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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922412/walker-occupancy-has-an-impact-on-changing-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-an-underground-pedestrian-space-as-small-dust-particles-increased-with-raising-both-temperature-and-humidity
#1
Torahiko Okubo, Takako Osaki, Eriko Nozaki, Akira Uemura, Kouhei Sakai, Mizue Matushita, Junji Matsuo, Shinji Nakamura, Shigeru Kamiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Although human occupancy is a source of airborne bacteria, the role of walkers on bacterial communities in built environments is poorly understood. Therefore, we visualized the impact of walker occupancy combined with other factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, dust particles) on airborne bacterial features in the Sapporo underground pedestrian space in Sapporo, Japan. Air samples (n = 18; 4,800L/each sample) were collected at 8:00 h to 20:00 h on 3 days (regular sampling) and at early morning / late night (5:50 h to 7:50 h / 22:15 h to 24:45 h) on a day (baseline sampling), and the number of CFUs (colony forming units) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and other factors were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916507/cardiac-patients-experiences-and-perceptions-of-social-media-mixed-methods-study
#2
Stephanie R Partridge, Anne C Grunseit, Patrick Gallagher, Becky Freeman, Blythe J O'Hara, Lis Neubeck, Sarah Due, Glenn Paull, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Philayrath Phongsavan, Kellie Roach, Leonie Sadler, Helen Glinatsis, Robyn Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients' experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients' experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915993/marching-to-a-different-drummer-a-cross-cultural-comparison-of-young-adolescents-who-challenge-gender-norms
#3
Chunyan Yu, Xiayun Zuo, Robert W Blum, Deborah L Tolman, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Sharmistha Basu, Rajib Acharya, Qiguo Lian, Chaohua Lou
PURPOSE: Little is known about how gender norms regulate adolescents' lives across different cultural settings. This study aims to illustrate what is considered as violating gender norms for boys and girls in four urban poor sites as well as the consequences that follow the challenging of gender norms. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study, a 15-country collaboration to explore gender norms and health in early adolescence. The current study analyzed narrative and in-depth interviews conducted in urban poor sites in two middle-income (Shanghai, China; and New Delhi, India) and two high-income countries (Baltimore, U...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915992/-boys-should-have-the-courage-to-ask-a-girl-out-gender-norms-in-early-adolescent-romantic-relationships
#4
Sara De Meyer, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Juliet McEachran, Elisa Chilet-Rosell, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Elena M Jerves, Candace Currie, Kristien Michielsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915991/adolescent-and-parental-reactions-to-puberty-in-nigeria-and-kenya-a-cross-cultural-and-intergenerational-comparison
#5
Bamidele M Bello, Adesegun O Fatusi, Oluwatomi E Adepoju, Beatrice W Maina, Caroline W Kabiru, Marni Sommer, Kristin Mmari
PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915988/learning-to-be-gendered-gender-socialization-in-early-adolescence-among-urban-poor-in-delhi-india-and-shanghai-china
#6
Sharmistha Basu, Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Rajib Acharya, Rebecka Lundgren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. METHODS: The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#7
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915113/causative-factors-for-sexual-and-reproductive-health-status-of-pregnant-adolescent-girls-in-urban-communities-of-lagos-nigeria
#8
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Toriola T Femi-Adebayo, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Elochukwu E Ukatu
Background The overall goal of this study was to determine the causative factors for pregnancy status in adolescent girls in two communities in the Lagos Island local government area. Methods A mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) study reviewing routine health facility antenatal care (ANC) records and conducting focus group discussions among 46 pregnant adolescents, exploring their views about sex, contraception, pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, was carried out. Key informant interviews were also carried out among healthcare workers and community members to assess their perceptions of adolescents' SRH problems...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905422/the-role-of-primary-care-for-the-oral-health-of-rural-and-urban-older-adults
#9
Julia T Caldwell, Haena Lee, Kathleen A Cagney
CONTEXT: Rural populations often have restricted access to dental care and poor oral health. These problems may disproportionately affect older blacks in rural areas. Little is known about how access to primary health care may improve the oral health of rural seniors. PURPOSE: This study examines whether the relationship between having a usual source of health care and oral health varies for white and black older adults in rural and urban areas in the United States...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904784/marine-dock-pilings-foster-diverse-native-cryptobenthic-fish-assemblages-across-bioregions
#10
Simon J Brandl, Jordan M Casey, Nancy Knowlton, James Emmett Duffy
Anthropogenic habitats are increasingly prevalent in coastal marine environments. Previous research on sessile epifauna suggests that artificial habitats act as a refuge for nonindigenous species, which results in highly homogenous communities across locations. However, vertebrate assemblages that live in association with artificial habitats are poorly understood. Here, we quantify the biodiversity of small, cryptic (henceforth "cryptobenthic") fishes from marine dock pilings across six locations over 35° of latitude from Maine to Panama...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904715/awareness-of-hypertension-and-its-impact-on-blood-pressure-control-among-elderly-nigerians-report-from-the-ibadan-study-of-aging
#11
Yemi Raheem Raji, Taiwo Abiona, Oye Gureje
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is highly prevalent among the elderly. Its awareness has a direct influence on control through drug adherence. Earlier studies have shown that awareness of hypertension is low among sub-Saharan African populations but only a few studies have looked at the prevalence and awareness of hypertension among the elderly. METHODS: The Ibadan Study of Ageing is a longitudinal cohort study of the mental and physical health status as well as the functioning of elderly persons residing in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904464/clinical-features-risk-factors-and-short-term-outcome-of-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-data-from-a-population-based-study
#12
William G Akanksha, Kaur Paramdeep, Singh Gagandeep, Bansal Rajinder, S Paul Birinder, Singla Monika, Singh Shavinder, J Samuel Clarence, J Verma Shweta, Meenakshi Sharma, D Pandian Jeyaraj
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disorder associated with stroke. This study was done to describe risk factors, clinical features, and short-term outcomes of stroke patients with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a part of the Indian Council of Medical Research funded "Ludhiana urban population based Stroke Registry." Data were collected using WHO STEPS stroke method. All patients ≥18 years of age, who developed ischemic stroke between March 26, 2011, and March 25, 2013, were included in this study...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899842/identifying-which-urban-children-with-asthma-benefit-most-from-clinician-prompting-sub-analyses-from-the-pair-up-trial
#13
Nicolas P N Goldstein, Sean M Frey, Maria Fagnano, Sande O Okelo, Jill S Halterman
OBJECTIVE: Clinician prompts increase the likelihood of guideline-recommended corrective actions (preventive medication prescription, dose change, and/or adherence promotion) for symptomatic children with poorly controlled or persistent asthma in the primary care setting, but it is unclear if all children benefit equally. The objectives of this study were to identify whether asthma severity, visit type, and current preventive medication use were predictive of corrective actions during visits for children with symptomatic asthma, and determine whether these factors modified the impact of a prompting intervention...
