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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430796/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-mellitus-comorbidity-a-systematic-review
#1
Mahteme Haile Workneh, Gunnar Aksel Bjune, Solomon Abebe Yimer
INTRODUCTION: The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. METHODS: Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420365/social-determinants-of-antibiotic-misuse-a-qualitative-study-of-community-members-in-haryana-india
#2
Anna K Barker, Kelli Brown, Muneeb Ahsan, Sharmila Sengupta, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health crisis. In India alone, multi-drug resistant organisms are responsible for over 58,000 infant deaths each year. A major driver of drug resistance is antibiotic misuse, which is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide. Due to a shortage of trained doctors, access to licensed allopathic doctors is limited in India's villages. Pharmacists and unlicensed medical providers are commonly the primary sources of healthcare. Patients themselves are also key participants in the decision to treat an illness with antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419550/urban-primate-ranging-patterns-gps-collar-deployments-for-macaca-fascicularis-and-m-sylvanus
#3
Amy R Klegarth, Hope Hollocher, Lisa Jones-Engel, Eric Shaw, Benjamin P Y-H Lee, Tessa Feeney, Damian Holmes, Dale Laguea, Agustín Fuentes
The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments...
May 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415983/exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-non-invasive-biomarker-of-short-term-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution
#4
Herve Lawin, Lucie Ayi Fanou, Vikkey Hinson, Jacqueline Wanjiku, N Kingsley Ukwaja, Stephen B Gordon, Benjamin Fayomi, John R Balmes, Parfait Houngbegnon, Euripide Avokpaho, Ambaliou Sanni
BACKGROUND: In urban settings of Africa with rapidly increasing population, traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to outdoor air pollution (OAP). Although OAP has been identified as a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, there is however, lack of a simple biomarker to assess levels of exposure to OAP in resource-poor settings. This study evaluated the role of exhaled carbon monoxide (exhCO) as a potential biomarker of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (ambCO) from OAP...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415665/mental-health-of-the-old-and-new-generation-migrant-workers-in-china-who-are-at-greater-risk-for-psychological-distress
#5
Bao-Liang Zhong, Sandra S M Chan, Tie-Bang Liu, Dong Jin, Chi-Yi Hu, Helen F K Chiu
Rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) are a large vulnerable population in China and, recently, the new-generation MWs (those born in 1980 or later) have become the majority of this population. Examining difference in the epidemiology of poor mental health between the new- and old-generation (those born before 1980) MWs would facilitate mental health promotion efforts. However, very few related studies are available and they produced conflicting findings. This study investigated intergenerational difference in prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (PD) in MWs...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414410/preparing-family-physicians-to-care-for-underserved-populations-a-historical-perspective
#6
Denise V Rodgers, Andrea L Wendling, George W Saba, Megan Ruth Mahoney, Joedrecka S Brown Speights
Family physicians have been involved in the care of rural and urban underserved populations since the founding of the specialty. In the early 1970s family medicine training programs specifically focused on training residents to work with the underserved were established in both urban and rural settings. Key to the success of these programs has been a specific focus on improving access to care, understanding and eliminating health disparities, cultural competency and behavioral science training that recognizes the challenges often faced by patients and families living in poor rural and urban areas of the country...
April 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414260/retention-in-hiv-care-and-viral-suppression-individual-and-neighborhood-level-predictors-of-racial-ethnic-differences-florida-2015
#7
Diana M Sheehan, Kristopher P Fennie, Daniel E Mauck, Lorene M Maddox, Spencer Lieb, Mary Jo Trepka
The objective of this study was to estimate racial/ethnic differences in retention in HIV care and viral suppression and to identify related individual and neighborhood determinants. Florida HIV surveillance records of cases aged ≥13 years diagnosed during the years 2000-2014 were analyzed. Retention in care was defined as evidence of ≥2 or more laboratory tests, receipts of prescription, or clinical visits at least 3 months apart during 2015. Viral load suppression was defined as a viral load of <200 copies/mL for the last test in 2015...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412072/do-slow-and-steady-residents-win-the-race-modeling-the-effects-of-peak-and-overall-resident-productivity-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Joshua W Joseph, Victor Novack, Matthew L Wong, Larry A Nathanson, Leon D Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine residents need to be staffed in a way that balances operational needs with their educational experience. Key to developing an optimal schedule is knowing a resident's expected productivity, a poorly understood metric. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure how a resident's busiest (peak) workload affects their overall productivity for the shift. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of resident productivity at an urban, tertiary care center with a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved emergency medicine training program, with 55,000 visits annually...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410337/adaptation-of-lean-six-sigma-methodologies-for-the-evaluation-of-veterans-choice-program-at-3-urban-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#9
Sherry L Ball, Lauren D Stevenson, Amy C Ladebue, Marina S McCreight, Emily C Lawrence, Taryn Oestreich, Anne C Lambert-Kerzner
OBJECTIVE: The Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) is adapting to meet the changing needs of our Veterans. VHA leaders are promoting quality improvement strategies including Lean Six Sigma (LSS). This study used LSS tools to evaluate the Veterans Choice Program (VCP), a program that aims to improve access to health care services for eligible Veterans by expanding health care options to non-VHA providers. RESEARCH DESIGN: LSS was utilized to assess the current process and efficiency patterns of the VCP at 3 VHA Medical Centers...
April 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409674/comparing-rural-and-urban-cervical-and-breast-cancer-screening-rates-in-a-privately-insured-population
#10
John Orwat, Nadine Caputo, Whitney Key, Jeanne De Sa
Low preventive screening varies by region and contributes to poor outcomes for breast and cervical cancer. Previous comparative urban and rural research on preventive screening has focused on government programs. This study quantified and compared rural and urban preventive cancer screening rates for women who were privately insured. National Quality Forum measures were used to calculate rates for women within rural and urban parts of the same Hospital Referral Region (HRR) using claims data. Mammography screening rates for women age 24 to 69 years were 77...
