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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715159/alcohol-antiretroviral-interactive-toxicity-beliefs-as-a-potential-barrier-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#1
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton
INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men (N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705030/college-students-responses-to-emotional-anti-alcohol-abuse-media-messages-should-we-scare-or-amuse-them
#3
Moon J Lee
This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal...
July 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704109/heterogeneity-in-drinking-practices-in-england-and-wales-and-its-association-with-violent-behavior-a-latent-class-analysis
#4
Carly Lightowlers
BACKGROUND: Crude single-item consumption metrics, such as "binge drinking" measures, mask the complexity and heterogeneity in young people's drinking; thus limiting our understanding of young people's drinking patterns as well as how alcohol drinking is associated with violent outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The current study employed a range of consumption and contextual indicators to explore heterogeneity in young people's (16-29 years) drinking practices, giving due consideration to their social nature...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702758/real-time-monitoring-of-engagement-with-a-text-message-intervention-to-reduce-binge-drinking-among-men-living-in-socially-disadvantaged-areas-of-scotland
#5
Linda Irvine, Ambrose J Melson, Brian Williams, Falko F Sniehotta, Andrew McKenzie, Claire Jones, Iain K Crombie
PURPOSE: This study identified the extent and nature of engagement with a theoretically based behaviour change text message intervention intended to reduce binge drinking. The data were from a randomised controlled trial tackling binge drinking among socially disadvantaged men. METHOD: An intervention, comprising 112 text messages, and based on the principles of the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered to 411 socially disadvantaged men. Participants sent almost 7500 responses to the text messages...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692946/victimization-as-a-mediator-of-alcohol-use-disparities-between-sexual-minority-subgroups-and-sexual-majority-youth-using-the-2015-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#6
Gregory Phillips, Blair Turner, Paul Salamanca, Michelle Birkett, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Michael E Newcomb, Rachel Marro, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691585/hyper-brain-connectivity-in-binge-drinking-college-students-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Karl Kashfi, Kareem Al-Khalil, Jiancheng Hou, Dan Fang, Ron Anderson, Ravi Rajmohan, Peter Syapin, Michael W O'Boyle
The current study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine patterns/degree of brain connectivity in 12 college-aged binge drinking (BD) and 12 moderate drinking individuals. Voxel-level and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased connectivity of the BD brain in the right corona radiata, right external capsule, and both the right and left cingulum. Also, fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values of these regions correlated with a number of drinking behaviors of the BD as well as both groups combined...
July 10, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683333/comparative-toxicity-of-chloro-and-bromo-nitromethanes-in-mice-based-on-a-metabolomic-method
#8
Jinbao Yin, Bing Wu, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Qiming Xian
Halonitromethanes (HNMs) as one typical class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts have been widely found in drinking water. In vitro test found HNMs could induce higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. However, data on toxic effect from in vivo experiment is limited. In this study, bromonitromethane (BNM), bromochloronitromethane (BCNM) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were chosen as target HNMs, and exposed to mice for 30 d. Hepatic toxicity and serum metabolic profiles were determined to reveal toxic effects and mechanisms of the three HNMs...
June 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#9
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681511/a-new-generation-of-mtorc1-inhibitor-attenuates-alcohol-intake-and-reward-in-mice
#10
Nadege Morisot, Christopher J Novotny, Kevan M Shokat, Dorit Ron
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic condition associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Yet, pharmacotherapies to treat behavioral phenotypes such as uncontrolled heavy drinking are limited. Studies in rodents suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behaviors as well as alcohol seeking and relapse. These preclinical evidence suggest that mTORC1 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of AUD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potential use of newly developed mTORC1 inhibitors, RapaLink-1 and MLN0128, in preclinical mouse models of AUD...
July 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679148/intermittent-access-to-ethanol-drinking-facilitates-the-transition-to-excessive-drinking-after-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-vapor-exposure
#11
Adam Kimbrough, Sarah Kim, Maury Cole, Molly Brennan, Olivier George
BACKGROUND: Alcohol binge drinking in humans is thought to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unclear is whether drinking patterns (e.g., bingelike or stable drinking) differentially affect the transition to compulsive-like drinking in dependent individuals. We examined whether chronic bingelike drinking facilitates the transition to compulsive-like drinking in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were given 5 months of intermittent access to ethanol (EtOH) (IAE) or continuous access to EtOH (CAE) in a 2-bottle choice paradigm...
July 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674997/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-affects-the-brain-function-through-mitochondrial-impairment
#12
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Camila Arce, José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
In the young population, binge drinking is a pattern of problematic alcohol consumption, characterized by a short period of heavy drinking followed by abstinence which is frequently repeated over time. This drinking pattern is associated with mental problems, use of other drugs, and an increased risk of excessive alcohol intake during adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on brain function in adolescents and its neurobiological impact during the adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of alcohol on hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function in adolescent rats after a binge drinking episode in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674727/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-alcohol-induced-osteopenia
#13
REVIEW
Zhenhua Luo, Yao Liu, Yitong Liu, Hui Chen, Songtao Shi, Yi Liu
Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed, resulting in a staggering economic cost in different social and cultural settings. Types of alcohol consumption vary from light occasional to heavy, binge drinking, and chronic alcohol abuse at all ages. In general, heavy alcohol consumption is widely recognized as a major epidemiological risk factor for chronic diseases and is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Indeed, recent findings demonstrate that alcohol has a dose-dependent toxic effect in promoting imbalanced bone remodeling...
