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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329864/age-differences-in-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-concurrent-contributions-of-neurocognitive-performance-sex-and-pulse-pressure
#1
Ashley L Fischer, Norm O'Rourke, Wendy Loken Thornton
Objectives: Theory of mind (ToM) allows us to detect and make inferences about cognitive and affective mental states. Mixed findings exist regarding (a) age differences in cognitive and affective ToM and (b) what mechanisms may underlie changes in the two components. We addressed these questions by examining the unique and joint contributions of neurocognitive performance, pulse pressure (PP), and biological sex to age differences in cognitive and affective ToM. Method: We tested 86 young and 85 older adults on standardized measures of neurocognitive performance and ToM...
August 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329717/characteristics-of-memories-for-near-death-experiences
#2
Lauren E Moore, Bruce Greyson
Near-death experiences are vivid, life-changing experiences occurring to people who come close to death. Because some of their features, such as enhanced cognition despite compromised brain function, challenge our understanding of the mind-brain relationship, the question arises whether near-death experiences are imagined rather than real events. We administered the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire to 122 survivors of a close brush with death who reported near-death experiences. Participants completed Memory Characteristics Questionnaires for three different memories: that of their near-death experience, that of a real event around the same time, and that of an event they had imagined around the same time...
March 19, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328703/functionality-of-patients-75-years-and-older-undergoing-mohs-micrographic-surgery-a-multicenter-study
#3
Christie G Regula, Murad Alam, Ramona Behshad, Marc Glashofer, C William Hanke, Christopher Harmon, Ryan Johnson, David Kent, Patrick Lee, Naomi Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Mohs surgery is indisputably a highly effective treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancers. In the current health care environment, physicians are challenged to provide high quality, efficacious care in a manner that is mindful of the patient's general health and well-being. We have used a functional assessment to evaluate older patients who present for Mohs surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to categorize the functional status, using the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) Scale, of patients 75 years and older undergoing Mohs surgery of a nonmelanoma skin cancer and to identify distinguishing characteristics of lower functioning patients...
March 21, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328699/a-mindfulness-program-adapted-for-adolescents-with-chronic-pain-feasibility-acceptability-and-initial-outcomes
#4
Danielle A Ruskin, Michelle M Gagnon, Sara A Kohut, Jennifer N Stinson, Kathryn S Walker
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric chronic pain is a major health issue which can lead to significant interference in daily functioning. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI's), which emphasize acceptance rather than control of pain, have gained increasing attention as a viable treatment option among adults with chronic pain. The effectiveness of MBIs for chronic pain in pediatric populations remains largely unknown. This prospective pre-post interventional study was conducted to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial effectiveness of an 8-week group MBI for adolescents (MBI-A) with chronic pain...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328362/psychiatric-genomics-and-public-mental-health-in-the-young-mind
#5
Maya Sabatello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327994/quality-of-life-following-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-single-and-multiple-brain-metastases
#6
Jacob A Miller, Rupesh Kotecha, Gene H Barnett, John H Suh, Lilyana Angelov, Erin S Murphy, Michael A Vogelbaum, Alireza Mohammadi, Samuel T Chao
BACKGROUND: Given the neurological morbidity and poor prognosis associated with brain metastases, it is critical to deliver appropriate therapy while remaining mindful of patient quality of life (QOL). For many patients, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) effectively controls intracranial disease, but QOL outcomes have not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of number of brain metastases upon QOL preservation following SRS. METHODS: The EuroQol 5 Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 instruments were prospectively collected from a cohort of patients undergoing SRS for brain metastasis between 2008 and 2015...
February 23, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327245/just-my-imagination-beauty-premium-and-the-evolved-mental-model
#7
Ryo Oda
Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327241/context-matters-for-attractiveness-bias
#8
Juwon Lee, Glenn Adams, Yexin Jessica Li, Omri Gillath
To fully understand the attractiveness bias, we propose that contextual factors or affordances should be integrated into the mating-based evolutionary account of Maestripieri et al. We review examples highlighting the role of contextual factors in the perception of attractiveness and in attractiveness bias. These suggest contextual factors differentially afford the development of preference for attractive others into observed habits of mind.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327223/why-would-we-expect-the-mind-to-work-that-way-the-fitness-costs-to-inaccurate-beliefs
#9
Jesse Marczyk
An adaptationist analysis of beliefs yields the prediction that we ought to expect accuracy in the cognitive systems which generate them - stereotypes or otherwise - for the most part. There are, however, some limited situations in which some inaccuracy in beliefs advertised to others might be adaptive.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327212/more-stereotypes-please-the-limits-of-theory-of-mind-and-the-need-for-further-studies-on-the-complexity-of-real-world-social-interactions
#10
Kristin Andrews
I suggest that the Stereotype Rationality Hypothesis (Jussim 2012) is only partially right. I agree it is rational to rely on stereotypes, but in the complexity of real world social interactions, most of our individuating information invokes additional stereotypes. Despite assumptions to the contrary, there is reason to think theory of mind is not accurate, and social psychology's denial of stereotype accuracy led us toward mindreading/theory of mind - a less accurate account of how we understand other people...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327079/patterns-of-practice-in-community-mental-health-treatment-of-adult-depression
#11
Cara C Lewis, C Nathan Marti, Brigid R Marriott, Kelli Scott, David Ayer
OBJECTIVE: Community mental health therapists often endorse an eclectic orientation, but few studies reveal how therapists utilize elements of evidence-based psychotherapies. This study aimed to characterize treatment as usual patterns of practice among therapists treating depressed adults in community mental health settings. METHOD: Therapists (N = 165) from the USA's largest not-for-profit provider of community-based mental health services completed surveys assessing their demographics and practice element use with depressed adult clients...
