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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984228/substitutions-at-residues-300-and-389-of-the-vp2-capsid-protein-serve-as-the-minimal-determinant-of-attenuation-for-canine-parvovirus-vaccine-strain-9985-46
#1
Go Sehata, Hiroaki Sato, Morimasa Yamanaka, Takuo Takahashi, Risa Kainuma, Tatsuhiko Igarashi, Sho Oshima, Taichi Noro, Eiji Oishi
Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973725/full-length-genomic-and-molecular-characterization-of-canine-parvovirus-in-dogs-from-north-of-brazil
#2
S P Silva, L N P P Silva, E D L Rodrigues, J F Cardoso, F N Tavares, W M Souza, C M P Santos, F M S Martins, I S Jesus, T C Brito, T P C Moura, M R T Nunes, L M N Casseb, E Silva Filho, A R Casseb
With the objective of characterizing Canine parvovirus (CPV) from some suspected fecal samples of dogs collected from the Veterinarian Hospital in Belém city, five positive samples were found by PCR assay and an update molecular characterization was provided of the CPV-2 circulation in Belém. Through sequencing of the complete DNA sequences (NS1, NS2, VP1, and VP2 genes), the CPV-2 strain was identified as CPV-2b (Asn426Asp) circulating in Belém. The CPV-2b strain with a different change at the position Tyr324Leu was detected in all samples assessed and thus reported for the first time for the scientific community...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947335/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-protoparvoviruses-infecting-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-british-columbia-canada
#3
Marta Canuti, Ann P Britton, Stephanie M Graham, Andrew S Lang
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) belong to the species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. While FPV has been endemic in cats for many years, CPV-2 emerged at the end of the 1970s and 3 antigenic variants (CPV-2a, b and c) are currently circulating in domestic and wild animals. Although raccoons played a fundamental role in the emergence of CPV-2a in dogs, knowledge about protoparvoviruses in these animals is still limited. We investigated 72 raccoons found dead or injured in southern British Columbia (BC), Canada, between 2009 and 2017...
September 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935611/introduction-of-canine-parvovirus-2-into-wildlife-on-the-island-of-newfoundland-canada
#4
Marta Canuti, Bruce Rodrigues, Hugh G Whitney, Andrew S Lang
Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) (species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, family Parvoviridae) cause a severe gastrointestinal disease associated with immune depression in a broad range of terrestrial carnivores. We report here the first molecular epidemiological investigation of protoparvoviruses on the Island of Newfoundland, Canada. In particular, we investigated red foxes (Vulpes vulpes deletrix) and lynx (Lynx canadensis subsolanus), two autochthonous species, and coyotes (Canis latrans), which immigrated onto the island during the 1980s...
September 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895871/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-canine-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852158/investigation-of-a-canine-parvovirus-outbreak-using-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Jayme Parker, Molly Murphy, Karsten Hueffer, Jack Chen
Canine parvovirus (CPV) outbreaks can have a devastating effect in communities with dense dog populations. The interior region of Alaska experienced a CPV outbreak in the winter of 2016 leading to the further investigation of the virus due to reports of increased morbidity and mortality occurring at dog mushing kennels in the area. Twelve rectal-swab specimens from dogs displaying clinical signs consistent with parvoviral-associated disease were processed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodologies by targeting RNA transcripts, and therefore detecting only replicating virus...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812526/parvovirus-infection-is-associated-with-myocarditis-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-young-dogs
#7
Jordan Ford, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, Kathleen Kelly
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808849/a-rapid-method-for-establishment-of-a-reverse-genetics-system-for-canine-parvovirus
#8
Yongle Yu, Jun Su, Jigui Wang, Ji Xi, Yaping Mao, Qiang Hou, Xiaomei Zhang, Weiquan Liu
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.
August 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791948/-vaccinovigilance-reports-of-adverse-reactions-in-the-year-2016
#9
N Albrecht, H Ottiger
In the year 2016, 107 reports of adverse reactions following the application of various authorized vaccines were received and evaluated by the IVI (Institute of Virology and Immunology). The notifications were submitted primarily by marketing authorization holders (81) or veterinarians and private persons (26). The aim of the Vigilance System is the identification of rare events to assess the individual risks of the vaccine application. During the last year, the correlation between reaction and vaccination was considered probable in 34% of the cases...
August 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733230/clostridium-perfringens-and-c-%C3%A2-difficile-in-parvovirus-positive-dogs
#10
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo, Érica Azevedo Costa, Vanessa Pelicia, Bruna Letícia Devidé Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Paes, Jane Megid, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs...
July 19, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716388/identification-of-co-infection-by-rotavirus-and-parvovirus-in-dogs-with-gastroenteritis-in-mexico
#11
Ariadna Flores Ortega, José Simón Martínez-Castañeda, Linda G Bautista-Gómez, Raúl Fajardo Muñoz, Israel Quijano Hernández
This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.
