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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215050/racial-disparities-in-preventable-risk-factors-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
Sunshine Dwojak, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To demonstrate racial differences in preventable risk behaviors/practices that contribute to head and neck cancer (HNCA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of large national risk factor survey. METHODS: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2013 was analyzed. Demographic data were extracted, including age, sex, and race. Social habits considered risk factors for HNCA were also extracted, including alcohol consumption, smoking, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status...
February 19, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#2
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212464/oxytocin-reduces-ethanol-self-administration-in-mice
#3
Courtney E King, William C Griffin, Lauryn N Luderman, Malcolm M Kates, Jacqueline F McGinty, Howard C Becker
BACKGROUND: Excessive ethanol consumption remains an important health concern and effective treatments are lacking. The central oxytocin system has emerged as a potentially important therapeutic target for alcohol and drug addiction. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxytocin reduces ethanol consumption. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to ethanol (20% v/v) using a model of binge-like drinking ("drinking-in-the-dark") that also included the use of lickometer circuits to evaluate the temporal pattern of intake as well as 2-bottle choice drinking in the home cage...
February 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210975/alcohol-and-cardiovascular-disease-how-much-is-too-much
#4
REVIEW
Augustin Toma, Guillaume Paré, Darryl P Leong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous research suggests that low-moderate alcohol consumption may have cardioprotective effects, while heavy or binge-pattern drinking is harmful. New evidence and research methodology may inform safe thresholds of alcohol use. This review examines recent evidence regarding alcohol's effect on cardiovascular disease, with a special consideration of pattern, drink type, and total quantity. RECENT FINDINGS: New epidemiologic research confirms the potential harmful cardiovascular effects of heavy episodic alcohol use and does not support the previous observation that low-moderate alcohol use protects against stroke...
March 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207334/demographic-characteristics-and-health-status-of-transgender-adults-in-select-us-regions-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2014
#5
Ilan H Meyer, Taylor N T Brown, Jody L Herman, Sari L Reisner, Walter O Bockting
OBJECTIVES: To describe the health status of the transgender population in the United States. METHODS: We used 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data that comprised a probability sample from 19 US states and Guam (n = 151 456). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison with cisgender individuals, transgender individuals had a higher prevalence of poor general health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205146/binge-drinking-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#6
Benjamin Rolland, Mickaël Naassila
The concept of binge drinking (BD) refers to patterns of heavy episodic alcohol consumption, with BD primarily occurring among adolescents and young adults. Several official definitions of BD have been proposed, in particular by the World Health Organization, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nevertheless, none of these definitions address the psychosocial and medical consequences of the type of alcohol use seen in BD. In practice, BD can thus correspond to either hazardous or harmful use of alcohol (HUA), while the episodic nature of heavy drinking in BD means that it does not meet the criteria for 'alcohol dependence'...
February 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199918/factors-associated-with-alcohol-use-prior-to-and-during-pregnancy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-cape-town-south-africa
#7
Kirsty Brittain, Robert H Remien, Tamsin Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer, Claude A Mellins
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent in South Africa, but there are few prospectively-collected data exploring patterns of consumption among HIV-infected women, which may be important to improve maternal and child health outcomes. We examined patterns of and factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Participants were enrolled when entering antenatal care at a large primary care clinic, and alcohol use was assessed using the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test)...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195335/voluntary-binge-consumption-of-ethanol-in-a-sweetened-chocolate-flavored-solution-by-male-and-female-adolescent-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Dominika Hosová, Linda Patia Spear
BACKGROUND: The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187948/alcohol-drinking-during-adolescence-increases-consumptive-responses-to-alcohol-in-adulthood-in-wistar-rats
#9
Leslie R Amodeo, Diana Kneiber, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood...
February 7, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173632/impact-of-the-choices-intervention-in-preventing-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies-in-american-indian-women
#10
Jessica D Hanson, Morgan E Nelson, Jamie L Jensen, Amy Willman, Jacque Jacobs-Knight, Karen Ingersoll
BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) comprise a continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although studies have shown no differences in rates by race, FASD is of particular concern for American Indian communities. One tribally-run prevention program is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, which is modeled after the evidence-based CHOICES program that was focused on preconceptional prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) by reducing risky drinking in women at-risk for pregnancy and/or preventing unintended pregnancy...
