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N-acetyl cysteine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155359/4-methylthio-3-butenyl-isothiocyanate-mediates-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-activation-by-regulating-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-human-esophageal-epithelial-cells
#1
Tadashi Hirata, Young-Man Cho, Isamu Suzuki, Takeshi Toyoda, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Yasushi Nakamura, Satoshi Numazawa, Kumiko Ogawa
4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) extracted from daikon (Raphanus sativus), which shows antimutagenicity, may have applications as an effective chemopreventive agent in several cancers; however, few reports have described the associated mechanisms. We investigated whether MTBITC induced cytoprotective genes, including phase II enzymes, in Het-1A human esophageal epithelial cells. HMOX1, NQO1, and GCLC mRNA levels and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) protein levels were increased in Het-1A cells exposed to 10 μM MTBITC...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154133/signaling-molecule-methylglyoxal-ameliorates-cadmium-injury-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-a-coordinated-induction-of-glutathione-pool-and-glyoxalase-system
#2
Zhong-Guang Li, Qian Nie, Cong-Li Yang, Yue Wang, Zhi-Hao Zhou
Methylglyoxal (MG) now is found to be an emerging signaling molecule. It can relieve the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), however its alleviating mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, compared with the Cd-stressed seedlings without MG treatment, MG treatment could stimulate the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) in Cd-stressed wheat seedlings, which in turn induced an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH). Adversely, the activated enzymes related to GSH biosynthesis and increased GSH were weakened by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), 2,4-dihydroxy-benzylamine (DHBA) and 1,3-bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (BCNU, both are specific inhibitors of GR), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitors of GSH biosynthesis), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, GSH scavenger), respectively...
November 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152699/comparative-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-curcumin-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-against-paracetamol-induced-hepatic-renal-and-testicular-toxicity-in-wistar-rats
#3
Zeynab Kh El-Maddawy, Yasser S El-Sayed
This study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin (CUR) vs. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against paracetamol (PCM)-induced oxidative damage and impairment of liver, kidney, and testicular functions, as well as hematotoxicity, in albino rats. A large single dose of PCM induced lipid peroxidation along with a significant decline in glutathione content and catalase activity in the liver, kidneys, and testicles. The apparent oxidative damage was associated with evident hepatic, renal, and testicular dysfunction, which was confirmed in histopathological lesions, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148959/effect-of-measuring-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-and-using-smoflipid-in-a-parenteral-nutrition-infusion-in-a-patient-with-severe-malabsorption-and-overlapping-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Merin Kinikini
Studies discussing inflammation and oxidative stress state that these conditions are known contributors in the pathogenesis of cholestatic diseases and ulcerative colitis, and studies examining patients with liver disease have found decreased antioxidant status and significant elevation of lipid peroxides as compared with healthy subjects. One hypothesis in liver disease is that deficient antioxidant defense mechanisms may lead to excess oxygen free radical formation, which promotes deleterious processes in the liver...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139022/effect-of-plasma-activated-lactated-ringer-s-solution-on-pancreatic-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Yusuke Sato, Suguru Yamada, Shigeomi Takeda, Norifumi Hattori, Kae Nakamura, Hiromasa Tanaka, Masaaki Mizuno, Masaru Hori, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: The medical applications of nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma in cancer therapy have attracted attention. We previously reported on the antitumor effect of plasma-activated medium. However, this approach requires plasma-activated liquids that are administrable to the human body. In this study, we produced plasma-activated lactated Ringer's solution (PAL) and evaluated its antitumor effect and mechanism. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of the intraperitoneal administration of PAL using a peritoneal dissemination mouse tumor model...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137811/improving-the-safety-of-metal-based-drugs-by-tuning-their-metabolism-with-chemoprotective-agents
#6
Jürgen Gailer
Metal-based drugs remain a tiny minority of all drugs that are on the market. The success story of the quintessential metal-based drug cisplatin (CP), which is intravenously administered to 70% of all cancer patients, however, demonstrates the inherent potential of metal-based drugs. A distinct disadvantage of CP is the dose-limiting severe toxic-side effects that it exerts in patients. To better understand the biomolecular basis for its toxicity, we employed a metallomics method to observe all platinum metabolites that are formed in blood plasma...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137484/the-role-of-endogenous-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cardiac-myocyte-autophagy
