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Amphetamine cocaine calcium

Witold Żakowski
This paper reviews the distribution of several bioactive substances and their possible physiological roles in the anterior thalamic nuclei of various species, with a special emphasis on the rat. The anterior thalamus is a part of extended hippocampal system and its significance for learning and memory processes is well known. Although our knowledge about a specific role of this brain structure has increased in recent years considerably, this is the first attempt to summarize neurochemical diversity of the anterior thalamus...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Barbara Wasilewska, Janusz Najdzion, Maciej Równiak, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Beata Hermanowicz, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Witold Żakowski, Anna Robak
In this study we present the distribution and colocalization pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins: calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the subicular complex (SC) of the guinea pig. The subiculum (S) and presubiculum (PrS) showed higher CART-immunoreactivity (-IR) than the parasubiculum (PaS) as far as the perikarya and neuropil were concerned. CART- IR cells were mainly observed in the pyramidal layer and occasionally in the molecular layer of the S...
March 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Meghan McGee-Lawrence, Patricia Buckendahl, Caren Carpenter, Kim Henriksen, Michael Vaughan, Seth Donahue
Decreased physical activity in mammals increases bone turnover and uncouples bone formation from bone resorption, leading to hypercalcemia, hypercalcuria, bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears, however, are physically inactive for up to 6 months annually during hibernation without losing cortical or trabecular bone mass. Bears have been shown to preserve trabecular bone volume and architectural parameters and cortical bone strength, porosity and geometrical properties during hibernation. The mechanisms that prevent disuse osteoporosis in bears are unclear as previous studies using histological and serum markers of bone remodeling show conflicting results...
July 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yusaku Iwasaki, Yuko Maejima, Shigetomo Suyama, Masashi Yoshida, Takeshi Arai, Kenichi Katsurada, Parmila Kumari, Hajime Nakabayashi, Masafumi Kakei, Toshihiko Yada
Oxytocin (Oxt), a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, is implicated in regulation of feeding. Recent studies have shown that peripheral administration of Oxt suppresses feeding and, when infused subchronically, ameliorates hyperphagic obesity. However, the route through which peripheral Oxt informs the brain is obscure. This study aimed to explore whether vagal afferents mediate the sensing and anorexigenic effect of peripherally injected Oxt in mice. Intraperitoneal Oxt injection suppressed food intake and increased c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarius to which vagal afferents project...
March 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Stefan M Berger, Dusan Bartsch
The use of specific activators and inhibitors that penetrate the central nervous system has suggested an essential functional role of L-type calcium channels (LTCC) in several important physiological processes of the brain, including the modulation of the mesoaccumbal dopamine signalling pathway, synaptic transmission of auditory stimuli and synaptic plasticity of neutral and aversive learning and memory processes. However, the lack of selectivity of available pharmacological agents towards the most prominent LTCC isoforms in the brain, namely Cav1...
August 2014: Cell and Tissue Research
Elias H Blanco, Juan R Peinado, Martín G Martín, Iris Lindberg
Satiety and appetite signaling are accomplished by circulating peptide hormones. These peptide hormones require processing from larger precursors to become bioactive, often by the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Several subcellular maturation steps are necessary for PC1/3 to achieve its optimal enzymatic activity. Certain PC1/3 variants found in the general population slightly attenuate its enzymatic activity and are associated with obesity and diabetes. However, mutations that increase PC1/3 activity and/or affect its specificity could also have physiological consequences...
September 2014: Endocrinology
Thomas Steinkellner, Liudmilla Mus, Birgit Eisenrauch, Andreea Constantinescu, Damiana Leo, Lisa Konrad, Mattias Rickhag, Gunnar Sørensen, Evgenia V Efimova, Eryan Kong, Matthäus Willeit, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Oliver Kudlacek, Ulrik Gether, Michael Freissmuth, Daniela D Pollak, Raul R Gainetdinov, Harald H Sitte
Addiction to psychostimulants (ie, amphetamines and cocaine) imposes a major socioeconomic burden. Prevention and treatment represent unmet medical needs, which may be addressed, if the mechanisms underlying psychostimulant action are understood. Cocaine acts as a blocker at the transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET), but amphetamines are substrates that do not only block the uptake of monoamines but also induce substrate efflux by promoting reverse transport. Reverse transport has been a focus of research for decades but its mechanistic basis still remains enigmatic...
October 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Melissa L Perreault, Brian F O'Dowd, Susan R George
Adolescence is a developmental period that has been associated with heightened sensitivity to psychostimulant-induced reward, thus placing adolescents at increased risk to develop drug addiction. Although alterations in dopamine-induced synaptic plasticity are perhaps the most critical factor in mediating addiction processes, developmental differences in the cell signaling mechanisms that contribute to synaptic plasticity, and their contribution to adolescent reward sensitivity, has been grossly understudied...
2014: Developmental Neuroscience
Janusz Najdzion, Barbara Wasilewska, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Anna Robak
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin) in each main division of the medial geniculate body (MGB) in the guinea pig. From low to moderate CART immunoreactivity was observed in all divisions of the MGB, although in most of its length only fibers and neuropil were labeled. A small number of CART immunoreactive somata were observed in the caudal segment of the MGB...