July 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673527/marijuana-use-in-the-context-of-alcohol-interventions-for-mandated-college-students
#14
Ali M Yurasek, Jennifer E Merrill, Jane Metrik, Mary Beth Miller, Anne C Fernandez, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Concurrent use of marijuana and alcohol among college students is highly prevalent and associated with negative consequences. It remains unclear whether marijuana use is influenced by or lessens the efficacy of alcohol interventions delivered within a stepped-care approach. METHOD: Participants were 530 college students who violated campus alcohol policy and were mandated to an alcohol-focused brief advice (BA) session. Participants who reported continued risky alcohol use (4+ heavy drinking episodes and/or 5+ alcohol-related consequences in the past month) six weeks following the BA session were randomized to a brief motivational intervention (BMI; n=211) or assessment only (AO; n=194) condition...
August 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669901/maternal-alcohol-binge-drinking-induces-persistent-neuroinflammation-associated-with-myelin-damage-and-behavioural-dysfunctions-in-offspring-mice
#15
Lídia Cantacorps, Silvia Alfonso-Loeches, Maria Moscoso-Castro, Javier Cuitavi, Irene Gracia-Rubio, Raúl López-Arnau, Elena Escubedo, Consuelo Guerri, Olga Valverde
Alcohol binge drinking is on the increase in the young adult population, and consumption during pregnancy can be deleterious for foetal development. Maternal alcohol consumption leads to a wide range of long-lasting morphological and behavioural deficiencies known as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. We sought to test the effects of alcohol on neuroimmune system activation and its potential relation to alcohol-induced neurodevelopmental and persistent neurobehavioural effects in offspring after maternal alcohol binge drinking during the prenatal period or in combination with lactation...
June 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667913/lead-and-cadmium-exposure-higher-thyroid-antibodies-and-thyroid-dysfunction-in-chinese-women
#16
Xiaomin Nie, Yi Chen, Yingchao Chen, Chi Chen, Bing Han, Qin Li, Chunfang Zhu, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Exposure to lead(Pb) or cadmium(Cd) has been related to decreasing thyroxine in many previous studies. The underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Heavy metal-induced thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant women has been found, despite having been rarely explored in the general population. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether the blood levels of lead(BPb) or cadmium(BCd) related to the levels of sera antibodies to thyroid proteins and thyroid dysfunction in the general population...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666814/national-incidence-of-traumatic-fractures-in-china-a-retrospective-survey-of-512%C3%A2-187-individuals
#17
Wei Chen, Hongzhi Lv, Song Liu, Bo Liu, Yanbin Zhu, Xiao Chen, Guang Yang, Lei Liu, Tao Zhang, Haili Wang, Bing Yin, Jialiang Guo, Xiaolin Zhang, Yichong Li, Derek Smith, Pan Hu, Jiayuan Sun, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic fractures place a substantial burden on health-care systems worldwide. Although detailed information about incidence, distribution, and risk factors for traumatic fractures is vital for planning and prevention, in China, national data are unavailable. We aimed to do an up-to-date national survey on the population-weighted incidence of traumatic fractures in China. METHODS: The China National Fracture Study (CNFS) was a retrospective epidemiological study that recruited a nationally representative sample from eight provinces, 24 urban cities, and 24 rural counties in China using stratified random sampling and the probability proportional to size method...
June 27, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666468/binge-drinking-among-young-adults-in-an-urban-tertiary-care-emergency-department-in-israel
#18
Daphna Levinson, Paola Rosca, Doron Vilner, Idit Brimberg, Yael Stall, Ayelet Rimon
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a major preventable public health problem with serious health and social consequences especially among youth. In Israel, alcohol use has become an emerging problem during the last decade, and its use has increased among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is the common pattern of alcohol consumption among young adults who drink for recreational purposes. The present survey was conducted among 16-35 years old visitors to the ED. The aim was specifically to identify binge drinkers in order to assess the scope of the need for a brief counseling intervention among young people who arrive intoxicated to a large tertiary care urban ED in Israel...
July 1, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663732/preserved-crossmodal-integration-of-emotional-signals-in-binge-drinking
#19
Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Mélanie Brion, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol-dependence, a continuum hypothesis suggests that this habit would be a first step toward alcohol-related disorders. Besides these cognitive impairments, alcohol-dependence is also characterized by large-scale deficits in emotional processing, particularly in crossmodal contexts, and these abilities have scarcely been explored in binge drinking...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662716/awareness-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-nyc-the-importance-of-networks-and-syringe-exchange-programs-for-hiv-prevention
#20
Suzan M Walters, Kathleen H Reilly, Alan Neaigus, Sarah Braunstein
BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used...
June 29, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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