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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140761/limb-segment-load-inhibits-the-recovery-of-soleus-h-reflex-after-segmental-vibration-in-humans
#1
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Richard K Shields
We investigated the effects of vertical vibration and compressive load on soleus H-reflex amplitude and postactivation depression. We hypothesized that, in the presence of a compressive load, limb vibration induces a longer suppression of soleus H-reflex. Eleven healthy adults received vibratory stimulation at a fixed frequency (30 Hz) over two loading conditions (0% and 50% of individual's body weight). H-reflex amplitude was depressed ∼88% in both conditions during vibration. Cyclic application of compression after cessation of the vibration caused a persistent reduction in H-reflex excitability and postactivation depression for > 2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137319/effects-of-growth-hormone-on-cardiac-remodeling-and-soleus-muscle-in-rats-with-aortic-stenosis-induced-heart-failure
#2
Aline R R Lima, Luana U Pagan, Ricardo L Damatto, Marcelo D M Cezar, Camila Bonomo, Mariana J Gomes, Paula F Martinez, Daniele M Guizoni, Dijon H S Campos, Felipe C Damatto, Katashi Okoshi, Marina P Okoshi
Background: Skeletal muscle wasting is often observed in heart failure (HF). The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is impaired in HF. In this study, we evaluated the effects of GH on soleus muscle and cardiac remodeling in rats with aortic stenosis (AS)-induced HF. Methods: AS was created by placing a stainless-steel clip on the ascending aorta. After clinically detecting HF, GH (2 mg/kg/day) was subcutaneously injected for 14 days (AS-GH group)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#3
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130561/mechanism-of-action-of-camphoryl-benzene-sulfonamide-derivative-on-glucose-uptake-in-adipose-tissue
#4
Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Veronica Aiceles de Medeiros Pinto, Cristiane da Fonte Ramos, Fabíola Branco Filippin Monteiro, Alessandra Mascarello, Ricardo José Nunes, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a sulfonamide derivative on glucose uptake in adipose tissue, as well as to characterize the effects of this compound on intestinal disaccharidases and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation. Camphoryl-benzene sulfonamide (CS) was able to stimulate glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, adipose tissue and in soleus muscle. The stimulatory effect of the compound (10 μM) on glucose uptake on adipose tissue was blocked by diazoxide, wortmannin, U73122, colchicine, and N-ethylmaleimide...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130528/relationship-between-extensibility-and-collagen-expression-in-immobilized-rat-skeletal-muscle
#5
Yuichiro Honda, Miho Tanaka, Natsumi Tanaka, Ryo Sasabe, Kyo Goto, Hideki Kataoka, Junya Sakamoto, Jiro Nakano, Minoru Okita
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated longitudinal changes in muscle extension and collagen expression in an immobilized rat soleus muscle, and assessed the relationship between both elements. METHODS: Soleus muscles of the control and immobilization groups (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) were used for analysis of muscle extensibility and collagen expression. RESULTS: The slope value/physiological cross sectional area (PCSA; a parameter for muscle extensibility) and hydroxyproline (a parameter for collagen expression) were significantly higher in the immobilization group than in the control group for all experimental time points...
