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Dopamine transients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264982/dopamine-inhibition-differentially-controls-excitability-of-snc-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations-through-recruitment-of-t-type-calcium-channels
#1
Rebekah C Evans, Manhua Zhu, Zayd M Khaliq
While there is growing appreciation for diversity among ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, much less is known regarding functional heterogeneity among substantia nigra (SNc) neurons. Here, we show that calbindin-positive dorsal tier and calbindin-negative ventral tier SNc dopaminergic neurons in mice comprise functionally distinct subpopulations distinguished by their dendritic calcium signaling, rebound excitation, and physiological responses to dopamine D2-receptor (D2) autoinhibition. While dopamine is known to inhibit action potential backpropagation, our experiments revealed an unexpected enhancement of excitatory responses and dendritic calcium signals in the presence of D2-receptor inhibition...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255166/capsaicin-prevents-degeneration-of-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-glial-activation-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Young C Chung, Jeong Y Baek, Sang R Kim, Hyuk W Ko, Eugene Bok, Won-Ho Shin, So-Yoon Won, Byung K Jin
The effects of capsaicin (CAP), a transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) agonist, were determined on nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The results showed that TRPV1 activation by CAP rescued nigrostriatal DA neurons, enhanced striatal DA functions and improved behavioral recovery in MPTP-treated mice. CAP neuroprotection was associated with reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species from activated microglia-derived NADPH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase or reactive astrocyte-derived myeloidperoxidase...
March 3, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246304/acute-adaption-to-oral-or-intravenous-phosphate-requires-parathyroid-hormone
#3
Linto Thomas, Carla Bettoni, Thomas Knöpfel, Nati Hernando, Jürg Biber, Carsten A Wagner
Phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is regulated by renal, intestinal, and endocrine mechanisms through which Pi intake stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 secretion, increasing phosphaturia. Mechanisms underlying the early adaptive phase and the role of the intestine, however, remain ill defined. We investigated mineral, endocrine, and renal responses during the first 4 hours after intravenous and intragastric Pi loading in rats. Intravenous Pi loading (0.5 mmol) caused a transient rise in plasma Pi levels and creatinine clearance and an increase in phosphaturia within 10 minutes...
March 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245355/ultrasound-mediated-self-healing-hydrogels-based-on-tunable-metal-organic-bonding
#4
Wei-Chen Huang, Faisal Ali, Jingsi Zhao, Kelsey Rhee, Chenchen Mou, Christopher J Bettinger
Stimulus-responsive hydrogels make up an important class of programmable materials for a wide range of biomedical applications. Ultrasound (US) is a stimulus that offers utility because of its ability to permeate tissue and rapidly induce chemical alterations in aqueous media. Here we report on the synthesis and US-mediated disintegration of stimulus-responsive telechelic Dopa-modified polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels. Fe(3+)-[PEG-Dopa]4 hydrogels are formed through Fe(3+)-induced cross-linking of four-arm polyethylene glycol-dopamine precursors to produce networks...
March 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243212/transient-dysregulation-of-dopamine-signaling-in-a-developing-drosophila-arousal-circuit-permanently-impairs-behavioral-responsiveness-in-adults
#5
Lachlan Ferguson, Alice Petty, Chelsie Rohrscheib, Michael Troup, Leonie Kirszenblat, Darryl W Eyles, Bruno van Swinderen
The dopamine ontogeny hypothesis for schizophrenia proposes that transient dysregulation of the dopaminergic system during brain development increases the likelihood of this disorder in adulthood. To test this hypothesis in a high-throughput animal model, we have transiently manipulated dopamine signaling in the developing fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and examined behavioral responsiveness in adult flies. We found that either a transient increase of dopamine neuron activity or a transient decrease of dopamine receptor expression during fly brain development permanently impairs behavioral responsiveness in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236873/perianesthetic-refractory-anaphylactic-shock-with-cefuroxime-in-a-patient-with-history-of-penicillin-allergy-on-multiple-antihypertensive-medications
#6
Deb Sanjay Nag, Devi Prasad Samaddar, Shashi Kant, Pratap Rudra Mahanty
We report a case of perianesthetic refractory anaphylactic shock with cefuroxime in a patient with history of penicillin allergy on regular therapy with atenolol, losartan, prazosin and nicardipine. Severe anaphylactic shock was only transiently responsive to 10mL of (1:10,000) epinephrine and needed norepinephrine and dopamine infusion. Supportive therapy with vasopressors and inotropes along with mechanical ventilation for the next 24hours resulted in complete recovery. She was successfully operated upon 2 weeks later with the same anesthetic drugs but intravenous ciprofloxacin as the alternative antibiotic for perioperative prophylaxis...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225217/proteomic-analysis-of-the-cullin4b-interactome-using-proximity-dependent-biotinylation-in-living-cells
#7
Hailong Zhang, Shupeng Li, Pingting Liu, Frankie H F Lee, Albert H C Wong, Fang Liu
Cullin 4B (CUL4B) mutations have been implicated in mental retardation and dopamine-related behaviors due to disruptions in their interaction with Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs). Thus, further identification of CUL4B substrates can increase the knowledge of protein homeostasis and illuminate the role of CUL4B in neuropsychiatric disease. However, the transient nature of the coupling between CUL4B and its substrates is difficult to detect in vivo using current approaches, thus hampers efforts to investigate functions of CRLs within unperturbed living systems...
