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Natural Killer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166586/the-broad-spectrum-of-human-natural-killer-cell-diversity
#1
REVIEW
Aharon G Freud, Bethany L Mundy-Bosse, Jianhua Yu, Michael A Caligiuri
Natural killer (NK) cells provide protection against infectious pathogens and cancer. For decades it has been appreciated that two major NK cell subsets (CD56(bright) and CD56(dim)) exist in humans and have distinct anatomical localization patterns, phenotypes, and functions in immunity. In light of this traditional NK cell dichotomy, it is now clear that the spectrum of human NK cell diversity is much broader than originally appreciated as a result of variegated surface receptor, intracellular signaling molecule, and transcription factor expression; tissue-specific imprinting; and foreign antigen exposure...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165150/search-for-biomarkers-of-asbestos-exposure-and-asbestos-induced-cancers-in-investigations-of-the-immunological-effects-of-asbestos
#2
REVIEW
Hidenori Matsuzaki, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Suni Lee, Megumi Maeda, Nagisa Sada, Tamayo Hatayama, Shoko Yamamoto, Miho Ikeda, Kei Yoshitome, Yu Min, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
The immunological effects of asbestos exposure on various lymphocytes such as the regulatory T cell (Treg), responder CD4+ T helper cell (Tresp), CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cells were investigated. Results show that asbestos exposure impairs antitumor immunity through enhancement of regulatory T cell function and volume, reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor in responder CD4+ T helper cells, and impairment of the killing activities of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163992/cd56-negative-aggressive-nk-cell-leukemia-relapsing-as-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
M Guerreiro, F Príncipe, M J Teles, S Fonseca, A H Santos, E Fonseca, P Gomes, C Marques, M Lima
Background: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is extremely rare and habitually manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan failure that rapidly evolves to death. The neoplastic natural killer (NK) cells usually harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a latent viral infection pattern type II; they often have a cytoplasmic CD3ε(+) and surface CD3(-), CD2(+), and CD56(+) immunophenotype, and they show complex genetic abnormalities affecting multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163783/abundant-expression-of-tim-3-lag-3-pd-1-and-pd-l1-as-immunotherapy-checkpoint-targets-in-effusions-of-mesothelioma-patients
#4
Elly Marcq, Jorrit De Waele, Jonas Van Audenaerde, Eva Lion, Eva Santermans, Niel Hens, Patrick Pauwels, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Evelien L J Smits
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with an increasing incidence, poor prognosis and limited effective treatment options. Hence, new treatment strategies are warranted which include immune checkpoint blockade approaches with encouraging preliminary data. Research on the immunological aspects of the easily accessible mesothelioma microenvironment could identify prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and provide useful insights for developing effective immunotherapy. In this context, we investigated the immune cell composition of effusions (pleural and ascites fluids) from 11 different chemotherapy-treated MPM patients...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163709/the-anti-hepatocellular-carcinoma-activity-of-mel-p15-is-mediated-by-natural-killer-cells
#5
Tao Xu, Tongxing Cui, Lipan Peng, Shuai Kong, Jianqiang Zou, Xingsong Tian
Mel-P15 is a peptide derived from melittin, the main toxic component in the venom of the European honeybee Apis mellifera. In the present study, the antitumor effects of Mel-P15 and the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in vivo were investigated. Mel-P15 directly stimulated natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in vitro, which was increased to 55.45% at a 4 µg/ml dose of Mel-P15. In the mouse liver cancer (H22) xenograft mice model, Mel-P15 suppressed tumor growth in vivo; the tumor inhibitory rate was 61...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163547/natural-killer-cells-from-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-underexpress-the-nkp30-and-nkp44-in-obese-persons-and-are-less-active-against-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-non-expressing-neoplastic-cells
#6
Alireza Shoae-Hassani, Maryam Behfar, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Jafar Ai, Rashin Mohseni, Amir Ali Hamidieh
There are many types of leukocytes reside in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and among them, natural killer cells (NKs) comprise a major part. We show that the NKs that reside in the SAT (adipose tissue-derived NK cells; ADNKs) of the abdominal region found with phenotypic differences from the NKs circulating in the peripheral blood derived NK cells (PBNKs). In this survey, flow cytometry phenotyping was used to study the differences between the natural cytotoxicity receptor expression on ADNKs and PBNKs of both obese and lean persons...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163540/local-high-dose-radiotherapy-induces-systemic-immunomodulating-effects-of-potential-therapeutic-relevance-in-oligometastatic-breast-cancer
#7
Elena Muraro, Carlo Furlan, Michele Avanzo, Debora Martorelli, Elisa Comaro, Aurora Rizzo, Damiana A Fae', Massimiliano Berretta, Loredana Militello, Alessandro Del Conte, Simon Spazzapan, Riccardo Dolcetti, Marco Trovo'