November 11, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128629/influence-of-emotional-stimuli-on-lower-limb-cutaneous-reflexes-during-human-gait
#6
Martin Zaback, Brian C Horslen, Taylor W Cleworth, Laurel Collins, Cécile Langlet, J Timothy Inglis, Mark G Carpenter
Previous research has shown that cutaneous reflexes are modulated when walking with a threat to stability. It is unclear if this reflex modulation is purely related to the context of the imposed threat or if emotional changes associated with the threat exert an independent influence on reflex excitability. This study investigated the influence of emotional stimuli on lower limb cutaneous reflexes during treadmill walking. Twenty-eight healthy young adults walked at a self-selected pace while viewing pictures that manipulated emotional arousal and valence (confirmed with electrodermal and self-report measures)...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126773/clomipramine-counteracts-lipid-raft-disturbance-due-to-short-term-muscle-disuse
#7
Irina G Bryndina, Maria N Shalagina, Alexey V Sekunov, Andrei L Zefirov, Alexey M Petrov
Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126270/neural-plasticity-with-age-unilateral-maximal-strength-training-augments-efferent-neural-drive-to-the-contralateral-limb-in-older-adults
#8
Tiril Tøien, Runar Unhjem, Thomas Storehaug Øren, Ann Charlotte Gjertsen Kvellestad, Jan Hoff, Eivind Wang
Efferent neural drive during strong muscle contractions is attenuated with age, even after lifelong strength training. However, it is unknown if this deterioration may impede contralateral neural plasticity, and limit the clinical value of unilateral strength training. We assessed muscle force-generating capacity, evoked potentials recordings (V-wave and H-reflex normalized to M-wave; V/M-ratio and H/M-ratio) and voluntary activation (VA) in the plantar flexors of the contralateral limb following unilateral maximal strength training (MST) with the dominant limb for three weeks (9 sessions)...
November 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124664/downhill-exercise-alters-immunoproteasome-content-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#9
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak, Deborah A Ferrington, LaDora V Thompson
Content of the immunoproteasome, the inducible form of the standard proteasome, increases in atrophic muscle suggesting it may be associated with skeletal muscle remodeling. However, it remains unknown if the immunoproteasome responds to stressful situations that do not promote large perturbations in skeletal muscle proteolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine how an acute bout of muscular stress influences immunoproteasome content. To accomplish this, wild-type (WT) and immunoproteasome knockout lmp7 (-/-) /mecl1 (-/-) (L7M1) mice were run downhill on a motorized treadmill...
November 9, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123487/hypertrophy-stimulation-at-the-onset-of-type-i-diabetes-maintains-the-soleus-but-not-the-edl-muscle-mass-in-wistar-rats
#10
Marco A S Fortes, Maria V M Scervino, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio F Vitzel, Carlos H da Justa Pinheiro, Rui Curi
Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus) or glycolytic (EDL) muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123337/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-related-fatigue
#11
Jaivika Govindbhai Patel, Anjali R Bhise
Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#12
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121964/muscle-force-distribution-of-the-lower-limbs-during-walking-in-diabetic-individuals-with-and-without-polyneuropathy
#13
Aline A Gomes, Marko Ackermann, Jean P Ferreira, Maria Isabel V Orselli, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: Muscle force estimation could advance the comprehension of the neuromuscular strategies that diabetic patients adopt to preserve walking ability, which guarantees their independence as they deal with their neural and muscular impairments due to diabetes and neuropathy. In this study, the lower limb's muscle force distribution during gait was estimated and compared in diabetic patients with and without polyneuropathy. METHODS: Thirty individuals were evaluated in a cross-sectional study, equally divided among controls (CG) and diabetic patients with (DNG) and without (DG) polyneuropathy...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120354/trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-and-ascorbate-efflux-by-skeletal-muscle
#14
Amanda M Eccardt, Thomas P Bell, Lyn Mattathil, Rohan Prasad, Shannon C Kelly, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP)...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119399/green-tea-extract-increases-the-expression-of-genes-responsible-for-regulation-of-calcium-balance-in-rat-slow-twitch-muscles-under-conditions-of-exhausting-exercise
#15
E A Korf, I V Kubasov, M S Vonsky, A V Novozhilov, A L Runov, E V Kurchakova, E V Matrosova, T V Tavrovskaya, N V Goncharov