#7
J-P Wang, R-F Chi, J Liu, Y-Z Deng, X-B Han, F-Z Qin, B Li
Autophagy is implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Autophagy is activated in heart failure, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Exogenous ROS have been shown to induce cardiomyocyte autophagy alterations. However, little is known about the influences of physiological levels of endogenous ROS on cardiomyocyte autophagy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous ROS in cardiomyocytes play an important role in inducing autophagy. Cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes or Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or the superoxide dismutase mimic tempol under the basal or nutrient deprivation conditions...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136144/antioxidants-improve-ivf-outcome-and-subsequent-embryo-development-in-the-mouse
#8
T Truong, D K Gardner
STUDY QUESTION: What is the effect of a combination of three antioxidants (Acetyl-L-Carnitine, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and α-Lipoic Acid), present in IVF medium during mouse oocyte and sperm collection, on fertilization and subsequent IVF embryo development? SUMMARY ANSWER: A combination of antioxidants resulted in faster developmental times from the 2-cell stage through to expanded blastocyst stage, accompanied by a significant increase in blastocyst cell number and a reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134467/diterpenoid-natural-compound-c4-crassin-exerts-cytostatic-effects-on-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-via-a-pathway-involving-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Cathy E Richards, Sri H Vellanki, Yvonne E Smith, Ann M Hopkins
PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) lack expression of three common cell surface receptors, i.e., estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Accordingly, TNBCs are associated with fewer treatment options and a relatively poor prognosis. Having screened a National Cancer Institute natural compound library, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of compound C4 (Crassin) in TNBC cells. METHODS: Cell viability assays were performed in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, following C4 treatment in the presence or absence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)...
November 13, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132195/current-evidence-for-the-use-of-n-acetylcysteine-following-liver-resection
#10
REVIEW
Richard Kemp, Jonathan Mole, Dhanny Gomez
BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has many uses in medicine; notable in the management of paracetamol toxicity, acute liver failure and liver surgery. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the published literature for the routine use of NAC in liver resection surgery. METHODS: An electronic search was performed of EBSCOhost (Medline and CINAHL database), PubMed and the Cochrane Library for the period 1990-2016. MeSH headings: 'acetyl-cysteine', 'liver resection' and 'hepatectomy' were used to identify all relevant articles published in English...
November 13, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130363/antioxidant-role-of-autophagy-in-maintaining-the-integrity-of-glomerular-capillaries
#11
Jun Matsuda, Tomoko Namba, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Tomonori Kimura, Atsushi Takahashi, Takeshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Minami, Shinsuke Sakai, Ryuta Fujimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Yoko Fukushima, Keiko Matsui, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yoshitaka Isaka
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation system by which cytosolic materials and damaged organelles are broken down into basic components. To explore the physiological role of autophagy in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs), we compared the autophagic flux among cells in the kidney under starvation. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine administration significantly increased the number of autophagosomes or autolysosomes in GEnCs and proximal tubular cells, but not in podocytes, suggesting that the GEnCs exhibit substantial autophagic activity...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126981/therapeutic-effect-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-nac-on-symptoms-of-chronic-schizophrenia-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Mahsa Heidary, Negar Akasheh, Hossein Akbari, Mahshid Heidary
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling psychiatric syndromes with the prevalence of 1% in the general population. Despite availability of various antipsychotics, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment are difficult to treat. In addition antipsychotic monotherapy is not effective in most of these patients. Current evidence indicates the roles of glutamatergic system in this disorder. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) also increases extracellular glutamate. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical effects of oral NAC as an add-on to maintenance medication for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia...
