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Dopamine transients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766047/a-transient-dopamine-signal-represents-avoidance-value-and-causally-influences-the-demand-to-avoid
#1
Katherine J Pultorak, Scott A Schelp, Dominic P Isaacs, Gregory Krzystyniak, Erik B Oleson
While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730700/risk-seeking-for-losses-is-associated-with-5-httlpr-but-not-with-transient-changes-in-5-ht-levels
#2
Philipp T Neukam, Nils B Kroemer, Yacila I Deza Araujo, Lydia Hellrung, Shakoor Pooseh, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Uwe Schwarzenbolz, Thomas Henle, Michael N Smolka
RATIONALE: Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in different aspects of value-based decision-making. A recent framework proposed that tonic 5-HT (together with dopamine, DA) codes future average reward expectations, providing a baseline against which possible choice outcomes are compared to guide decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To test whether high 5-HT levels decrease loss aversion, risk-seeking for gains, and risk-seeking for losses. METHODS: In a first session, 611 participants were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and performed a mixed gambles (MGA) task and two probability discounting tasks for gains and losses, respectively (PDG/PDL)...
May 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712779/dopamine-triggers-ctcf-dependent-morphological-and-genomic-remodeling-of-astrocytes
#3
Ashley Galloway, Adewale Adeluyi, Bernadette O'Donovan, Miranda L Fisher, Chintada Nageswara Rao, Peyton Critchfield, Mathew Sajish, Jill R Turner, Pavel I Ortinski
Dopamine is critical for processing of reward and etiology of drug addiction. Astrocytes throughout the brain express dopamine receptors, but consequences of astrocytic dopamine receptor signaling are not well-established. We found that extracellular dopamine triggered rapid concentration-dependent stellation of astrocytic processes that was not a result of dopamine oxidation, but instead, relied on both cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent dopamine receptor signaling. This was accompanied by reduced duration and increased frequency of astrocytic Ca2+ transients, but little effect on astrocytic voltage-gated potassium channel currents...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691888/pharmacological-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-like-octopamine-receptor-in-plutella-xylostella
#4
Qing-Ting Huang, Hai-Hao Ma, Xi-Le Deng, Hang Zhu, Jia Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Mao Zhou
The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615894/trpc1-deletion-causes-striatal-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-and-proteomic-alterations-in-mice
#5
Dian Wang, Haitao Yu, Benhong Xu, Hua Xu, Zaijun Zhang, Xiaohu Ren, Jianhui Yuan, Jianjun Liu, Yi Guo, Peter S Spencer, Xifei Yang
Transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is widely expressed throughout the nervous system, while its biological role remains unclear. In this study, we showed that TRPC1 deletion caused striatal neuronal loss and significantly increased TUNEL-positive and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining in the striatum. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) revealed a total of 51 differentially expressed proteins (26 increased and 25 decreased) in the stratum of TRPC1 knockout (TRPC1-/- ) mice compared to that of wild type (WT) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605442/intranasal-administration-of-sodium-dimethyldithiocarbamate-induces-motor-deficits-and-dopaminergic-dysfunction-in-mice
#6
Josiel M Mack, Tainara M Moura, Débora Lanznaster, Franciane Bobinski, Caio M Massari, Tuane B Sampaio, Ariana E Schmitz, Luiz F Souza, Roger Walz, Carla I Tasca, Anicleto Poli, Richard L Doty, Alcir L Dafre, Rui D Prediger
The primary etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, but likely reflects a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Exposure to some pesticides, including ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), is a relevant risk factor for PD. Like some other environmental neurotoxicants, we hypothesized that ziram can enter the central nervous system from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerves. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of 1, 2 or 4 days of intranasal (i.n., 1 mg/nostril/day) infusions of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC), a dimethyldithiocarbamate more soluble than ziram, on locomotor activity in the open field, neurological severity score and rotarod performance...