October 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716118/evolutionary-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-vp2-gene-of-canine-parvovirus
#12
Gairu Li, Senlin Ji, Xiaofeng Zhai, Yuxiang Zhang, Jie Liu, Mengyan Zhu, Jiyong Zhou, Shuo Su
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2 emerged in 1978 in the USA and quickly spread among dog populations all over the world with high morbidity. Although CPV is a DNA virus, its genomic substitution rate is similar to some RNA viruses. Therefore, it is important to trace the evolution of CPV to monitor the appearance of mutations that might affect vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that the VP2 genes of CPV isolated from 1979 to 2016 are divided into six groups: GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, and GVI...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715293/surveillance-for-antibodies-against-six-canine-viruses-in-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-japan
#13
Emiko Aoki, Takehisa Soma, Mayumi Yokoyama, Makoto Matsubayashi, Kazumi Sasai
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus...
October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707272/first-molecular-characterization-of-canine-parvovirus-strains-in-sardinia-italy
#14
S Dei Giudici, T Cubeddu, A Giagu, G Sanna, S Rocca, A Oggiano
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is responsible of acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in young dogs. CPV-2 emerged in 1978 in the USA, but new antigenic types, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, have completely replaced the original type. In this study, we analyzed 81 animals collected in Sardinia, Italy. The VP2 sequence analysis of 27 positive samples showed that all antigenic CPV-2 types are circulating. CPV-2b seems to be the most widespread variant, followed by CPV-2a. Furthermore, 12 CPV-2b strains displayed further amino acid substitutions and formed a separate cluster in a phylogenetic tree, indicating regional genetic variation...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689674/determination-of-immune-status-in-dogs-against-cpv-2-by-recombinant-protein-based-latex-agglutination-test
#15
Jobin Thomas, Mithilesh Singh, T K Goswami, Philma Glora, Soumendu Chakravarti, Vishal Chander, Vikramaditya Upmanyu, Suman Verma, Chhavi Sharma, K Mahendran
Canine parvoviral enteritis is a highly contagious viral illness caused by canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) which affects puppies of mainly 6-20 weeks of age. Vaccination is pivotal in preventing and controlling CPV-2 infection. Determination of antibody status is a critical determinant for successful vaccination. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is 'gold standard' test for quantification of antibodies specific to CPV-2, although the execution of this test is not feasible under field conditions. The present study was undertaken to develop a point of care testing to determine immune status prior to CPV-2 vaccination or to detect seroconversion in immunized dogs by latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant antigen...
September 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669382/new-wide-dynamic-range-assays-for-quantification-of-anti-leishmania-igg2-and-iga-antibodies-in-canine-serum
#16
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, Luis J Bernal, Luis Pardo-Marín, José J Cerón, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aims of this study were (1) to develop and validate time resolved-immunofluorometric assays for the detection of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in canine serum and (2) to evaluate the ability of these assays to quantify different amounts of anti-Leishmania antibodies in Leishmania-seronegative and seropositive dogs, determined by a commercial ELISA assay, and between different clinical stages according to LeishVet guidelines. The analytical validation showed that the assays had a good precision with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 10%...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657857/genetic-characterization-of-canine-parvovirus-in-sympatric-free-ranging-wild-carnivores-in-portugal
#17
Carla Miranda, Nuno Santos, Colin Parrish, Gertrude Thompson
Since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (CPV) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. Here, we aim to better understand CPV circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing CPV DNA or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from Portugal. Collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. The canine parvovirus DNA was detected in 4 (2%) animals of two species, namely in wolves (Canis lupus; 3/63, 5%, 95% confidence interval=1...
October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639277/serum-derived-transfer-factor-stimulates-the-innate-immune-system-to-improve-survival-traits-in-high-risk-pathogen-scenarios
#18
Bridget V Willeford, Trudy Shapiro-Dunlap, Kenneth O Willeford
Preclinical Research Transfer Factors (TFs) are low molecular weight (<5,000 daltons) biological response mediators. In the present study, a serum derived TF improved the ability of the recipient animal to survive high-risk infectious challenges (salmonellosis and canine parvoviral enteritis (CPV)) by altering the host's cytokine response profile. Mice mortally challenged with 5,000 colony-forming units of Salmonella experienced a group mortality of 73% while mice treated with a single 5 mg dose of the TF demonstrated a significant decrease in morbidity (7%, p ≤ 0...
August 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616485/evidence-of-canine-parvovirus-transmission-to-a-civet-cat-paradoxurus-musangus-in-singapore
#19
Ian H Mendenhall, Dolyce Low, Erica Sena Neves, Ali Anwar, Serena Oh, Yvonne C F Su, Gavin J D Smith
Cross-species transmission can often lead to deleterious effects in incidental hosts. Parvoviruses have a wide host range and primarily infect members of the order Carnivora. Here we describe juvenile common palm civet cats (Paradoxurus musangus) that were brought to the Singapore zoo and fell ill while quarantined. The tissues of two individual civets that died tested PCR-positive for parvovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this parvovirus strain falls in a basal position to a clade of CPV that have infected dogs in China and Uruguay, suggesting cross-species transmission from domestic to wild animals...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603036/canine-parvovirus-type-2-cpv-2-and-feline-panleukopenia-virus-fpv-codon-bias-analysis-reveals-a-progressive-adaptation-to-the-new-niche-after-the-host-jump
#20
Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Michele Drigo
Based on virus dependence from host cell machinery, their codon usage is expected to show a strong relation with the host one. Even if this association has been stated, especially for bacteria viruses, the linkage is considered to be less consistent for more complex organisms and a codon bias adaptation after host jump has never been proven. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was selected as a model because it represents a well characterized case of host jump, originating from Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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