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Amar Pujari, Atul Kumar, Rohan Chawla, Sudarshan Khokhar, Divya Agarwal, Meghal Gagrani, Namrata Sharma, Pradeep Sharma
Purpose: To review the nature of firecracker-related ocular injuries at a tertiary eye hospital in northern India following the firecracker ban and also to review the level of awareness among the victims. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving the patients presenting with firecracker-related ocular injuries from October 18 to 27, 2017 were assessed for demographic distribution, detailed ocular evaluation, and a questionnaire related to the awareness about the injuries...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Gisele Peirano, Yasufumi Matsumura, Mark D Adams, Patricia Bradford, Mary Motyl, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Johann D D Pitout
We performed whole-genome sequencing on 170 clinical carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates collected globally during 2008-2014. The most common carbapenemase was VIM, followed by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, oxacillin 48, and IMP. The isolates were of predominantly 2 species (E. xiangfangensis and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii) and 4 global clones (sequence type [ST] 114, ST93, ST90, and ST78) with different clades within ST114 and ST90. Particular genetic structures surrounding carbapenemase genes were circulating locally in various institutions within the same or between different STs in Greece, Guatemala, Italy, Spain, Serbia, and Vietnam...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rahul Kumar, Mayank Gautam, Pranav Prasoon, Shivani Gupta, Subrata Basu Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infiltration of surgical wound with local anaesthetics attenuate postoperative pain. However, side effects can also occur. Somatostatin (SST) and its analogues like octreotide reportedly reduce peripheral sensitisation. The current study evaluates peripherally mediated antinociceptive effect of SST in a rat model of postoperative pain. This was compared with bupivacaine and morphine under identical experimental conditions. DESIGN: Randomised vehicle-controlled blind study...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Ka Lip Chew, Michelle K L Tay, Bernadette Cheng, Raymond T P Lin, Sophie Octavia, Jeanette W P Teo
Newly approved Food and Drug Administration (FDA) β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor (βL-βLI) inhibitor combinations such as ceftazidime-avibactam and meropenem-vaborbactam are potent inhibitors of class A carbapenemase (typified by KPC [ Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase]-like) (1, 2) but are ineffective against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) producing class B metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) (1-4).….
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Meenal Dhall, Kshetrimayum Surmala Devi, Nilupher, Urvashi Gupta, Renu Tyagi, Satwanti Kapoor
AIM: Study aims to assess the association of various adiposity markers with blood pressure levels. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted in Delhi. A total of 568 (males- 250, females- 318) participants aged 20-55 years were enrolled for the study. RESULT: Mean height (167.35 ± 7.59) and weight (73.76 ± 15.08) was found to be significantly higher in males. Mean values of minimum waist circumference (183...
May 5, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Ravichandiran Kumar, Brinda Chandar, Madasamy Parani
Background & objectives: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) cleaves the beta-lactam ring, and confers bacterial resistance against most of the beta-lactam antibiotics, except tigecycline and colistin. Among these two antibiotics, colistin is considered toxic, and therefore, its clinical use and dosage need cautious approach. In the present study, six organic acids were screened individually and in combination of two acids for their effectiveness against NDM-1 Escherichia coli and a combination of colistin and oxalic or succinic acid was tested to find out the potential of combination therapy for reducing the dose of toxic colistin...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Nidhi Bhardwaj, Purva Mathur, Bijayini Behera, Kushal Mathur, Arti Kapil, Mahesh C Misra
Background & objectives: The incidence and severity of invasive and non-invasive infections demonstrate variability over time. The emerging resistance of Group A streptococci (GAS) to commonly used antibiotics is of grave concern. This study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of beta-haemolytic streptococci (βHS) in India and to ascertain the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Methods: All isolates of βHS from the Trauma Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) (north India), and heavily populated area of old Delhi from 2010 to 2014 and Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad (in south India, 2010-2012) and preserved isolates of βHS at AIIMS (2005-2009) were included...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Abid Ali, Divya Gupta, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Asad U Khan
The discovery of NDM-1 and its variants has caused the emergence of antibiotic resistance in the community and hospital setting, causing major concern for health care across the globe. New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase is known to hydrolyze almost all β-lactam antibiotics. Studies have shown the hydrolytic activates of NDM-1 and some of its variants, however a comparative study of these NDM variants has not been explored in detail. Hence, we proposed to check their catalytic activity by performing a comparative study between NDM-1 and its variants...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Muhammad Arsalan, Rizwan Ali Naqvi, Dong Seop Kim, Phong Ha Nguyen, Muhammad Owais, Kang Ryoung Park
The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR) light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light...