March 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603470/a-silent-eligibility-trace-enables-dopamine-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-for-reinforcement-learning-in-the-mouse-striatum
#7
Tomomi Shindou, Mayumi Shindou, Sakurako Watanabe, Jeffery Wickens
Dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity is a candidate mechanism for reinforcement learning. A silent eligibility trace - initiated by synaptic activity and transformed into synaptic strengthening by later action of dopamine - has been hypothesized to explain the retroactive effect of dopamine in reinforcing past behaviour. We tested this hypothesis by measuring time-dependent modulation of synaptic plasticity by dopamine in adult mouse striatum, using whole-cell recordings. Presynaptic activity followed by postsynaptic action potentials (pre-post) caused spike-timing-dependent long-term depression in D1-expressing neurons, but not in D2 neurons, and not if postsynaptic activity followed presynaptic activity...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577888/inhibition-of-basal-and-amphetamine-stimulated-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain-by-muscarinic-acetylcholine-m4-receptors
#8
Nan He, Li-Min Mao, Adrian Sturich, Dao-Zhong Jin, John Q Wang
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially its extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subfamily, is a group of kinases enriched in the mammalian brain. While ERK is central to cell signaling and neural activities, the regulation of ERK by transmitters is poorly understood. In this study, the role of acetylcholine in the regulation of ERK was investigated in adult rat striatum in vivo. We focused on muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors, two principal muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor subtypes in the striatum...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543451/analyses-of-synthetic-n-acyl-dopamine-derivatives-revealing-different-structural-requirements-for-their-anti-inflammatory-and-transient-receptor-potential-channel-of-the-vanilloid-receptor-subfamily-subtype-1-trpv1-activating-properties
#9
Prama Pallavi, Marc Pretze, Julio Caballero, Yingchun Li, Björn B Hofmann, Eleni Stamellou, Sarah Klotz, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler, Ralf Loesel, Steffen Roth, Bastian Theisinger, Handan Moerz, Uta Binzen, Wolfgang Greffrath, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin C Harmsen, Bernhard K Krämer, Mathias Hafner, Benito A Yard, Anna-Isabelle Kälsch
We studied the chemical entities within N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) responsible for the activation of transient-receptor-potential channels of the vanilloid-receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) and inhibition of inflammation. The potency of NOD in activating TRPV1 was significantly higher compared with those of variants in which the ortho-dihydroxy groups were acetylated, one of the hydroxy groups was omitted ( N-octanoyl tyramine), or the ester functionality consisted of a bulky fatty acid ( N-pivaloyl dopamine). Shortening of the amide linker (ΔNOD) slightly increased its potency, which was further increased when the carbonyl and amide groups (ΔNODR) were interchanged...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541062/dat1-genotype-and-menstrual-cycle-but-not-hormonal-contraception-modulate-reinforcement-learning-preliminary-evidence
#10
Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535760/cell-based-reporter-system-for-high-throughput-screening-of-microrna-pathway-inhibitors-and-its-limitations
#11
Katerina Brustikova, David Sedlak, Jana Kubikova, Ctibor Skuta, Katerina Solcova, Radek Malik, Petr Bartunek, Petr Svoboda
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs repressing gene expression. They contribute to many physiological processes and pathologies. Consequently, strategies for manipulation of the miRNA pathway are of interest as they could provide tools for experimental or therapeutic interventions. One of such tools could be small chemical compounds identified through high-throughput screening (HTS) with reporter assays. While a number of chemical compounds have been identified in such high-throughput screens, their application potential remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501506/do-trpc-channels-support-working-memory-comparing-modulations-of-trpc-channels-and-working-memory-through-g-protein-coupled-receptors-and-neuromodulators
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Reboreda, Frederik M Theissen, Maria J Valero-Aracama, Alberto Arboit, Mihaela A Corbu, Motoharu Yoshida
Working memory is a crucial ability we use in daily life. However, the cellular mechanisms supporting working memory still remain largely unclear. A key component of working memory is persistent neural firing which is believed to serve short-term (hundreds of milliseconds up to tens of seconds) maintenance of necessary information. In this review, we will focus on the role of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels as a mechanism underlying persistent firing. Many years of in vitro work have been suggesting a crucial role of TRPC channels in working memory and temporal association tasks...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496512/pharmacological-analysis-of-zebrafish-lphn3-1-morphant-larvae-suggests-that-saturated-dopaminergic-signaling-could-underlie-the-adhd-like-locomotor-hyperactivity
#13
Merlin Lange, Cynthia Froc, Hannah Grunwald, William H J Norton, Laure Bally-Cuif
