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Nutrition fetal programming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899895/developmental-origins-of-cardiometabolic-diseases-role-of-the-maternal-diet
#1
REVIEW
João H Costa-Silva, Aiany C Simões-Alves, Mariana P Fernandes
Developmental origins of cardiometabolic diseases have been related to maternal nutritional conditions. In this context, the rising incidence of arterial hypertension, diabetes type II, and dyslipidemia has been attributed to genetic programming. Besides, environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal undernutrition or overnutrition can program changes in the integration among physiological systems leading to cardiometabolic diseases. This phenomenon can be understood in the context of the phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in response to environmental input without genetic change, following a novel, or unusual input during development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812519/in-depth-medical-nutrition-therapy-for-a-woman-with-diabetes-from-pregnancy-to-delivery
#2
Miyoung Jang, Dal Lae Ju, MeeRa Kweon, Misun Park
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with higher rates of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm labor, and fetal malformation. To prevent these obstetric and perinatal complications, women with diabetes have to control levels of blood sugar, both prior to and during pregnancy. Thus, individualized medical nutrition therapy for each stage of pregnancy is essential. We provided in-depth medical nutrition therapy to a 38-year-old pregnant woman with diabetes at all stages of pregnancy up to delivery. She underwent radiation therapy after surgery for breast cancer and was diagnosed with diabetes...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806977/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-choline-supplementation-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
Tanya T Nguyen, Rashmi D Risbud, Sarah N Mattson, Christina D Chambers, Jennifer D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a broad range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the long-lasting problems that are associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the development of effective treatment programs is critical. Preclinical animal studies have shown that choline, which is an essential nutrient, can attenuate the severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to translate preclinical findings to a clinical population to investigate whether choline supplementation can ameliorate the severity of memory, executive function, and attention deficits in children with FASDs...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785155/improper-hydration-induces-global-gene-expression-changes-associated-with-renal-development-in-infant-mice
#4
Chong-Su Kim, Dong-Mi Shin
BACKGROUND: The kidney is a major organ in which fluid balance and waste excretion is regulated. For the kidney to achieve maturity with functions, normal renal developmental processes need to occur. Comprehensive genetic programs underlying renal development during the prenatal period have been widely studied. However, postnatal renal development, from infancy to the juvenile period, has not been studied yet. Here, we investigated whether structural and functional kidney development was still ongoing in early life by analyzing the renal transcriptional networks of infant (4 weeks old) and juvenile (7 weeks old) mice...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762181/prenatal-maternal-bereavement-and-mortality-in-the-first-decades-of-life-a-nationwide-cohort-study-from-denmark-and-sweden
#6
Y Yu, S Cnattingius, J Olsen, E T Parner, M Vestergaard, Z Liew, N Zhao, J Li
BACKGROUND: The loss of a close relative is one of the most stressful life events. In pregnancy, this experience has been associated with a higher risk of fetal death and under-five mortality, but little is known about potential effects on long-term mortality in offspring. We examined the association between prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in a cohort of 5.3 million children followed until up to 37 years of age. METHOD: The population-based cohort study included 5 253 508 live singleton births in Denmark (1973-2004) and Sweden (1973-2006)...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#7
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643352/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#8
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632913/maternal-high-fructose-and-low-protein-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-share-some-but-not-all-effects-on-early-life-growth-and-metabolic-programming-of-rat-offspring
#9
Emily J Arentson-Lantz, Mi Zou, Dorothy Teegarden, Kimberly K Buhman, Shawn S Donkin
Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618559/preserving-of-postnatal-leptin-signaling-in-obesity-resistant-lou-c-rats-following-a-perinatal-high-fat-diet
#10
Anne-Laure Poher, Denis Arsenijevic, Mohamed Asrih, Abdul G Dulloo, François R Jornayvaz, Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex
Physiological processes at adulthood, such as energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity may originate before or weeks after birth. These underlie the concept of fetal and/or neonatal programming of adult diseases, which is particularly relevant in the case of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a perinatal high fat diet on energy metabolism and on leptin as well as insulin sensitivity, early in life and at adulthood in two strains of rats presenting different susceptibilities to diet-induced obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565903/increasing-fetal-ovine-number-per-gestation-alters-fetal-plasma-clinical-chemistry-values
#11
Micaela Zywicki, Sharon E Blohowiak, Ronald R Magness, Jeffrey L Segar, Pamela J Kling
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539791/the-long-term-health-effects-of-fetal-malnutrition-evidence-from-the-1959-1961-china-great-leap-forward-famine
#12
Seonghoon Kim, Belton Fleisher, Jessica Ya Sun
We report evidence of long-term adverse health impacts of fetal malnutrition exposure of middle-aged survivors of the 1959-1961 China Famine using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. We find that fetal exposure to malnutrition has large and long-lasting impacts on both physical health and cognitive abilities, including the risks of suffering a stroke, physical disabilities in speech, walking and vision, and measures of mental acuity even half a century after the tragic event. Our findings imply that policies and programs that improve the nutritional status of pregnant women yield benefits on the health of a fetus that extend through the life cycle in the form of reduced physical and mental impairment...
