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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922858/contributions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-to-social-influence-in-economic-decision-making
#1
M A J Apps, N Ramnani
Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. The dorsomedial and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (dmPFC/vmPFC) are putatively key regions for processing social and economic information respectively. However, the contribution of these regions to economic decisions guided by social norms is unclear...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922842/on-faculty-development-of-stem-inclusive-teaching-practices
#2
Bryan M Dewsbury
Faculty development of inclusive teaching practices has become more common in response to significant differences in STEM student retention between underrepresented minorities in the USA and students from other ethnic groups. Approaches to solve this have shifted from focusing on student deficits to changing campus culture, including the mindsets of instructors who teach STEM courses. In this article, I argue that based on the literature informing the conceptual frameworks used for faculty development in inclusive teaching, faculty developers should reframe the message of their workshops to focus participants more on the scope of the journey, and shift the direction of overall efforts some to redevelop pedagogical training at the graduate and postdoc levels...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922830/connectivity-neurofeedback-training-can-differentially-change-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance
#3
Ayumu Yamashita, Shunsuke Hayasaka, Mitsuo Kawato, Hiroshi Imamizu
Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922825/catholic-understandings-of-female-sexuality-in-1960s-britain
#4
David Geiringer
Recent interpretations of religious change in modern Britain have stressed the importance of a sudden and abrupt 'sexual revolution' during the 1960s. The role the Churches played in bringing about their own demise remains a point of debate, particularly in the case of the Catholic Church. This article attempts to move beyond existing historical disputes over a 'religious crisis' and whether it was rooted in 'internal' causes (problems within the Church) or 'external', secular developments. It explores the way sexual knowledge was discussed and disseminated by Catholic authorities during this decade of perceived cultural transition, drawing on the previously unpublished papers of the Papal Commission for Birth Control 1963-5 and the training manuals of the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council (CMAC)...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922733/assessing-the-ground-vibrations-produced-by-a-heavy-vehicle-traversing-a-traffic-obstacle
#5
Loïc Ducarne, Daniel Ainalis, Georges Kouroussis
Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922682/the-energy-cost-of-running-with-the-ball-in-soccer
#6
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Charalampos Atmatzidis, Franco Merni, Rocco Di Michele
Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922681/exercise-training-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-deleterious-effects-of-palmitate
#7
Marcia Netto Magalhães Alves, Danilo Roman-Campos, Amanda B Parreira, Pedro W M Almeida, Jader Santos Cruz, Silvia Guatimosim, Marco Fabricio Dias-Peixoto
We investigated the effects of palmitate, a high saturated fat, on Ca(2+), action potential and reactive oxygen species dynamics in cardiomyocytes from untrained and trained mice. Male mice were subjected to moderate intensity exercise training on a treadmill. Cardiomyocytes of untrained and trained mice were isolated, treated for 30 min with palmitate and intracellular calcium transient and action potential duration were recorded. Additionally, we assessed reactive oxygen species generation. Treatment of cardiomyocytes from untrained mice with palmitate induced a significant decrease in Ca(2+) transient magnitude by 34%...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922669/a-critical-commentary-on-the-2017-agnp-consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology
#8
Jose de Leon
In 2004, 2011, and 2017, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP), a group of German-speaking psychiatric researchers and psychiatrists, published successive versions of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) expert group consensus guidelines. The 2017 version has as a major strength its encyclopedic nature, including 1358 references. The guideline has 3 major sections: 1) theoretical aspects of TDM, 2) drug concentration levels in blood to guide neuropsychopharmacotherapy, and 3) practical aspects of TDM in psychiatry and neurology...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922617/training-the-next-generation-of-biobankers-a-two-year-master-s-course-in-the-management-of-biobanks
#9
Emmanuelle Gormally, Isabelle Hardy, Elodie Caboux, Jeanne-Hélène di Donato, Pierre Hainaut, Paul Hofman
The growing complexity of biobanking requires dedicated professional staff who are trained in multiple aspects of the biobanking process, including technical, managerial, regulatory, and ethical aspects, and who have a good understanding of the challenges of biospecimen research, but also of the challenges related to the sustainability of future biobanks. Up to the present, biobanking staff have been trained in an ad-hoc manner, usually through specific short duration courses, for example, summer schools. In this article, we describe the development/establishment of a systematic 2-year training program at the Master level intended for students with a background in life sciences and providing them with a professional qualification as a "Biobank Manager...