September 2014: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Giuseppe Gangarossa, Sophie Laffray, Emmanuel Bourinet, Emmanuel Valjent
The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca(2+) homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zhenyu Cai, Dalei Zhang, Ying Ying, Min Yan, Jianhua Yang, Fangyun Xu, Kiwan Oh, Zhenzhen Hu
Previous studies in rats have shown that microinjections of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens (NAc; the area of the brain that mediates drug reward and reinforcement) attenuate the locomotor effects of psychostimulants. CART peptide has also been shown to induce decreased intracellular concentrations of calcium (Ca(2+)) in primary cultures of hippocampus neurons. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKIIα) with dopamine D3 (D3) receptors (R) in primary cultures of accumbal neurons...
April 4, 2014: Brain Research
Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Lixin Wang
Nesfatin-1 is the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). The antibody against nesfatin-1 recognizes both full length of NUCB2 and nesfatin-1, thus the immunolabeling represents NUCB2/nesfatin-1. It has been found that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is widely distributed in the rodent central nervous system. The immunoreactivity is more intensive in the brain autonomic centers that regulate feeding, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular functions, such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal complex and medullary raphe nuclei...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Thomas Steinkellner, Jae-Won Yang, Therese R Montgomery, Wei-Qiang Chen, Marie-Therese Winkler, Sonja Sucic, Gert Lubec, Michael Freissmuth, Ype Elgersma, Harald H Sitte, Oliver Kudlacek
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission, controlling the length and brevity of dopaminergic signaling. DAT is also the primary target of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Conversely, methylphenidate and amphetamine are both used clinically in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. The action of amphetamines, which induce transport reversal, relies primarily on the ionic composition of the intra- and extracellular milieus...
August 24, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ernesto Tarragon, Pablo Baliño, Carlos M G Aragon
Calcium has been characterized as one of the most ubiquitous, universal and versatile intracellular signals. Among other substances with the ability to alter intracellular calcium levels, ethanol has been described as particularly relevant because of its social and economic impact. Ethanol effects on calcium distribution and flux in vitro have been widely studied, showing that acute ethanol administration can modulate intracellular calcium concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Intracellular calcium released from the endoplasmic reticulum plays a determinant role in several cellular processes...
August 1, 2012: Behavioural Brain Research
Dhananjay Sakrikar, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, Marc A Mergy, Nathan W Richtand, Qiao Han, Peter J Hamilton, Erica Bowton, Aurelio Galli, Jeremy Veenstra-Vanderweele, Michael Gill, Randy D Blakely
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed disorder of school-age children. Although genetic and brain-imaging studies suggest a contribution of altered dopamine (DA) signaling in ADHD, evidence of signaling perturbations contributing to risk is largely circumstantial. The presynaptic, cocaine- and amphetamine (AMPH)-sensitive DA transporter (DAT) constrains DA availability at presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors following vesicular release and is targeted by the most commonly prescribed ADHD therapeutics...
April 18, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xavier Wittebole, Philippe Hantson
INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing interest in recent developments in bioartificial and non-bioartificial devices, so called extracorporeal liver assist devices, which are now used widely not only to increase drug elimination, but also to enhance the removal of endogenous substances in acute liver failure. Most of the non-bioartificial techniques are based on the principle of albumin dialysis. The objective is to remove albumin-bound substances that could play a role in the pathophysiology of acute liver failure by dialysing blood against an albumin-containing solution across a high flux permeable membrane...
November 2011: Clinical Toxicology
L M Almeida, U Basu, J L Williams, S S Moore, L L Guan
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease...
2011: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
A Díaz-Arteaga, M J Vázquez, R Vazquez-Martínez, M R Pulido, J Suarez, D A Velásquez, M López, R A Ross, F Rodriguez de Fonseca, F J Bermudez-Silva, M M Malagón, C Diéguez, R Nogueiras
AIMS: Cannabinoids are known to control energy homeostasis. Atypical cannabinoids produce pharmacological effects via unidentified targets. We sought to investigate whether the atypical cannabinoid O-1602 controls food intake and body weight. METHODS: The rats were injected acutely or subchronically with O-1602, and the expression of several factors involved in adipocyte metabolism was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo findings were corroborated with in vitro studies incubating 3T3-L1 adipocytes with O-1602, and measuring intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation...
March 2012: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Bernard Bloem, Lu Xu, Eva Morava, Gábor Faludi, Miklós Palkovits, Eric W Roubos, Tamás Kozicz
An intriguing novel pathophysiological insight into mood disorders is the notion that one's metabolic status influences mood. In rodents, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 have not only been implicated in metabolism, but in the pathobiology of anxiety and depressive-like behaviour, however they have not previously been investigated in depressed subjects. Both peptides are highly expressed in centrally projecting neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp) in the midbrain...
January 2012: Neuropharmacology
Vincent M Figueredo
The heart is a target of injury for many chemical compounds, both medically prescribed and not medically prescribed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of chemical-induced cardiomyopathies vary depending on the inciting agent, including direct toxic effects, neurohormonal activation, altered calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress. Numerous chemicals and drugs are implicated in cardiomyopathy. This article discusses examples of medication and nonprescribed drug-induced cardiomyopathies and reviews their pathophysiologic mechanisms...
June 2011: American Journal of Medicine
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