Local irradiation of cancer through radiotherapy can induce spontaneous regression of non-directly irradiated lesions, suggesting the involvement of systemic antitumor immune responses. In oligometastatic breast cancer (BC) patients, the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) favors the local control of treated lesions and may contribute to break local tolerance and release tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), improving host antitumor immunity. We performed a detailed immunomonitoring of BC patients undergoing SBRT to verify its ability to "switch on" the anti-tumor immunity both systemically, in peripheral blood, and locally, employing in vitro BC models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163518/mixed-signals-co-stimulation-in-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Susannah C Shissler, Michael S Lee, Tonya J Webb
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163516/restoring-natural-killer-cell-immunity-against-multiple-myeloma-in-the-era-of-new-drugs
#9
REVIEW
Gianfranco Pittari, Luca Vago, Moreno Festuccia, Chiara Bonini, Deena Mudawi, Luisa Giaccone, Benedetto Bruno
Transformed plasma cells in multiple myeloma (MM) are susceptible to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing via engagement of tumor ligands for NK activating receptors or "missing-self" recognition. Similar to other cancers, MM targets may elude NK cell immunosurveillance by reprogramming tumor microenvironment and editing cell surface antigen repertoire. Along disease continuum, these effects collectively result in a progressive decline of NK cell immunity, a phenomenon increasingly recognized as a critical determinant of MM progression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163508/interferon-%C3%AE-enhanced-cd100-plexin-b1-b2-interactions-promote-natural-killer-cell-functions-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#10
Yu He, Yonghong Guo, Chao Fan, Yingfeng Lei, Yun Zhou, Mingjie Zhang, Chuantao Ye, Guangxi Ji, Li Ma, Jianqi Lian, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao, Jiuping Wang, Chunqiu Hao, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia
Background: CD100, also known as Sema4D, is an immune semaphorin constitutively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. As an immune activation molecule, CD100 has important immunoregulatory effects on NK functions by enhancing the interactions between NK cells and target cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects CD100 expression, and whether interferon-α treatment enhances NK killing activity to facilitate HCV clearance via CD100...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163501/herceptin-enhances-the-antitumor-effect-of-natural-killer-cells-on-breast-cancer-cells-expressing-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2
#11
Xiao Tian, Feng Wei, Limei Wang, Wenwen Yu, Naining Zhang, Xinwei Zhang, Ying Han, Jinpu Yu, Xiubao Ren
Optimal adoptive cell therapy (ACT) should contribute to effective cancer treatment. The unique ability of natural killer (NK) cells to kill cancer cells independent of major histocompatibility requirement makes them suitable as ACT tools. Herceptin, an antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (anti-HER2) monoclonal antibody, is used to treat HER2(+) breast cancer. However, it has limited effectiveness and possible severe cardiotoxicity. Given that Herceptin may increase the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes, we explored the possible augmentation of NK cell cytotoxicity against HER2(+) breast cancer cells by Herceptin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163493/alpha-galactosylceramide-cd1d-antibody-fusion-proteins-redirect-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-immunity-to-solid-tumors-and-promote-prolonged-therapeutic-responses
#12
REVIEW
Lianjun Zhang, Alena Donda
Major progress in cancer immunotherapies have been obtained by the use of tumor targeting strategies, in particular with the development of bi-functional fusion proteins such as ImmTacs or BiTes, which engage effector T cells for targeted elimination of tumor cells. Given the significance of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, we have developed a bi-functional protein composed of the extracellular part of CD1d molecule that was genetically fused to an scFv fragment from high affinity antibodies against HER2 or CEA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163491/suppression-of-natural-killer-cell-activity-by-regulatory-nkt10-cells-aggravates-alcoholic-hepatosteatosis
#13
Kele Cui, Guoxiu Yan, Xiaodong Zheng, Li Bai, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
We and others have found that the functions of hepatic natural killer (NK) cells are inhibited but invariant NKT (iNKT) cells become activated after alcohol drinking, leaving a possibility that there exists interplay between NK cells and iNKT cells during alcoholic liver disease. Here, in a chronic plus single-binge ethanol consumption mouse model, we observed that NK cells and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis, as both wild-type (WT) mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody and IFN-γ-deficient GKO mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty livers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163480/differentiation-of-il-17-producing-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-requires-expression-of-the-transcription-factor-c-maf
#14
Jhang-Sian Yu, Michito Hamada, Shigeo Ohtsuka, Keigyou Yoh, Satoru Takahashi, Shi-Chuen Miaw