March 22, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326868/a-longitudinal-study-assessing-the-maintenance-condition-of-cadres-of-four-types-of-wheelchairs-provided-in-low-resource-areas
#12
Karen Rispin, Kristofer Riseling, Joy Wee
Wheelchair breakdowns increase the risk of injury and limit the mobility of wheelchair users. In the endeavour to meet the enormous global need for wheelchairs, manufacturers of wheelchairs for low-resource settings face a cost-benefit tension between affordability and durability. Field studies are needed to provide feedback on durability. Four manufacturers provided cadres of wheelchairs to the organization providing rehabilitation to students at a boarding school for children with disabilities in a low-resource area...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326310/cardiopulmonary-response-during-whole-body-vibration-training-in-patients-with-severe-copd
#13
Rainer Gloeckl, Petra Richter, Sandra Winterkamp, Michael Pfeifer, Christoph Nell, Jeffrey W Christle, Klaus Kenn
Several studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has beneficial effects on exercise capacity. However, the acute cardiopulmonary demand during WBVT remains unknown and was therefore investigated in this study. Ten patients with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 38±8% predicted) were examined on two consecutive days. On day one, symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer. The next day, six bouts of repeated squat exercises were performed in random order for one, two or three minutes either with or without WBVT while metabolic demands were simultaneously measured...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325582/a-novel-framework-for-understanding-reduced-awareness-of-dyskinesias-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Sara Palermo, Leonardo Lopiano, Maurizio Zibetti, Rosalba Rosato, Daniela Leotta, Martina Amanzio
BACKGROUND: Although dyskinesias-reduced-self-awareness (DRSA) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to deficit in metacognition, other factors, such as "Theory of Mind" (ToM), could operate. METHODS: Forty-one PD patients were assessed using the Global Awareness of Movement Disorders (GAM) and the Dyskinesias Subtracted-Index (DS-I). To study whether GAM and DS-I scores could be influenced by second-type ToM or Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) tasks, we conducted two multiple logistic regression analyses...
March 16, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325394/can-mindfulness-based-interventions-improve-the-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-moderate-severe-alopecia-areata-a-prospective-pilot-study
#15
Rosella Gallo, Carlo Chiorri, Giulia Gasparini, Alessio Signori, Anna Burroni, Aurora Parodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325111/test-of-mindfulness-based-psychosocial-skills-training-to-%C3%A4-mprove-insight-and-functional-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#16
Emine Yılmaz, Ayşe Okanlı
This study was conducted with two groups (training and control) using a pretest/posttest design to determine the effect of mindfulness-based psychosocial skills training for improving insight and functional recovery levels in patients with schizophrenia. The study sample included 45 patients with schizophrenia (21 were in the training group/mindfulness-based psychosocial skills training and 24 were in the control group/standard drug medication). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form, Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS)...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325000/mechanomyography-signals-in-spastic-muscle-and-the-correlation-with-the-modified-ashworth-scale
#17
E L Santos, M C Santos, E Krueger, G N Nogueira-Neto, P Nohama
The modified Ashworth scale (MAS) is the most widely used measurement technique to assess levels of spasticity. In MAS, the evaluator graduates spasticity considering his/her subjective analysis of the muscular endurance during passive stretching. Therefore, it is a subjective scale. Mechanomyography (MMG) allows registering the vibrations generated by muscle contraction and stretching events that propagate through the tissue until the surface of the skin. With this in mind, this study aimed to investigate possible correlations between MMG signal and muscle spasticity levels determined by MAS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324221/insuring-care-paperwork-insurance-rules-and-clinical-labor-at-a-u-s-transgender-clinic
#18
Marieke van Eijk
What is a clinician to do when people needing medical care do not have access to consistent or sufficient health insurance coverage and cannot pay for care privately? Analyzing ethnographically how clinicians at a university-based transgender clinic in the United States responded to this challenge, I examine the U.S. health insurance system, insurance paperwork, and administrative procedures that shape transgender care delivery. To buffer the impact of the system's failure to provide sufficient health insurance coverage for transgender care, clinicians blended administrative routines with psychological therapy, counseled people's minds and finances, and leveraged the prestige of their clinic in attempts to create space for gender nonconforming embodiments in gender conservative insurance policies...
March 21, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323668/mindfulness-meditation-training-and-executive-control-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Adrienne A Taren, Peter J Gianaros, Carol M Greco, Emily K Lindsay, April Fairgrieve, Kirk Warren Brown, Rhonda K Rosen, Jennifer L Ferris, Erica Julson, Anna L Marsland, J David Creswell
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g. attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) - a hub of the executive control network - and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function...
March 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323608/from-doctors-stories-to-doctors-stories-and-back-again
#20
Marcia Day Childress
Stories have always been central to medicine, but during the twentieth century bioscience all but eclipsed narrative's presence in medical practice. In Doctors' Stories, published in 1991, Kathryn Montgomery excavated medicine's narrative foundations and functions to reveal new possibilities for how to conceive and characterize medicine. Physicians' engagement with stories has since flourished, especially through the narrative medicine movement, although in the twenty-first century this has been challenged by the health care industry's business-minded and data-driven clinical systems...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
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