August 19, 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531011/reassessing-the-association-between-wic-and-birth-outcomes-using-a-fetuses-at-risk-approach
#13
Kathryn R Fingar, Sibylle H Lob, Melanie S Dove, Pat Gradziel, Michael P Curtis
Objectives Women with longer, healthier pregnancies have more time to enroll in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), biasing associations between WIC and birth outcomes. We examined the association between WIC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and perinatal death (PND) using a fetuses-at-risk approach to address this bias, termed gestational age bias. Methods We linked California Medi-Cal recipients with a singleton live birth or fetal death from the 2010 Birth Cohort to WIC participant data (n = 236,564)...
August 16, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508574/-op-8c-09-cardiovascular-risk-factors-programmed-by-zinc-deficiency-during-growth
#14
C Arranz, F Mendez Garrido, N Gobetto, A Castañon, S Schäfer, D Lucero, R Elesgaray, L Schreier, A Tomat
OBJECTIVE: Moderate zinc deficiency during intrauterine and postnatal growth induces an increase in blood pressure levels, vascular remodelling and a decrease in vascular nitric oxide production in adult males.The objective was to evaluate serum metabolic profile and aortic function in adult male rats exposed to fetal and postnatal zinc deficiency. DESIGN AND METHOD: Female Wistar rats received during pregnancy up to weaning low (L:8 ppm) or control (C:30 ppm) zinc diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473954/dietary-intake-in-young-adults-born-small-or-appropriate-for-gestational-age-data-from-the-haguenau-cohort
#15
Joane Matta, Claire Carette, Claire Levy Marchal, Julien Bertrand, Mélanie Pétéra, Marie Zins, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, Blandine Comte, Sébastien Czernichow
OBJECTIVES: Compare the dietary intake of young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) versus those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Data at the 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France). Data from 229 AGA-born adults and 172 SGA-born adults with available dietary information are presented. METHODS: Dietary intake was based on a food questionnaire including 19 items...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435863/can-genetic-evidence-help-us-to-understand-the-fetal-origins-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
EDITORIAL
Rachel M Freathy
Lower birthweight is consistently associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Animal models and studies of famine-exposed populations have provided support for the developmental origins hypothesis, under which exposure to poor intrauterine nutrition results in reduced fetal growth and also contributes to the developmental programming of later type 2 diabetes risk. However, testing this hypothesis is difficult in human studies and studies aiming to do so are mostly observational and have limited scope for causal inference due to the presence of confounding factors...
September 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373826/dietary-omega-3-but-not-omega-6-fatty-acids-down-regulate-maternal-dyslipidemia-induced-oxidative-stress-a-three-generation-study-in-rats
#17
Breetha Ramaiyan, Sadashivaiah Bettadahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming and development later. Maternal dyslipidemia effects on oxidative stress (OS) in offsprings and its modulation by dietary fatty acids over generations remains to be elucidated. The objective of present study was to assess the long-term (three generations) effect of omega-3 fatty acids on OS under dyslipidemia. METHODS: Weanling female Wistar rats were fed with control diet (7% lard), high fat diet (35% lard, HFL), high fat with fish oil (21% fish oil + 14% lard, HFF), high fat with canola oil (21% canola oil + 14% lard, HFC) and high fat with sunflower oil (21% sunflower oil + 14% lard, HFS)...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356935/nuclear-receptors-in-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-during-neonatal-and-adult-life
#18
Demin Cai, Haoyu Liu, Ruqian Zhao
Research efforts focusing on metabolic diseases have established a close conjunction between glucolipid abnormalities and nuclear receptors, a large superfamily of receptors including classic peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptors (LXRs), farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) together with burgeoning retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) and REV-ERBs. Nuclear receptors are identified to control a series of physiological and pathological processes of glucose and lipid metabolism and also implicated to mediate the long-term effects of early environmental and nutritional experiences on the formation of adult chronic metabolic disorders in human and animals...
June 26, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314367/diet-before-and-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-health-the-importance-of-animal-models-and-what-can-be-learned-from-them
#19
Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Anne Tarrade, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard
This review article outlines epidemiologic studies that support the hypothesis that maternal environment (including early nutrition) plays a seminal role in determining the offspring's long-term health and metabolism, known as the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD). In this context, current concerns are particularly focused on the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, particularly in youth and women of child-bearing age. We summarize key similarities, differences and limitations of various animal models used to study fetal programming, with a particular focus on placentation, which is critical for translating animal findings to humans...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233753/moderate-maternal-energy-restriction-during-gestation-in-pigs-attenuates-fetal-skeletal-muscle-development-through-changing-myogenic-gene-expression-and-myofiber-characteristics
#20
Tiande Zou, Dongting He, Bing Yu, Jie Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jun He, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen
Maternal undernutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Skeletal muscle, one of the key insulin-responsive organs, is susceptible to maternal nutritional programming. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of moderate maternal energy restriction during gestation in pigs on basic events of fetal skeletal myogenesis. Primiparous, purebred Meishan sows were fed a control (normal energy intake) or a low-energy (LE) diet from mating to day 90 of gestation...
May 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
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