Polymorphisms in the gene coding for the adhesion G-protein coupled receptor LPHN3 are a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transient down-regulation of latrophilin3.1 (lphn3.1), the zebrafish LPHN3 homologue, causes hyperactivity. Zebrafish injected with a lphn3.1-specific morpholino are hyperactive and display an impairment in dopaminergic neuron development. In the present study we used lphn3.1 morphants to further characterize the changes to dopaminergic signaling that trigger hyperactivity...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492580/induced-dynamic-intracranial-pressure-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-assessment-of-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-with-high-intracranial-pressure-in-rats
#14
Denis E Bragin, Gloria L Statom, Edwin M Nemoto
OBJECTIVE: In previous work we showed that high intracranial pressure (ICP) in the rat brain induces a transition from capillary (CAP) to pathological microvascular shunt (MVS) flow, resulting in brain hypoxia, edema, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. This transition was correlated with a loss of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation undetected by static autoregulatory curves but identified by induced dynamic ICP (iPRx) and cerebrovascular (iCVRx) reactivity. We hypothesized that loss of CBF autoregulation as correlated with MVS flow would be identified by iPRx and iCVRx in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with elevated ICP...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491443/long-term-optical-brain-imaging-in-live-adult-fruit-flies
#15
Cheng Huang, Jessica R Maxey, Supriyo Sinha, Joan Savall, Yiyang Gong, Mark J Schnitzer
Time-lapse in vivo microscopy studies of cellular morphology and physiology are crucial toward understanding brain function but have been infeasible in the fruit fly, a key model species. Here we use laser microsurgery to create a chronic fly preparation for repeated imaging of neural architecture and dynamics for up to 50 days. In fly mushroom body neurons, we track axonal boutons for 10 days and record odor-evoked calcium transients over 7 weeks. Further, by using voltage imaging to resolve individual action potentials, we monitor spiking plasticity in dopamine neurons of flies undergoing mechanical stress...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468191/a-neural-circuit-mechanism-for-the-involvements-of-dopamine-in-effort-related-choices-decay-of-learned-values-secondary-effects-of-depletion-and-calculation-of-temporal-difference-error
#16
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464190/identification-of-neurotensin-receptor-expressing-cells-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-across-the-lifespan
#17
Hillary L Woodworth, Patricia A Perez-Bonilla, Bethany G Beekly, Trevor J Lewis, Gina M Leinninger
Neurotensin (Nts) promotes activation of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Nts can signal via the G protein-coupled Nts receptors 1 and 2 (NtsR1 and NtsR2), but the lack of methods to detect NtsR1- and NtsR2-expressing cells has limited mechanistic understanding of Nts action. To overcome this challenge, we generated dual recombinase mice that express FlpO-dependent Cre recombinase in NtsR1 or NtsR2 cells. This strategy permitted temporal control over recombination, such that we could identify NtsR1- or NtsR2-expressing cells and determine whether their distributions differed between the developing and adult brain...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445765/-in-vivo-observation-of-structural-changes-in-neocortical-catecholaminergic-projections-in-response-to-drugs-of-abuse
#18
Mai M Morimoto, Shinji Tanaka, Shunsuke Mizutani, Shinji Urata, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeo Okabe
Catecholaminergic (dopamine and norepinephrine) projections to the cortex play an important role in cognitive functions and dysfunctions including learning, addiction, and mental disorders. While dynamics of glutamatergic synapses have been well studied in such contexts, little is known regarding catecholaminergic projections, owing to lack of robust methods. Here we report a system to monitor catecholaminergic projections in vivo over the timeframes that such events occur. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by tyrosine hydroxylase promoter in a transgenic mouse line enabled us to perform two-photon imaging of cortical catecholaminergic projections through a cranial window...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430519/heterogeneities-in-axonal-structure-and-transporter-distribution-lower-dopamine-reuptake-efficiency
#19
Cihan Kaya, Mary H Cheng, Ethan R Block, Tom M Bartol, Terrence J Sejnowski, Alexander Sorkin, James R Faeder, Ivet Bahar
Efficient clearance of dopamine (DA) from the synapse is key to regulating dopaminergic signaling. This role is fulfilled by DA transporters (DATs). Recent advances in the structural characterization of DAT from Drosophila (dDAT) and in high-resolution imaging of DA neurons and the distribution of DATs in living cells now permit us to gain a mechanistic understanding of DA reuptake events in silico . Using electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence of transgenic knock-in mouse brains that express hemagglutinin-tagged DAT in DA neurons, we reconstructed a realistic environment for MCell simulations of DA reuptake, wherein the identity, population and kinetics of homology-modeled human DAT (hDAT) substates were derived from molecular simulations...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420469/dopamine-neuron-activity-before-action-initiation-gates-and-invigorates-future-movements
#20
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
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