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Helicobacter and cancer prevention and treatment

Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Anca Negovan, Mihaela Iancu, Valeriu Moldovan, Septimiu Voidazan, Simona Bataga, Monica Pantea, Kinga Sarkany, Cristina Tatar, Simona Mocan, Claudia Banescu
Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75-325 mg/day). Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group) and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (control group). In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with ulcers were male gender (p = 0...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Daniela Cornelia Lazăr, Sorina Tăban, Marioara Cornianu, Alexandra Faur, Adrian Goldiş
Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hilmar Berger, Miguel S Marques, Rike Zietlow, Thomas F Meyer, Jose C Machado, Ceu Figueiredo
Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H...
September 2016: Helicobacter
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Johannes G Kusters
BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. DISCUSSION: With half of the world's population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide eradication program seems unlikely...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Meijuan Zou, Fang Wang, Aiqin Jiang, Anliang Xia, Siya Kong, Chun Gong, Mingxia Zhu, Xin Zhou, Jun Zhu, Wei Zhu, Wenfang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Tip-α is a newly identified carcinogenic factor present in H. pylori. TRAF3 can activate NF-κB by both canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. In this study, we found that the expression of TRAF3 and NF-κB was upregulated, while microRNA-3178 (miR-3178) was decreased in H. pylori-positive gastric tissues but not in H. pylori-negative tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GES-1 cells were incubated with 12...
August 5, 2016: Helicobacter
Ting-Yu Kuo, Zhi-Wei Hong, Chung-Che Tsai, Yu-Chi Yang, Hua-Wen Fu
Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It plays a critical role in H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by activating several innate leukocytes including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells. The immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties of HP-NAP make it a potential diagnostic and vaccine candidate for H. pylori and a new drug candidate for cancer therapy. In order to obtain substantial quantities of purified HP-NAP used for its clinical applications, an efficient method to purify this protein with high yield and purity needs to be established...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eugene Dogkotenge Kuugbee, Xueqi Shang, Yaser Gamallat, Djibril Bamba, Annoor Awadasseid, Mohammed Ahmed Suliman, Shizhu Zang, Yufang Ma, Gift Chiwala, Yi Xin, Dong Shang
BACKGROUND: Structural change in the gut microbiota is implicated in cancer. The beneficial modulation of the microbiota composition with probiotics and prebiotics prevents diseases. AIM: We investigated the effect of oligofructose-maltodextrin-enriched Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria bifidum, and Bifidobacteria infantum (LBB), on the gut microbiota composition and progression of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were acclimatized, given ampicillin (75 mg/kg), and treated as follows; GCO: normal control; GPR: LBB only; GPC: LBB+ 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH); and GCA: DMH only (cancer control)...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Richard M Peek
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial carcinogen that is supposed to have the highest known level of risk for the development of gastric cancer, a disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives per year. Approximately 89% of the global gastric cancer burden and 5.5% of malignancies worldwide are attributed to H. pylori-induced inflammation and injury. However, only a fraction of colonized persons ever develop neoplasia, and disease risk involves well-choreographed interactions between pathogen and host, which are dependent upon strain-specific bacterial factors, host genotypic traits, and/or environmental conditions...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Masumi Okuda, Shogo Kikuchi, Katsuhiro Mabe, Takako Osaki, Shigeru Kamiya, Yoshihiro Fukuda, Mototsugu Kato
BACKGROUND: To prevent gastric cancer, a test-and-treat strategy for Helicobacter pylori has been proposed. This retrospective study assessed the clinical features, efficacy and safety of treatment for H. pylori infection in children and adolescents. METHODS: Questionnaires concerning the clinical features and treatment of H. pylori in children and adolescents were sent to doctors in 2013. It included questions on patient background, H. pylori-associated disease, first- and second-line treatment, success or failure of eradication, resistance to antibiotics, and occurrence of adverse events...
May 25, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Heather S Laird-Fick, Shivani Saini, James Randolph Hillard
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the world, prompting high-risk countries like South Korea and Japan to establish nationwide screening programmes. Helicobacter pylori is linked to the majority of gastric adenocarcinoma cases and to the vast majority of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinomas. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of 'test-and-treat' programmes for H. pylori infection to prevent gastric cancer in high-risk populations. While this strategy has gained momentum, providers in low-risk developed countries may be unaware of the risk individual patients face, particularly those who have emigrated from high-risk regions and members of economically disadvantaged minority groups...