May 10, 2018: Sensors
John H Huber, Marissa L Childs, Jamie M Caldwell, Erin A Mordecai
Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus epidemics transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have recently (re)emerged and spread throughout the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and elsewhere. Understanding how environmental conditions affect epidemic dynamics is critical for predicting and responding to the geographic and seasonal spread of disease. Specifically, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how seasonal variation in temperature affects epidemic magnitude and duration. Here, we develop a dynamic disease transmission model for dengue virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that integrates mechanistic, empirically parameterized, and independently validated mosquito and virus trait thermal responses under seasonally varying temperatures...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sunil Gulia, S M Shiva Nagendra, Jo Barnes, Mukesh Khare
Increasing urban air pollution level in Indian cities is one of the major concerns for policy makers due to its impact on public health. The growth in population and increase in associated motorised road transport demand is one of the major causes of increasing air pollution in most urban areas along with other sources e.g., road dust, construction dust, biomass burning etc. The present study documents the development of an urban local air quality management (ULAQM) framework at urban hotspots (non-attainment area) and a pathway for the flow of information from goal setting to policy making...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bhavuk Garg, Manish Gupta, Menaka Singh, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal deformities are very challenging to treat and have a great risk of neurological complications due to hardware placement during corrective surgery. Various techniques have been introduced to ensure safe and accurate placement of pedicle screws. Patient-specific screw guides with pre-drawn and pre-validated trajectory seems to be an attractive option. PURPOSE: We have focused on developing 3D printing technique for complex spinal deformities in India...
May 3, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Venkateswarlu Yarlagadda, Paramita Sarkar, Sandip Samaddar, Goutham Belagula Manjunath, Susweta Das Mitra, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Bibek R Shome, Jayanta Haldar
New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is the major contributor to the emergence of carbapenem-resistance in Gram-negative pathogens (GNPs) and has caused many clinically available β-lactam antibiotics to become obsolete. A clinically approved inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) that could restore the activity of carbapenems against resistant GNPs has not yet been found, making NDM-1 a serious threat to human health. Here, we have rationally developed an inhibitor for the NDM-1 enzyme, which has the ability to penetrate the outer membrane of GNPs and inactivate the enzyme by depleting the metal ion (Zn2+) from the active site...
May 4, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Priya Prasad, Namita Singh, Banashree Das, Sheikh Raisuddin, Mridu Dudeja, Sangita Rastogi
PURPOSE: The aim of study was to evaluate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)-infected spontaneous aborters (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endometrial curettage tissue was collected from 140 SA (sporadic SA- 70; recurrent SA- 70) (Group I) and 140 age-matched controls (Group II) from Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Uday S Khopkar, Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Anahita R Chauhan, Smita Kothari-Talwar, Puneet K Singhal, Karen Yee, Amit Kulkarni, Nuria Lara, Montserrat Roset, Anna R Giuliano, Suzanne M Garland
The prevalence of genital warts (GW) and self-reported human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as disease-related psychosocial impact among male and female patients aged 18-60 years in India were assessed. GW prevalence was estimated using a 2-week daily log of patients examined from June 7-September 22, 2011 by 200 participating physicians in 6 regions of India. Psychosocial impact was estimated using one-time, self-administered surveys, including HPV Impact Profile (HIP), Cuestionario Específico para Condiloma Acuminado ([Spanish] CECA; "Specific questionnaire for Condylomata Acuminata") and EuroQol-5 Dimension survey...
May 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sonal Kumari, Nidhi Verma, Anita Lakhani, Suresh Tiwari, Maharaj Kumari Kandikonda
In the present study, surface ozone (O3 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ), and carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at two sites downwind of fire active region in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP): Agra (27.16° N, 78.08° E) and Delhi (28.37° N, 77.12° E) to study the impact of post-harvest crop-residue fires. The study period was classified into two groups: Pre-harvest period and Post-harvest period. During the post-harvest period, an enhancement of 17.3 and 31.7 ppb in hourly averaged O3 mixing ratios was observed at Agra and Delhi, respectively, under similar meteorological conditions...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xi Li, Ying Fu, Mengyuan Shen, Danyan Huang, Xiaoxing Du, Qingfeng Hu, Yonglie Zhou, Dairong Wang, Yunsong Yu
Background: The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been a serious challenge to manage in the clinic due to its rapid dissemination of multi-drug resistance worldwide. As one main type of carbapenemases, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)is able to confer resistance to almost all β-lactams, including carbapenems, in Enterobacteriaceae . Recently, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 attracted extensive attention because of increased resistance to carbapenems and widespread dissemination...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Claire Bailey, Vandana Garg, Deksha Kapoor, Heather Wasser, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Lindsay M Jaacks
OBJECTIVE: To understand factors that influence the process of food decision-making among urban Indian women in the context of the nutrition transition. DESIGN: Mixed methods. METHODS: Semistructured interviews and sorting of 12 a priori hypothesized drivers into categories of always, sometimes, and never influencing food choice. SETTING: Delhi, India. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight women aged 20-35 years selected from the roster of a prospective cohort study...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Paweł Kwiatkowski, Agata Pruss, Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz, Bartosz Wojciuk, Barbara Dołęgowska, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Ewa Kochan, Monika Sienkiewicz
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate possible synergistic effects between several selected, commercially available essential oils and gentamicin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ESBLs production was confirmed by double-disk synergy test. Isolates positive for blaNDM-1 gene were found among the tested strains. K. pneumoniae ATCC® BAA-1705™ strain was used as a control...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Sarika Gupta, Ranu Gadi
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a group of chemical species, ubiquitously present in the environment and pose a serious risk to humans. In the present study, the average concentrations of PAEs in PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm) are reported at a densely populated site in Delhi. The average concentration of PAEs was reported to be 703.1 ± 36.2 ng m-3 with slightly higher concentrations in winter than in summer; suggesting that sources are relatively stable over the whole year. The average concentration of PAEs was 35...
April 26, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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