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canine parvovirus

Danielle M Ethier, Joshua B Sayers, Christopher J Kyle, Joseph J Nocera, Davor Ojkic, Douglas Campbell
American badgers ( Taxidea taxus jacksoni) at the periphery of the species' range in Ontario, Canada, are listed as endangered because of an estimated population size of <200 mature individuals. The main threats faced by this population include habitat loss and road mortality. However, on 18 November 2013, a radio-implanted badger was found nonresponsive in an agricultural field with signs consistent with canine distemper virus infection, which was subsequently confirmed. This prompted our investigation into the occurrence of pathogens in this endangered carnivore to better quantify the level of risk infectious disease poses to population persistence...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Shalini Sharma, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur, Vivek Sharma, Mandeep Sharma
AIM: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Ngonda Saasa, King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Ethel M'kandawire, Joyce Siwila
Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated)...
2016: Journal of veterinary medicine
Shu-Yun Chiang, Hung-Yi Wu, Ming-Tang Chiou, Min-Chen Chang, Chao-Nan Lin
BACKGROUND: Taiwan has been considered free from canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) based on the last report of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) surveillance. However, since January 2015, the first report of CPV-2c in a puppy has occurred in Taiwan. There is currently limited information about the CPV-2c variant in Taiwan. In the present study, we characterized the previously unidentified CPV-2c variant and investigated the distribution of CPV-2 variants in Taiwan. METHODS: During January 2014 to April 2016, fecal or rectal swab samples from 99 dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection in Taiwan were collected...
2016: Virology Journal
Pavana Jyothi V, Akila S, Malini K Selvan, Hariprasad Naidu, Shwethaa Raghunathan, Sathish Kota, R C Raja Sundaram, Samir Kumar Rana, G Dhinakar Raj, V A Srinivasan, B Mohana Subramanian
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid. Mini-sequencing based CPV typing was developed earlier to detect and differentiate all the CPV types and FPV in a single reaction. This technique was further evaluated in the present study by performing the mini-sequencing directly from fecal samples which avoided tedious virus isolation steps by cell culture system. Fecal swab samples were collected from 84 dogs with enteritis symptoms, suggestive of parvoviral infection from different locations across India...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Manon Bourg, Daniel Nobach, Sibylle Herzog, Hildburg Lange-Herbst, Anne Nesseler, Hans-Peter Hamann, Sabrina Becker, Dirk Höper, Bernd Hoffmann, Markus Eickmann, Christiane Herden
BACKGROUND: Next to various known infectious and non-infectious causes, the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) often remains unclear. Known causes in foxes imply rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, Aujeszky's disease, as well as parvovirus, adenovirus, circovirus and flavivirus infections. In this study, particular attention was paid on bornaviruses, since red foxes are predators of bicoloured white-toothed shrews, a reservoir of Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)...
2016: Virology Journal
Lindsey J Organtini, Hyunwook Lee, Sho Iketani, Kai Huang, Robert E Ashley, Alexander M Makhov, James F Conway, Colin R Parrish, Susan Hafenstein
: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe disease in dogs and wildlife. Previously, a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against CPV was characterized. An antibody fragment (Fab) of MAb E was found to neutralize the virus at low molar ratios. Using recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we determined the structure of CPV in complex with Fab E to 4.1 Å resolution, which allowed de novo building of the Fab structure...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Hirak K Mukhopadhyay, Mangadevi Nookala, Nobal Rk Thangamani, Amsaveni Sivaprakasam, Prabhakar X Antony, Jacob Thanislass, Mouttou V Srinivas, Raghavan M Pillai
OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India. METHODS: The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. RESULTS: Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 samples (11...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Erika Midori Kida Hayashi, Susan Dora Allendorf, Claudio José Coelho, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Jane Megid, José Domingues Ramos Filho, Leandro Silveira, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP...