September 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899028/street-audits-to-measure-neighborhood-disorder-virtual-or-in-person
#14
Stephen J Mooney, Michael D M Bader, Gina S Lovasi, Julien O Teitler, Karestan C Koenen, Allison E Aiello, Sandro Galea, Emily Goldmann, Daniel M Sheehan, Andrew G Rundle
Neighborhood conditions may influence a broad range of health indicators, including obesity, injury, and psychopathology. In particular, neighborhood physical disorder-a measure of urban deterioration-is thought to encourage crime and high-risk behaviors, leading to poor mental and physical health. In studies to assess neighborhood physical disorder, investigators typically rely on time-consuming and expensive in-person systematic neighborhood audits. We compared 2 audit-based measures of neighborhood physical disorder in the city of Detroit, Michigan: One used Google Street View imagery from 2009 and the other used an in-person survey conducted in 2008...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895688/breakfast-nutritional-status-and-socioeconomic-outcome-measures-among-primary-school-students-from-the-city-of-salta-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Susana J Gotthelf, Claudia P Tempestti
INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic context and family dynamics are determining factors when considering eating habits and nutritional status among students. It has been demonstrated that skipping breakfast or having a light breakfast has an unfavorable impact on nutritional status. OBJETIVE: To establish a relationship among breakfast, sociodemographic outcome measures, and nutritional status among students attending public schools in the urban and peri-urban areas of the City of Salta...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893214/a-mixed-methods-study-on-evaluating-the-performance-of-a-multi-strategy-national-health-program-to-reduce-maternal-and-child-health-disparities-in-haryana-india
#16
Madhu Gupta, Hans Bosma, Federica Angeli, Manmeet Kaur, Venkatesan Chakrapani, Monica Rana, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: A multi pronged community based strategy, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 in India to curtail maternal and child health (MCH) disparities between poor and rich, rural and urban areas, and boys and girls,. This study aimed to determine the degree to which MCH plans of NRHM implemented, and resulted in improving the MCH outcomes and reducing the inequalities. METHODS: An explanatory sequential mixed methods study was conducted, first to assess the degree of implementation of MCH plans by estimating the budget utilization rates of each MCH plan, and the effectiveness of these plans by comparing demographic health surveys data conducted post (2012-13), during (2007-08) and pre- (2002-04) NRHM implementation period, in the quantitative study...
September 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892853/tracking-trace-elements-into-complex-coral-reef-trophic-networks
#17
Marine J Briand, Paco Bustamante, Xavier Bonnet, Carine Churlaud, Yves Letourneur
The integration, accumulation and transfer of trace elements across the main tropic levels of many food webs are poorly documented. This is notably the case for the complex trophic webs of coral reef ecosystems. Our results show that in the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia both abiotic (i.e. sediments) and biotic (i.e. primary producers, consumers and predators) compartments are contaminated by trace elements. However, our analyses revealed different contamination patterns from the sources of organic matter to the predators...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891541/inequity-in-access-to-childhood-immunization-in-enugu-urban-southeast-nigeria
#18
B S Uzochukwu, C C Okeke, E Envuladu, C Mbachu, C Okwuosa, O E Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: The Nigerian National Programme on Immunization aims at increasing the immunization coverage of children under 1 year of age. However, there is still a gap between the national immunization targets and the immunization coverage rates, and data are rarely disaggregated according to socioeconomic status. As a result, there is a dearth of information about the coverage of subgroups, especially at the local level. This study determined the socioeconomic differentials in immunization coverage for children under 5 years and under 1 year in Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891407/substance-use-and-self-harm-case-studies-from-patients-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-following-medically-serious-self-harm
#19
Elsie Breet, Jason Bantjes
Few qualitative studies have explored the relationship between substance use and self-harm. We employed a multiple-case study research design to analyze data from 80 patients who were admitted to a hospital in South Africa following self-harm. Our analysis revealed, from the perspective of patients, a number of distinct ways in which substance use is implicated in self-harm. Some patients reported that substance intoxication resulted in poor decision making and impulsivity, which led to self-harm. Others said substance use facilitated their self-harm...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890649/recent-alcohol-tobacco-and-substance-use-variations-between-rural-and-urban-middle-and-high-school-students
#20
Jacob C Warren, K Bryant Smalley, K Nikki Barefoot
The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural vs. urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6-12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (n = 513,909). We found that rural-urban differences in substance use depend largely upon grade level, with rural middle school students demonstrating higher rates of alcohol, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco use, and urban high school students demonstrating higher rates of illicit drugs...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
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