February 22, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219741/regulation-of-human-gdnf-gene-expression-in-nigral-dopaminergic-neurons-using-a-new-doxycycline-regulated-nts-polyplex-nanoparticle-system
#8
Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Michael J Bannon, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Lourdes Escobedo-Sanchez, Jose Ayala-Davila, David Reyes-Corona, Guadalupe Soto-Rodriguez, Vicente Escamilla-Rivera, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz, M Eugenia Gutierrez-Castillo, America Padilla-Viveros, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The human glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) gene transfer by neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanoparticles functionally restores the dopamine nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinson's disease models. However, high levels of sustained expression of GDNF eventually can cause harmful effects. Herein, we report an improved NTS-polyplex nanoparticle system that enables regulation of hGDNF expression within dopaminergic neurons. We constructed NTS-polyplex nanoparticles containing a single bifunctional plasmid that codes for the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator advanced (rtTA-Adv) under the control of NBRE3x promoter, and for hGDNF under the control of tetracycline-response element (TRE)...
February 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212938/the-combined-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-and-selected-substituted-methcathinones-on-measures-of-neurotoxicity
#9
Nicholas B Miner, James P O'Callaghan, Tamara J Phillips, Aaron Janowsky
The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg...
February 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196418/automated-algorithm-for-detection-of-transient-adenosine-release
#10
Ryan P Borman, Ying Wang, Michael D Nguyen, Mallikarjunarao Ganesana, Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Spontaneous adenosine release events have been discovered in the brain that last only a few seconds. The identification of these adenosine events from fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data is difficult due to the random nature of adenosine release. In this study, we develop an algorithm that automatically identifies and characterizes adenosine transient features, including event time, concentration, and duration. Automating the data analysis reduces analysis time from 10 to 18 h to about 40 min per experiment...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145492/hypocretin-orexin-peptides-excite-rat-neuroendocrine-dopamine-neurons-through-orexin-2-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-mixed-cation-current
#11
David J Lyons, Arash Hellysaz, Rachida Ammari, Christian Broberger
Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are compelling modulator candidates for the chronobiology of neuroendocrine output and, as a consequence, hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Here we investigate the effects of H/O peptides upon tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons - cells which control, via inhibition, the pituitary secretion of prolactin. In whole cell recordings performed in male rat hypothalamic slices, application of H/O-A, as well as H/O-B, excited oscillating TIDA neurons, inducing a reversible depolarising switch from phasic to tonic discharge...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145402/dysfunction-of-ventrolateral-striatal-dopamine-receptor-type-2-expressing-medium-spiny-neurons-impairs-instrumental-motivation
#12
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Hiroyuki Takiue, Keitaro Yoshida, Ming Xu, Ryutaro Yano, Hiroyuki Ohta, Hiroshi Nishida, Youcef Bouchekioua, Hideyuki Okano, Motokazu Uchigashima, Masahiko Watanabe, Norio Takata, Michael R Drew, Hiromi Sano, Masaru Mimura, Kenji F Tanaka
Impaired motivation is present in a variety of neurological disorders, suggesting that decreased motivation is caused by broad dysfunction of the nervous system across a variety of circuits. Based on evidence that impaired motivation is a major symptom in the early stages of Huntington's disease, when dopamine receptor type 2-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (D2-MSNs) are particularly affected, we hypothesize that degeneration of these neurons would be a key node regulating motivational status. Using a progressive, time-controllable, diphtheria toxin-mediated cell ablation/dysfunction technique, we find that loss-of-function of D2-MSNs within ventrolateral striatum (VLS) is sufficient to reduce goal-directed behaviours without impairing reward preference or spontaneous behaviour...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115487/cholinergic-interneurons-underlie-spontaneous-dopamine-release-in-nucleus-accumbens
#13
Jordan T Yorgason, Douglas M Zeppenfeld, John T Williams
The release of dopamine from terminals in the NAc is regulated by a number of factors, including voltage-gated ion channels, D2-autoreceptors, and nAChRs. Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) drive dopamine release through activation of nAChRs on dopamine terminals. Using cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices, nAChR-dependent spontaneous dopamine transients and the mechanisms underlying the origin were examined in the NAc. Spontaneous events were infrequent (0.3 per minute), but the rate and amplitude were increased after blocking Kv channels with 4-aminopyridine...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053043/habenula-induced-inhibition-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-is-diminished-by-lesions-of-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus
#14
P Leon Brown, Heather Palacorolla, Dana Brady, Katelyn Riegger, Greg I Elmer, Paul D Shepard
Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) are transiently activated by aversive events and have been implicated in associative learning. Functional changes associated with tonic and phasic activation of the LHb are often attributed to a corresponding inhibition of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Activation of GABAergic neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a region that receives dense projections from the LHb and projects strongly to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei, is believed to underlie the transient inhibition of DA neurons attributed to activation of the LHb...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032295/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-alters-synaptic-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain
#15
Li-Min Mao, Henry H Wang, John Q Wang
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key transmitter in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. By interacting with muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) enriched in the circuit, ACh actively regulates various neuronal and synaptic activities. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and is subject to the regulation by dopamine receptors, although the regulation of ERKs by limbic mAChRs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo...