c-Maf belongs to the large Maf family of transcription factors and plays a key role in the regulation of cytokine production and differentiation of TH2, TH17, TFH, and Tr1 cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells can rapidly produce large quantity of TH-related cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A upon stimulation by glycolipid antigens, such as α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). However, the role of c-Maf in iNKT cells and iNKT cells-mediated diseases remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells express c-Maf transcript and protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163475/critical-role-for-very-long-chain-sphingolipids-in-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-development-and-homeostasis
#15
Ashish Saroha, Yael Pewzner-Jung, Natalia S Ferreira, Piyush Sharma, Youenn Jouan, Samuel L Kelly, Ester Feldmesser, Alfred H Merrill, François Trottein, Christophe Paget, Karl S Lang, Anthony H Futerman
The role of sphingolipids (SLs) in the immune system has come under increasing scrutiny recently due to the emerging contributions that these important membrane components play in regulating a variety of immunological processes. The acyl chain length of SLs appears particularly critical in determining SL function. Here, we show a role for very-long acyl chain SLs (VLC-SLs) in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell maturation in the thymus and homeostasis in the liver. Ceramide synthase 2-null mice, which lack VLC-SLs, were susceptible to a hepatotropic strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which is due to a reduction in the number of iNKT cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163428/hhv-6a-6b-infection-of-nk-cells-modulates-the-expression-of-mirnas-and-transcription-factors-potentially-associated-to-impaired-nk-activity
#16
Roberta Rizzo, Irene Soffritti, Maria D'Accolti, Daria Bortolotti, Dario Di Luca, Elisabetta Caselli
Natural killer (NK) cells have a critical role in controlling virus infections, and viruses have evolved several mechanisms to escape NK cell functions. In particular, Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is associated with diseases characterized by immune dysregulation and has been reported to infect NK cells. We recently found that HHV-6 in vitro infection of human thyroid follicular epithelial cells and T-lymphocytes modulates several miRNAs associated with alterations in immune response. Since miRNAs are key regulators of many immune pathways, including NK cell functions, we aimed to study the impact of HHV-6A and -6B in vitro infection on the intracellular mediators correlated to NK cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162543/identification-expression-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-nk-lysin-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#17
Gai Ling Wang, Ming Cheng Wang, Ying Li Liu, Qian Zhang, Chuan Feng Li, Pan Ting Liu, En Zhong Li, Pin Nie, Hai Xia Xie
Natural killer lysin (NK-lysin), produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Nevertheless, the implication of NK-lysin in the protection against bacterial infection is not aware in common carp. In this study, six different NK-lysin genes (nkl1, nkl2, nkl3, nkl4, nkl5 and nkl6) were identified in the common carp genome. Each of the mature peptides of common carp NK-lysin has six well-conserved cysteine residues, and shares a Saposin B domain, characteristic of saposin-like protein (SALIP) family...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159928/the-immunogenetics-of-neurological-disease
#18
REVIEW
Maneesh K Misra, Vincent Damotte, Jill A Hollenbach
Genes encoding antigen-presenting molecules within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) account for the highest component of genetic risk for many neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Myriad genetic, immunological and environmental factors may contribute to an individual's susceptibility to neurological disease. Here, we review and discuss the decades long research on the influence of genetic variation at the MHC locus and the role of immunogenetic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) loci in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, myasthenia gravis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159447/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-long-nosed-bandicoot-perameles-nasuta-reveals-conservation-and-innovation-of-immune-genes-in-the-marsupial-order-peramelemorphia
#19
Katrina M Morris, Haylee J Weaver, Denis O'Meally, Marion Desclozeaux, Amber Gillett, Adam Polkinghorne
Bandicoots are omnivorous marsupials of the order Peramelemorphia. Conservation concerns and their unique biological characteristics suggest peramelomorphs are worthy research subjects, but knowledge of their genetics and immunology has lagged behind that of other high-profile marsupials. Here, we characterise the transcriptome of the long-nose bandicoot (Perameles nasuta), the first high-throughput data set from any peramelomorph. We investigate the immune gene repertoire of the bandicoot, with a focus on key immune gene families, and compare to previously characterised marsupial and mammalian species...
November 20, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158791/correlation-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-and-immune-cell-markers-in-resected-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Zhaoqin Huang, Haining Yu, Jianbo Zhang, Haiyan Jing, Wanqi Zhu, Xiaolin Li, Lingling Kong, Ligang Xing, Jinming Yu, Xiangjiao Meng
Background: Recent studies confirmed that immunotherapy showed prominent efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cancer stem cells/cancer initiating cells are resistant to anticancer treatment. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of cancer stem cells/cancer initiating cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in NSCLC. Methods: CD133, octamer 4 (OCT-4), CD8, CD56, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) were assessed in 172 resected NSCLC samples...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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