaced-by-rnr3-a-role-beyond-dntps
#11
REVIEW
André Maicher, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, protect them from degradation and ensure the replicative capacity of cells. In most human tumors and in budding yeast, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that adds dNTPs according to an internal RNA template. The dNTPs are generated with the help of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex. We have recently generated strains lacking the large subunit of RNR, Rnr1, which were kept viable by the expression of RNR complexes containing the Rnr1 homolog, Rnr3...
November 8, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112018/tumor-budding-and-pdc-grade-are-stage-independent-predictors-of-clinical-outcome-in-mismatch-repair-deficient-colorectal-cancer
#12
Éanna Ryan, Yi Ling Khaw, Ben Creavin, Robert Geraghty, Elizabeth J Ryan, David Gibbons, Ann Hanly, Sean T Martin, P Ronan O'Connell, Desmond C Winter, Kieran Sheahan
Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) despite its association with poor histologic grade often has improved prognosis compared with MMR proficient CRC. Tumor budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) may predict metastatic potential of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). In addition, their assessment may be more reproducible than the evaluation of other histopathologic parameters. Therefore, we wished to determine their potential as prognostic indicators in a cohort of dMMR CRC patients relative to histologic grade...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109268/syntenin-mediates-src-function-in-exosomal-cell-to-cell-communication
#13
Naga Sailaja Imjeti, Kerstin Menck, Antonio Luis Egea-Jimenez, Celine Lecointre, Frederique Lembo, Habib Bouguenina, Ali Badache, Rania Ghossoub, Guido David, Serge Roche, Pascale Zimmermann
The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase SRC controls cell growth, proliferation, adhesion, and motility. The current view is that SRC acts primarily downstream of cell-surface receptors to control intracellular signaling cascades. Here we reveal that SRC functions in cell-to-cell communication by controlling the biogenesis and the activity of exosomes. Exosomes are viral-like particles from endosomal origin that can reprogram recipient cells. By gain- and loss-of-function studies, we establish that SRC stimulates the secretion of exosomes having promigratory activity on endothelial cells and that syntenin is mandatory for SRC exosomal function...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100315/low-bub1-expression-is-an-adverse-prognostic-marker-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#14
David Stahl, Martin Braun, Andrew J Gentles, Philipp Lingohr, Adeline Walter, Glen Kristiansen, Ines Gütgemann
Gastric adenocarcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis due to the fact that the tumor has often metastasized by the time of diagnosis and prognostic markers are urgently needed to tailor treatment. We examined the expression of the mitotic spindle checkpoint protein BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1) and Ki-67 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 218 patients with primary gastric adenocarcinomas. Tumors with low frequency of BUB1 expression were associated with larger tumor size (pT) (p < 0...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052910/cell-proliferation-is-associated-with-intensity-of-tumor-budding-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Helvécio Marangon Junior, Priscila Laiza Rubim Leão, Victória Vasconcellos Moreira Melo, Ângela Braga Caixeta, Paulo Eduardo Alencar Souza, Maria Cássia Ferreira de Aguiar, Martinho Campolina Rebello Horta
BACKGROUND: Tumor budding is a morphological marker of cancer invasion, defined as the presence of isolated or small clusters of neoplastic cells at the tumor invasive front. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intensity of tumor budding and cell proliferation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was employed in 163 OSCC samples to detect the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 and multi-cytokeratin (to identify OSCC cells in tumor budding evaluation)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050261/alpha-linolenic-acid-stabilizes-hif-1-%C3%AE-and-downregulates-fasn-to-promote-mitochondrial-apoptosis-for-mammary-gland-chemoprevention
#16
Subhadeep Roy, Atul Kumar Rawat, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Uma Devi, Manjari Singh, Swetlana Gautam, Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Lakhveer Singh, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Rakesh Pandey, Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kaithwas
Alpha linolenic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and is reported to have the anti-cancer potential with no defined hypothesis or mechanism/s. Henceforth present study was in-quested to validate the effect of alpha linolenic acid on mitochondrial apoptosis, hypoxic microenvironment and de novo fatty acid synthesis using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The IC50 value of alpha linolenic acid was recorded to be 17.55μM against ER+MCF-7 cells. Treatment with alpha linolenic acid was evident for the presence of early and late apoptotic signals along with mitochondrial depolarization, when studied through acridine orange/ethidium bromide and JC-1 staining...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044503/clinical-significance-of-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-expression-and-the-immune-microenvironment-at-the-invasive-front-of-colorectal-cancers-with-high-microsatellite-instability
#17
Shotaro Korehisa, Eiji Oki, Makoto Iimori, Yu Nakaji, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Hiroshi Saeki, Shinji Okano, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
Immunotherapy is reportedly effective in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H); however, the specific cell types that respond to immune checkpoint therapy are unclear. Herein, we aimed to examine the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and related proteins in MSI-H and microsatellite-stable (MSS) CRCs to investigate the immune microenvironment at the tumor's invasive front. The MSI status was retrospectively assessed in 499 patients undergoing surgical resection of primary CRC; of these, 48 were classified as MSI-H...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040282/colorectal-carcinoma-tumour-budding-and-podia-formation-in-the-xenograft-microenvironment
#18
Friedrich Prall, Claudia Maletzki, Maja Hühns, Mathias Krohn, Michael Linnebacher
Tumour budding and podia formation are well-appreciated in surgical pathology as an aggressive invasion phenotype of colorectal carcinoma cells that is attained in the microenvironment of the invasive margin. In this study, we addressed how tumour budding and podia formation feature in xenografts. Primary colorectal carcinomas (N = 44) of various molecular types (sporadic standard type, high-degree microsatellite-unstable, CpG island methylator phenotype) were transplanted subcutaneously into T and B cell-deficient NSG mice, making possible immunohistochemistry with routine surgical pathology antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036423/invasive-micropapillary-carcinoma-component-is-an-independent-prognosticator-of-poorer-survival-in-stage-iii-colorectal-cancer-patients
#19
Hiroki Kitagawa, Masanori Yoshimitsu, Mayumi Kaneko, Yuta Ibuki, Manabu Emi, Toshihiko Kohashi, Hidenori Mukaida, Hiroo Matsuura, Hiroki Ohge, Hideki Ohdan, Naoki Hirabayashi
Background: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is an aggressive variant of adenocarcinoma found in several organs. Recent studies showed that IMPC in colorectal cancer leads to poorer prognosis than conventional colorectal cancer; however, the influence of IMPC on outcomes remains unclear. The present study aimed to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancers with IMPCs, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of IMPCsper se. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 837 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical treatment...
September 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986696/progression-level-of-extracapsular-spread-and-tumor-budding-for-cervical-lymph-node-metastasis-of-oscc
#20
Shin-Ichi Yamada, Mitsunobu Otsuru, Souichi Yanamoto, Takumi Hasegawa, Hitoshi Aizawa, Takahiro Kamata, Nobuhiro Yamakawa, Tomoyuki Kohgo, Akira Ito, Yuri Noda, Chihoko Hirai, Tetsuya Kitamura, Masaya Okura, Tadaaki Kirita, Michihiro Ueda, Tetsuro Yamashita, Yoshihide Ota, Takahide Komori, Masahiro Umeda, Hiroshi Kurita
OBJECTIVES: The progression level of extracapsular spread (ECS) for cervical lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was previously divided into three types, and their relationships with the prognosis of patients were re-examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Kaplan-Meier method was used to examine overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) curves. Prognosis factor for recurrence was analyzed with univariate and multivariate analysis...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
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