August 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Caroline M den Hoed, Ernst J Kuipers
Gastric cancer remains a prevalent disease worldwide with a poor prognosis. Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization leads to chronic gastritis, which predisposes to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and eventually gastric cancer. Screening, treatment, and prevention of H. pylori colonization can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. Other interventions that may yield a similar effect, although of smaller magnitude, include promotion of a healthy lifestyle including dietary measures, non-smoking, low alcohol intake, and sufficient physical activity...
July 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
In 2015, a group of primary care clinicians with expertise in evidence-based practice performed monthly surveillance of more than 110 English-language clinical research journals. They identified 251 studies that addressed a primary care question and had the potential to change practice if valid (patient-oriented evidence that matters, or POEMs). Each study was critically appraised and disseminated to subscribers via e-mail, including members of the Canadian Medical Association who had the option to use a validated tool to assess the clinical relevance of each POEM and the benefits they expect for their practice...
May 1, 2016: American Family Physician
T Murray-Stewart, J C Sierra, M B Piazuelo, R M Mera, R Chaturvedi, L E Bravo, P Correa, B G Schneider, K T Wilson, R A Casero
Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of various forms of cancer. The polyamine catabolic enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX) is induced in chronic inflammatory conditions, including Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, where its production of hydrogen peroxide contributes to DNA damage and subsequent tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression levels are also altered in inflammatory conditions; specifically, the tumor suppressor miR-124 becomes silenced by DNA methylation. We sought to determine if this repression of miR-124 is associated with elevated SMOX activity and concluded that miR-124 is indeed a negative regulator of SMOX...
April 4, 2016: Oncogene
Negin Raei, Bahador Behrouz, Saber Zahri, Saeid Latifi-Navid
However, the incidence of gastric cancer (GC) has been decreased in past decades; GC is the second cause of cancer related death in the world. Evidence has illustrated that several factors including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, host genetics, and environmental factors (smoking and particularly diet) may play a crucial role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been demonstrated that high consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, high level of selenium and zinc in drinking water, sufficient iron, and cholesterol protect against GC, while; smoked , pickled, and preserved foods in salt, and nitrites increase the risk of GC...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Yang Zhang, Hong-Mei Zeng, Xiao-Rui Nie, Lian Zhang, Jun-Ling Ma, Ji-You Li, Kai-Feng Pan, Wei-Cheng You
To explore the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) alone and combined with COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), we dynamically evaluated the associations between COX-2 methylation alterations and gastric lesion evolution during the process of interventions. In a total of 809 trial participants COX-2 methylation levels were quantitatively detected before and after treatment. The self-comparison at the same stomach site for each subject showed significant methylation alteration differences among intervention groups (P < 0...
June 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Over three decades have passed since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and yet many questions about its treatment remain unanswered. For example, there is no certainty regarding continued use of current antibiotic therapy against H. pylori. The bad news is that even combined regimens are also unable to eradicate bacterial colonization. The worst problem with H. pylori chemotherapy is that even if we identify the most successful regimen, it cannot eliminate the risk of re-infection. This problem is further complicated by the fact that clinicians have no information as to whether probiotics are useful or not...
March 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kokab Namkin, Mahmood Zardast, Fatemeh Basirinejad
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infects around 50% of the human population and is asymptomatic in 70% of the cases. H. pylori eradication in childhood will not only result in peptic symptoms relief, but will also prevent late-term complications such as cancer. Today, probiotics are being increasingly studied in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections as an alternative or complement to antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to assess the effect of S...
February 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Taweesak Tongtawee, Soraya Kaewpitoon, Natthawut Kaewpitoon, Chavaboon Dechsukhum, Wilairat Leeanansaksiri, Ryan A Loyd, Likit Matrakool, Sukij Panpimanmas
BACKGROUND: Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Kevin Sze-Hang Liu, Irene Oi-Ling Wong, Wai K Leung
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa's cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade...
January 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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