We studied the role of calcium-regulating structures of slow- (m. soleus, SOL) and fast-twitch (m. extensor digitorum longus, EDL) skeletal muscles of rats during adaptation to exhausting physical activity and the possibility of modulating this adaptation with decaffeinated green tea extract. It was established that EDL adaptation is mainly aimed at Са(2+) elimination from the sarcoplasm by Са-ATPase and its retention in the reticulum by calsequestrin. Administration of green tea extract increased endurance due to involvement of slow-twitch muscles whose adaptation is associated with enhanced expression of all the studied genes responsible for the regulation of Ca(2+) balance...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118191/effects-of-muscle-action-type-on-corticospinal-excitability-and-triceps-surae-muscle-tendon-mechanics
#16
Pedro Valadao, Sadao Kurokawa, Taija Finni, Janne Avela
This study investigated if the specific motor control strategy reported for eccentric muscle actions is dependent of muscle mechanical behavior. Motor-evoked potentials (MEP), Hoffman reflex (H-reflex), fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and fascicle velocity (FV) of soleus (SOL) muscle were compared between isometric and two eccentric conditions. Ten volunteers performed maximal plantarflexion trials in isometric, slow eccentric (25º/s) and fast eccentric (100º/s) conditions, each on a different randomized testing session...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109360/investigation-of-the-pronounced-erythropoietin-induced-reduction-in-hyperglycemia-in-type-1-like-diabetic-rats
#17
Shu-Chun Kuo, Yingxiao Li, Kai-Chun Cheng, Chiang-Shan Niu, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ho-Shan Niu
Erythropoietin (EPO) is known to stimulate erythropoiesis after binding with its specific receptor. In clinics, EPO is widely used in hemodialyzed patients with diabetes. However, changes in the expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) under diabetic conditions are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated EPOR expression both in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced type 1-like diabetic rats (STZ rats) were used to evaluate the blood glucose-lowering effects of EPO. The expression and activity of the transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the potential signaling molecule, was investigated in cultured rat skeletal myoblast (L6) cells incubated in high-glucose (HG) medium to mimic the in vivo changes...
November 3, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107958/activation-of-plantar-flexor-muscles-is-constrained-by-multiple-muscle-synergies-rather-than-joint-torques
#18
Takahito Suzuki, Ryuta Kinugasa, Senshi Fukashiro
Behavioral evidence has suggested that a small number of muscle synergies may be responsible for activating a variety of muscles. Nevertheless, such dimensionality reduction may also be explained using the perspective of alternative hypotheses, such as predictions based on linear combinations of joint torques multiplied by corresponding coefficients. To compare the explanatory capacity of these hypotheses for describing muscle activation, we enrolled 12 male volunteers who performed isometric plantar flexor contractions at 10-100% of maximum effort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107647/muscle-protective-effects-of-schisandrae-fructus-extracts-in-old-mice-after-chronic-forced-exercise
#19
Ki-Young Kim, Sae-Kwang Ku, Ki-Won Lee, Chang-Hyun Song, Won G An
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schisandrae Fructus (SF), the dried fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., is a well-known traditional herb used in Asia for enhancing physical work capacity as well as providing anti-stress and anti-inflammatory effects. Extracts of SF (SFe) have also been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit muscle atrophy. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined whether SFe had muscle-protective effects in old mice after chronic forced exercises, and, if so, relevant mechanisms...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104955/crosstalk-between-mlo-y4-osteocytes-and-c2c12-muscle-cells-is-mediated-by-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#20
Jian Huang, Sandra Romero-Suarez, Nuria Lara, Chenglin Mo, Simon Kaja, Leticia Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Mark L Johnson, Katharina Jähn, Lynda F Bonewald, Marco Brotto
We examined the effects of osteocyte secreted factors on myogenesis and muscle function. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned media (CM) (10%) increased ex vivo soleus muscle contractile force by ~25%. MLO-Y4 and primary osteocyte CM (1-10%) stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, but 10% osteoblast CMs did not enhance C2C12 cell differentiation. Since WNT3a and WNT1 are secreted by osteocytes, and the expression level of Wnt3a is increased in MLO-Y4 cells by fluid flow shear stress, both were compared, showing WNT3a more potent than WNT1 in inducing myogenesis...
October 2017: JBMR Plus
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