September 2016: EcoHealth
Mikihiro Yunoki, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kadue Takahashi, Takeru Urayama, Shinji Hattori, Shoji Ideno, Rie Furuki, Kaoru Sakai, Katsuro Hagiwara, Kazuyoshi Ikuta
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes viral hepatitis, and is considered a risk factor for blood products. Although some HEV inactivation/removal studies have been reported, detailed investigations of different manufacturing steps as heat treatment, partitioning during cold ethanol fractionation, low pH treatment, and virus filtration have yet to be reported for plasma-derived medicinal products. In this study, human serum- and swine faeces-derived HEVs, with and without detergent treatment, were used. The kinetic patterns of inactivation, log reduction value, or partitioning during the process were evaluated...
September 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Jun Luo, Hehe Shi, Yeping Tan, Xuefeng Niu, Teng Long, Jing Zhao, Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Hao Chen, Xiaofeng Guo
Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro...
August 17, 2016: Vaccine
Hang Zhao, Yuening Cheng, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Li Yi, Yaru Sun, Jingqiang Ren, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Jiawei Li, Jinliang Deng, Shipeng Cheng
Canine parvovirus (CPV) reproduces by co-opting the resources of host cells, inevitably causing cytotoxic effects to the host cells. Feline kidney F81 cells are sensitive to CPV infection and show disparate growing statuses at different time points post-infection. This study analysed the response of F81 cells to CPV infection at successive infection time points by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during 60 h of infection and at selected time points post-infection were identified by an analysis of variance test and a two-tailed unpaired t test, respectively...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carla Miranda, Gertrude Thompson
The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c)...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Zhanqin Zhao, Huisheng Liu, Ke Ding, Chunping Peng, Qiao Xue, Zuhua Yu, Yun Xue
BACKGROUND: There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. RESULTS: Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Xu-Xu Fan, Yuan Gao, Long Shu, Yan-Quan Wei, Xue-Ping Yao, Sui-Zhong Cao, Guang-Neng Peng, Xiang-Tao Liu, Shi-Qi Sun
Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) is a variant of CPV-2, which is a highly contagious pathogen causing severe gastroenteritis and death in young dogs. However, how CPV-2 participates in cell regulation and immune response remains unknown. In this study, persistently infected MDCK cells were generated through culture passage of the CPV-2a-infected cells for ten generations. Our study showed that CPV-2a induces cell proliferation arrest and cell morphology alternation before the fourth generation, whereas, the cell morphology returns to normal after five times of passages...
June 23, 2016: Virus Genes
A Grellet, R M Heilmann, B Polack, A Feugier, C Boucraut-Baralon, D Grandjean, N Grützner, J S Suchodolski, J M Steiner, S Chastant-Maillard
BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. ANIMALS: Three hundred and twenty-four puppies. METHODS: Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Shishir Kumar Gupta, Pavan Kumar Yadav, A K Tiwari, Ravi Kumar Gandham, A P Sahoo
The canine parvovirus NS1 (CPV2.NS1) protein selectively induces apoptosis in the malignant cells. However, for an effective in vivo tumor treatment strategy, an oncolytic agent also needs to induce a potent anti-tumor immune response. In the present study, we used poly (I:C), a TLR3 ligand, as an adjuvant along with CPV2.NS1 to find out if the combination can enhance the oncolytic activity by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response. The 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were used to induce mammary tumor in Balb/c mice...
May 21, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Julie Pomerantz, Fidisoa T Rasambainarivo, Luke Dollar, Leon Pierrot Rahajanirina, Radosoa Andrianaivoarivelo, Patricia Parker, Edward Dubovi
Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox )...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Dominique E Watts, Anna-Marie Benson
We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%)...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
T Thaiwong, A G Wise, R K Maes, T Mullaney, M Kiupel
Recurrent outbreaks of sudden death and bloody diarrhea were reported in March 2013 and February 2014 in a breeding colony of Papillon dogs. During the first outbreak, 1 adult dog and 2 eight-month-old puppies died. During the second outbreak, 2 ten-week-old puppies died. One puppy from the first outbreak and 2 puppies from the second outbreak were examined at necropsy. Histologically, all 3 puppies had severe segmental crypt necrosis of the small intestine and marked lymphoid follicle depletion in the spleen and Peyer's patches...
May 6, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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