September 18, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922600/ptml-model-for-proteome-mining-of-b-cell-epitopes-and-theoretic-experimental-study-of-bm86-protein-sequences-from-colima-mexico
#10
Saúl Gabriel Martínez, Esvieta Tenorio-Borroto, Alberto Barbabosa Pliego, Hector Diaz-Albiter, Juan C Vazquez-Chagoyan, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz
In this work, we developed a general Perturbation Theory and Machine Learning (PTML) method for data mining of proteomes, in order to discover new B-cell epitopes useful for vaccine design. The method predicts the epitope activity εq(cqj) of one query peptide (q-peptide) in a set of experimental query conditions (cqj). The method uses as input the sequence of the q-peptide. The method also uses as input information about the sequence and epitope activity εr(crj) of a peptide of reference (r-peptide) assayed on similar experimental conditions (crj)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922552/an-individualized-gene-expression-signature-for-prediction-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-metastases
#11
Lishuang Qi, Tianhao Li, Gengen Shi, Jiasheng Wang, Xin Li, Sainan Zhang, Libin Chen, Yuan Qin, Yunyan Gu, Wenyuan Zhao, Zheng Guo
Our laboratory previously reported an individual-level signature consisting of nine gene pairs, named 9-GPS. This signature was developed by training on microarray expression data and validated using three independent integrated microarray data sets, with samples of stage I non-small cell lung cancer after complete surgical resection. In this study, we first validated the cross-platform robustness of 9-GPS by demonstrating that 9-GPS could significantly stratify the overall survival of 213 stage I lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients detected with RNA-sequencing platform in The Cancer Genome Atlas (log-rank p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922512/interaction-of-spatial-and-non-spatial-cues-in-auditory-stream-segregation-in-the-european-starling
#12
Naoya Itatani, Georg M Klump
Integrating sounds from the same source and segregating sounds from different sources in an acoustic scene is an essential function of the auditory system. Naturally, the auditory system simultaneously makes use of multiple cues. Here, we investigate the interaction between spatial cues and frequency cues in stream segregation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using an objective measure of perception. Neural responses to streaming sounds were recorded while the bird was performing a behavioral task that results in a higher sensitivity during a one-stream than a two-stream percept...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922490/risk-factors-for-football-injuries-in-young-players-aged-7-to-12-years
#13
Roland Rössler, Astrid Junge, Jiri Chomiak, Karel Němec, Jiri Dvorak, Eric Lichtenstein, Oliver Faude
OBJECTIVES: Football (soccer) is very popular amongst children. Little is known about risk factors for football injuries in children. The aim was to analyse potential injury risk factors in 7 to 12 year old players. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological study. METHODS: We collected prospective data in Switzerland and the Czech Republic over two seasons. Coaches reported exposure of players (in hours), absence, and injury data via an internet-based registration system...
September 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922416/multi-level-computational-methods-for-interdisciplinary-research-in-the-hathitrust-digital-library
#14
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922403/the-declining-interest-in-an-academic-career
#15
Michael Roach, Henry Sauermann
There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students' career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922395/an-analysis-of-equine-round-pen-training-videos-posted-online-differences-between-amateur-and-professional-trainers
#16
Erin Kydd, Barbara Padalino, Cathrynne Henshall, Paul McGreevy
Natural Horsemanship is popular among many amateur and professional trainers and as such, has been the subject of recent scientific enquiry. One method commonly adopted by Natural Horsemanship (NH) trainers is that of round pen training (RPT). RPT sessions are usually split into a series of bouts; each including two phases: chasing/flight and chasing offset/flight offset. However, NH training styles are heterogeneous. This study investigated online videos of RPT to explore the characteristics of RPT sessions and test for differences in techniques and outcomes between amateurs and professionals (the latter being defined as those with accompanying online materials that promote clinics, merchandise or a service to the public)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922317/medical-genetic-services-in-a-developing-country-lesson-from-thailand
#17
Chanin Limwongse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an example of how advances in medical genetics impact a developing country and how Thailand struggle to improve medical genetics services. RECENT FINDINGS: Thailand is an example of developing country with limited resources, low geneticist to population ratio, formally decentralized even though practically centralized healthcare system and growing public interest in medical genetic technology. Nonetheless, efforts have been and still being made in regard to expanding clinical genetics services, improving access to laboratory diagnosis, increasing rare disease medication in national formulary, and training of medical genetics personnel...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922311/motor-imagery-training-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Zaqueline Fernandes Guerra, Alessandra L G Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of studies have suggested that imagery training (motor imagery [MI]) has value for improving motor function in persons with neurologic conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the available literature related to efficacy of MI in the recovery of individuals after stroke. METHODS: We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently selected clinical trials that investigated the effect of MI on outcomes commonly investigated in studies of stroke recovery...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922302/resident-knowledge-surgical-skill-and-confidence-in-transobturator-vaginal-tape-placement-the-value-of-a-cadaver-laboratory
#19
Woojin Chong, Keith Downing, Ava Leegant, Erika Banks, Dmitry Fridman, Sherry Downie
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of additional cadaver laboratory use in training obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residents on transobturator vaginal tape (TOT) insertion. METHODS: Thirty-four OBGYN residents were randomized into 2 groups (group 1, control; group 2, intervention; 17 in each group). Before and after the interventions, written knowledge and confidence levels were assessed. Both groups received didactic lectures using a bony pelvis and an instructional video on TOT insertion; group 2 participated in a half day cadaver laboratory...
September 15, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922294/health-professionals-quality-of-life-in-relation-to-end-of-life-care
#20
Juan P Linzitto, Gladys Grance
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care professionals are frequently exposed to stressful and demanding situations in the assistance of patients and their families, therefore research related to their quality of life is a relevant topic to provide evidence on interventions oriented to professional self-care. RECENT FINDINGS: Research about professionals' quality of life is having a profuse development with core concepts being under review. SUMMARY: Currently, burnout syndrome and compassion fatigue are considered relevant determinants of professionals' quality of life...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
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