April 14, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408736/mief1-2-function-as-adaptors-to-recruit-drp1-to-mitochondria-and-regulate-the-association-of-drp1-with-mff
#11
Rong Yu, Tong Liu, Shao-Bo Jin, Chenfei Ning, Urban Lendahl, Monica Nistér, Jian Zhao
Mitochondrial dynamics is a fundamental cellular process and recruitment of Drp1 to mitochondria is an essential step in mitochondrial fission. Mff and MIEF1/2 (MiD51/49) serve as key receptors for recruitment of Drp1 to mitochondria in mammals. However, if and how these receptors work together in mitochondrial fission is poorly understood. Here we show that MIEFs interact with both Drp1 and Mff on the mitochondrial surface and serve as adaptors linking Drp1 and Mff together in a trimeric Drp1-MIEF-Mff complex...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408543/determinants-of-institutional-delivery-among-young-married-women-in-nepal-evidence-from-the-nepal-demographic-and-health-survey-2011
#12
Asm Shahabuddin, Vincent De Brouwere, Ramesh Adhikari, Alexandre Delamou, Azucena Bardaj, Therese Delvaux
OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. DESIGN: Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15-24 years). OUTCOME MEASURE: Place of delivery. RESULTS: The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age...
April 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408128/health-disparities-in-the-appropriate-management-of-cryptorchidism
#13
Kate B Savoie, Marielena Bachier-Rodriguez, Elleson Schurtz, Elizabeth A Tolley, Dana Giel, Alexander Feliz
OBJECTIVE: To assess regional practices in management of cryptorchidism with regard to timely fixation by the current recommended age of 18 months. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed. Charts of all patients who underwent surgical correction for cryptorchidism by a pediatric general surgeon or urologist within a tertiary pediatric hospital in an urban setting were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 1209 patients with cryptorchidism...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403244/wild-inside-urban-wild-boar-select-natural-not-anthropogenic-food-resources
#14
Milena Stillfried, Pierre Gras, Matthias Busch, Konstantin Börner, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Sylvia Ortmann
Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB) from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,), percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA) and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402457/analysis-of-cost-variation-in-craniotomy-for-tumor-using-2-national-databases
#15
Corinna C Zygourakis, Caterina Y Liu, Seungwon Yoon, Christopher Moriates, Christy Boscardin, R Adams Dudley, Michael T Lawton, Philip Theodosopoulos, Mitchel S Berger, Ralph Gonzales
BACKGROUND: There is a significant increase and large variation in craniotomy costs. However, the causes of cost differences in craniotomies remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the patient and hospital factors that underlie the cost variation in tumor craniotomies using 2 national databases: the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Vizient, Inc. (Irving, Texas). METHODS: For 41 483 patients who underwent primary surgery for supratentorial brain tumors from 2001 to 2013 in the NIS, we created univariate and multivariate models to evaluate the effect of several patient factors and hospital factors on total hospital cost...
April 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401393/the-role-of-forest-in-mitigating-the-impact-of-atmospheric-dust-pollution-in-a-mixed-landscape
#16
Artur Santos, Pedro Pinho, Silvana Munzi, Maria João Botelho, José Manuel Palma-Oliveira, Cristina Branquinho
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399975/survey-of-health-care-worker-knowledge-about-childhood-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-centers-in-botswana
#17
T Arscott-Mills, L Masole, R Ncube, A P Steenhoff
BACKGROUND: Quantifying health care workers' (HCWs') knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) informs educational interventions. We assessed HCWs' knowledge about childhood TB in Botswana. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCWs at 46 sites around Botswana using a piloted instrument. Transcripts were double-coded using a coding schema. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus and a systematic thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The sites (42 clinics and 4 hospitals) were urban (n = 9, 20%), semi-urban (n = 10, 22%) and rural (n = 27, 58%)...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399509/intimate-partner-violence-among-pregnant-women-in-rwanda-its-associated-risk-factors-and-relationship-to-anc-services-attendance-a-population-based-study
#18
Akashi Andrew Rurangirwa, Ingrid Mogren, Joseph Ntaganira, Gunilla Krantz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398259/geospatial-analysis-of-inflammatory-breast-cancer-and-associated-community-characteristics-in-the-united-states
#19
Lia Scott, Lee R Mobley, Dora Il'yasova
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer, almost always diagnosed at late stage where mortality outcomes and morbidity burdens are known to be worse. Missed by mammography screening, IBC progresses rapidly and reaches late stage by the time of diagnosis. With an unknown etiology and poor prognosis, it is crucial to evaluate the distribution of the disease in the population as well as identify area social and economic contextual risk factors that may be contributing to the observed patterns of IBC incidence...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397062/multi-metal-resistance-and-plant-growth-promotion-potential-of-a-wastewater-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-its-synergistic-benefits
#20
Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Monojit Mondal, Jörg Rinklebe, Santosh Kumar Sarkar, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Mahendra Rai, Sabry M Shaheen, Hocheol Song, Muhammad Rizwan
Water and soil pollution by toxic heavy metals (HMs) is increasing globally because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. It is a burning problem for the public, scientists, academicians and politicians how to tackle the toxic contaminants which jeopardize the environment. One possible solution for pollution abatement is a bioremediation-effective and innovative technology that uses biological systems for treatment of contaminants. Many bacteria synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) which is a product of L-tryptophan metabolism and belongs to the auxin class of plant growth-promoting hormone...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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