February 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170056/binge-drinking-among-adolescents-prevalence-risk-practices-and-related-variables
#11
Sandra Golpe, Manuel Isorna, Carmen Barreiro, Teresa Braña, Antonio Rial
According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168896/binge-drinking-affects-brain-oscillations-linked-to-motor-inhibition-and-execution
#12
Eduardo López-Caneda, Socorro Rodríguez Holguín, Ángeles Correas, Carina Carbia, Alberto González-Villar, Fernando Maestú, Fernando Cadaveira
INTRODUCTION: Neurofunctional studies have shown that binge drinking patterns of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth are associated with anomalies in brain functioning. Recent evidence suggests that event-related oscillations may be an appropriate index of neurofunctional damage associated with alcoholism. However, there is no study to date that has evaluated the effects of binge drinking on oscillatory brain responses related to task performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine brain oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution in young binge drinkers (BDs) compared with age-matched controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167117/protection-against-alcohol-induced-neuronal-and-cognitive-damage-by-the-ppar%C3%AE-receptor-agonist-pioglitazone
#13
Andrea Cippitelli, Esi Domi, Massimo Ubaldi, James C Douglas, Hong Wu Li, Gregory Demopulos, George Gaitanaris, Marisa Roberto, Paul D Drew, Cynthia J M Kane, Roberto Ciccocioppo
Binge alcohol drinking has emerged as a typical phenomenon in young people. This pattern of drinking, repeatedly leading to extremely high blood and brain alcohol levels and intoxication is associated with severe risks of neurodegeneration and cognitive damage. Mechanisms involved in excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation are pivotal elements in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity. Evidence has demonstrated that PPARγ receptor activation shows anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Here we examine whether treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone is beneficial in counteracting neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cognitive damage produced by binge alcohol intoxication...
February 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161610/binging-at-the-campus-motivations-and-impulsivity-influence-binge-drinking-profiles-in-university-students
#14
Séverine Lannoy, Joël Billieux, Marie Poncin, Pierre Maurage
This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers...
January 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159647/alcohol-stress-and-glucocorticoids-from-risk-to-dependence-and-relapse-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Sara K Blaine, Rajita Sinha
In this review, we detail the clinical evidence supporting the role of psychological and physiological stress in instrumental motivation for alcohol consumption during the development of mild to moderate alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and in the compulsive, habitual alcohol consumption seen in severe, chronic, relapsing AUDs. Traditionally, the study of AUDs has focused on the direct and indirect effects of alcohol on striatal dopaminergic pathways and their role in the reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, growing evidence also suggests that alcohol directly stimulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and has effects on glucocorticoid receptors in extrahypothalamic, limbic forebrain, and medial Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) circuits, which contribute to the development of AUDs and their progression in severity, chronicity, and relapse risk...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152062/binge-drinking-during-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-is-associated-with-deficits-in-verbal-episodic-memory
#16
Carina Carbia, Fernando Cadaveira, Francisco Caamaño-Isorna, Socorro Rodríguez-Holguín, Montse Corral
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150397/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-associated-with-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-pro129thr-missense-variant
#17
Matthew E Sloan, Joshua L Gowin, Jia Yan, Melanie L Schwandt, Primavera A Spagnolo, Hui Sun, Colin A Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Vijay A Ramchandani
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144707/differential-impairments-across-attentional-networks-in-binge-drinking
#18
Séverine Lannoy, Alexandre Heeren, Nathalie Moyaerts, Nicolas Bruneau, Salomé Evrard, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
RATIONALE: The cognitive deficits observed in young binge drinkers have been largely documented during the last decade. Yet, these earlier studies have mainly focused on high-level cognitive abilities (particularly memory and executive functions), and uncertainty thus still abounds regarding the integrity of less complex cognitive processes in binge drinking. This is particularly true for attentional abilities, which play a crucial role in behavior regulation and are impaired in other alcohol-related disorders...
January 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140406/control-of-chronic-excessive-alcohol-drinking-by-genetic-manipulation-of-the-edinger-westphal-nucleus-urocortin-1-neuropeptide-system
#19
W J Giardino, E D Rodriguez, M L Smith, M M Ford, D Galili, S H Mitchell, A Chen, A E Ryabinin
Midbrain neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp) are activated by alcohol, and enriched with stress-responsive neuropeptide modulators (including the paralog of corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortin-1). Evidence suggests that EWcp neurons promote behavioral processes for alcohol-seeking and consumption, but a definitive role for these cells remains elusive. Here we combined targeted viral manipulations and gene array profiling of EWcp neurons with mass behavioral phenotyping in C57BL/6 J mice to directly define the links between EWcp-specific urocortin-1 expression and voluntary binge alcohol intake, demonstrating a specific importance for EWcp urocortin-1 activity in escalation of alcohol intake...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130974/academic-time-during-college-associations-with-mood-tiredness-and-binge-drinking-across-days-and-semesters
#20
Kaylin M Greene, Jennifer L Maggs
The current study examined the amount of time American college students spent on academics and explored whether functioning indicators (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, tiredness, and binge drinking) rose and fell with academic time across days and semesters. College students (N = 735) were followed longitudinally and completed 14 daily diaries within each of 7 semesters (N = 56,699 days). The results revealed that academic time decreased slightly during the middle semesters and then increased in later semesters...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
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