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Adrian T Billeter, Spiros Vittas, Barbara Israel, Katharina M Scheurlen, Asa Hidmark, Thomas H Fleming, Stefan Kopf, Markus W Büchler, Beat P Müller-Stich
OBJECTIVE: The underlying causes of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue dysfunction with high leptin, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in T2DM development in obese patients. Little is known about the changes in the adipose tissue after Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in non-severely obese patients (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) and since these patients have more T2DM-associated complications than obese patients ("obesity paradox"), we investigated changes in adipose tissue function in a cohort of BMI <35 kg/m(2) with insulin-dependent T2DM after RYGB surgery which resolves T2DM...
July 9, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Adrian T Billeter, Pascal Probst, Lars Fischer, Jonas Senft, Hannes G Kenngott, Thilo Schulte, Gabriella Clemens, Ulrike Zech, Markus W Büchler, Peter P Nawroth, Beat P Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Due to its reliable effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has recently been investigated as a treatment option for nonseverely obese patients with T2DM (body mass index (BMI) <35 kg/m(2)). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether RGYB induces malnutrition of macro- and micronutrients within 24 months in these patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 20 patients with longstanding, insulin-dependent T2DM and a BMI of 25-35 kg/m(2) were treated with RYGB...
November 2015: Obesity Surgery
James E Polston, Carolyn E Pritchett, Jonathan M Tomasko, Ann M Rogers, Lorenzo Leggio, Panayotis K Thanos, Nora D Volkow, Andras Hajnal
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment for severe obesity. Clinical studies however have reported susceptibility to increased alcohol use after RYGB, and preclinical studies have shown increased alcohol intake in obese rats after RYGB. This could reflect a direct enhancement of alcohol's rewarding effects in the brain or an indirect effect due to increased alcohol absorption after RGYB. To rule out the contribution that changes in alcohol absorption have on its rewarding effects, here we assessed the effects of RYGB on intravenously (IV) administered ethanol (1%)...
2013: PloS One
Ana Guijarro, Susumu Suzuki, Chung Chen, Henriette Kirchner, Frank A Middleton, Sergiy Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, Akira Niijima, Akio Inui, Michael M Meguid
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity, but it has a approximately 20% failure rate. To test our hypothesis that outcome depends on differential modifications of several energy-related systems, we used our established RYGB model in Sprague-Dawley diet-induced obese (DIO) rats to determine mechanisms contributing to successful (RGYB-S) or failed (RYGB-F) RYGB. DIO rats were randomized to RYGB, sham-operated Obese, and sham-operated obese pair-fed linked to RYGB (PF) groups...
October 2007: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Fernando Cordera, Jane L Mai, Geoffrey B Thompson, Michael G Sarr
BACKGROUND: In 1991, the National Institutes of Health sanctioned 2 operations for treatment of morbid obesity: vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Long-term results with VBG are disappointing. We wondered whether patients who had "adapted" to the VBG anatomy and had regained weight would lose weight after conversion to RYGB. METHODS: We reviewed data on patients undergoing conversion of VBG to RGYB. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients (mean body mass index [BMI] of 46 kg/m2 [range, 36-66]) underwent standard (48 patients) or distal (malabsorptive) (6 patients) RYGB...
October 2004: Surgery
R Krah, M H O'Dea, M Gellert
Reverse gyrases are ATP-dependent type I 5'-topoisomerases that positively supercoil DNA. Reverse gyrase from Methanopyrus kandleri is unique as the first heterodimeric type I 5'-topoisomerase described, consisting of a 138-kDa subunit involved in the hydrolysis of ATP (RgyB) and a 43-kDa subunit that forms the covalent complex with DNA during the topoisomerase reaction (RgyA). Here we report the reconstitution of active reverse gyrase from the two recombinant proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been purified by column chromatography to >90% homogeneity...
May 23, 1997: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R Krah, S A Kozyavkin, A I Slesarev, M Gellert
A recently described reverse gyrase from the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanopyrus kandleri is the only known example of a heterodimeric type I topoisomerase. The enzyme is made up of a 42-kDa subunit which covalently interacts with DNA (RgyA) and a 138-kDa subunit which binds ATP (RgyB). We have now cloned and sequenced the genes for both subunits of this enzyme. Surprisingly, the universally conserved type I topoisomerase domain [Lima, C. D., Wang, J. C. & Mondragon, A. (1994) Nature (London) 367, 138-146] which has been found as a contiguous polypeptide in the prokaryotes and eukaryotes is shared between the protomers...
January 9, 1996: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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