December 28, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009293/calcium-release-from-stores-inhibits-girk
#16
Paul F Kramer, John T Williams
Synaptic transmission is mediated by ionotropic and metabotropic receptors that together regulate the rate and pattern of action potential firing. Metabotropic receptors can activate ion channels and modulate other receptors and channels. The present paper examines the interaction between group 1 mGluR-mediated calcium release from stores and GABAB/D2-mediated GIRK currents in rat dopamine neurons of the Substantia Nigra. Transient activation of mGluRs decreased the GIRK current evoked by GABAB and D2 receptors, although less efficaciously for D2...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#17
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976722/ventral-tegmental-area-glutamate-neurons-co-release-gaba-and-promote-positive-reinforcement
#18
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Navarre Gutierrez-Reed, Johnathan Wu, Reed Ressler, Mohammad Ali Shenasa, Alexander B Johnson, Kathryn H Fife, Lauren Faget, Thomas S Hnasko
In addition to dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains GABA-, glutamate- and co-releasing neurons, and recent reports suggest a complex role for the glutamate neurons in behavioural reinforcement. We report that optogenetic stimulation of VTA glutamate neurons or terminals serves as a positive reinforcer on operant behavioural assays. Mice display marked preference for brief over sustained VTA glutamate neuron stimulation resulting in behavioural responses that are notably distinct from dopamine neuron stimulation and resistant to dopamine receptor antagonists...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975167/lrrk2-expression-is-deregulated-in-fibroblasts-and-neurons-from-parkinson-patients-with-mutations-in-pink1
#19
Garikoitz Azkona, Rakel López de Maturana, Patricia Del Rio, Amaya Sousa, Nerea Vazquez, Amaia Zubiarrain, Daniel Jimenez-Blasco, Juan P Bolaños, Blas Morales, Georg Auburger, José Matias Arbelo, Rosario Sánchez-Pernaute
Mutations in PINK1 (PARK6), a serine/threonine kinase involved in mitochondrial homeostasis, are associated with early onset Parkinson's disease. Fibroblasts from Parkinson's disease patients with compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.1488 + 1G > A; c.1252_1488del) showed no apparent signs of mitochondrial impairment. To elucidate changes primarily caused by lack of functional PINK1, we over-expressed wild-type PINK1, which induced a significant downregulation of LRRK2 (PARK8). Indeed, we found that LRRK2 protein basal levels were significantly higher in the mutant PINK1 fibroblasts...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974611/activation-of-glutamatergic-fibers-in-the-anterior-nac-shell-modulates-reward-activity-in-the-anacsh-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-transiently-stops-feeding
#20
Luis Prado, Jorge Luis-Islas, Osvaldo I Sandoval, Liliana Puron, Moreno M Gil, Alvaro Luna, Mario A Arias-García, Elvira Galarraga, Sidney A Simon, Ranier Gutierrez
Although the release of mesoaccumbal dopamine is certainly involved in rewarding responses, recent studies point to the importance of the interaction between it and glutamate. One important component of this network is the anterior nucleus accumbens shell (aNAcSh), which sends GABAergic projections into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and receives extensive glutamatergic inputs from, among others, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The effects of glutamatergic activation of aNAcSh on the ingestion of rewarding stimuli as well as its effect in the LH and mPFC are not well understood...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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