November 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125808/monocyte-derived-procoagulant-microvesicles-induced-by-high-glucose-can-be-attenuated-by-the-antioxidant-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-partly-through-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#13
Mingzhen Li, Xiao Zhang, Jing Yu, Xin Wu, Lirong Sun
BACKGROUND: Microvesicles (MVs) are small membrane vesicles that are derived from many different cell types by a process of exocytic budding of the plasma membrane. MVs may be associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease in diabetic patients, but the mechanism of this association is unclear. Diabetic patients also show hypercoagulability and platelet hyperaggregability. In this study, we investigated the generation and activity of high glucose (HG)-induced MVs from monocytes to elucidate the potential mechanism of such MVs in diabetes...
November 10, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122013/suppression-of-methylmercury-induced-mip-2-expression-by-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-in-murine-raw264-7-macrophage-cell-line
#14
Juliet David, Athira Nandakumar, Muflihatul Muniroh, Suminori Akiba, Megumi Yamamoto, Chihaya Koriyama
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to examine the inflammatory-cytokine expressions in the presence of non-cytotoxic dose of methylmercury (MeHg) in murine macrophages, which is suspected to play an important role in brain damage caused by MeHg exposure. We focused on murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 (MCP-5). MIP-2 and KC are murine functional homologues of human IL-8 and MCP-5 for human MCP-1...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119107/santamarine-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-a549-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-via-oxidative-stress
#15
Xuefeng Wu, Hua Zhu, Jingzhe Yan, Muhammad Khan, Xiuyan Yu
Santamarine (STM), a sesquiterpene lactone component of Magnolia grandiflora and Ambrosia confertiflora, has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, no study has yet been conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of STM-mediated anticancer activity. In the present study, we found that STM inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells through induction of oxidative stress. STM induces oxidative stress by promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH), and inhibiting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116476/contribution-of-reactive-oxygen-species-to-the-anticancer-activity-of-aminoalkanol-derivatives-of-xanthone
#16
Daniel Sypniewski, Natalia Szkaradek, Tomasz Loch, Anna M Waszkielewicz, Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak, Daria Matczyńska, Dagna Sołtysik, Henryk Marona, Ilona Bednarek
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critically involved in the action of anticancer agents. In this study, we investigated the role of ROS in the anticancer mechanism of new aminoalkanol derivatives of xanthone. Most xanthones used in the study displayed significant pro-oxidant effects similar to those of gambogic acid, one of the most active anticancer xanthones. The pro-oxidant activity of our xanthones was shown both directly (by determination of ROS induction, effects on the levels of intracellular antioxidants, and expression of antioxidant enzymes) and indirectly by demonstrating that the overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase decreases ROS-mediated cell senescence...
November 8, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116368/n-acetyl-cysteine-reverses-bio-behavioural-changes-induced-by-prenatal-inflammation-adolescent-methamphetamine-exposure-and-combined-challenges
#17
Twanette Swanepoel, Marisa Möller, Brian Herbert Harvey
RATIONALE: Schizophrenia is associated with prenatal inflammation and/or postnatal stressors such as drug abuse, resulting in immune-redox dysfunction. Antioxidants may offer therapeutic benefits. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as a therapeutic antioxidant to reverse schizophrenia-like bio-behavioural changes in rats exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA), adolescent methamphetamine (MA) or a combination thereof...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113965/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-reduces-the-immunopotency-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-adults-with-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Ozge Kizilay Mancini, Maximilien Lora, Alexanne Cuillerier, Dominique Shum-Tim, Reggie C Hamdy, Yan Burelle, Marc J Servant, Ursula Stochaj, Ines Colmegna
Rationale: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising therapeutic strategies for coronary artery disease (CAD), however, donor-related variability in cell quality is a main cause of discrepancies in preclinical studies. In vitro, MSCs from individuals with CAD have reduced ability to suppress activated T-cells. The mechanisms underlying the altered immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs in the context of atherosclerosis (ATH) remain elusive. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the impaired immunomodulatory properties of MSCs from ATH patients...
November 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112407/secondary-metabolites-in-allergic-plant-pollen-samples-modulate-afferent-neurons-and-murine-tracheal-rings
#19
Alen Božičević, Maria De Mieri, Christina Nassenstein, Silke Wiegand, Matthias Hamburger
Plant pollens are strong airborne elicitors of asthma. Their proteinaceous allergens have been studied intensively, but little is known about a possible contribution of pollen secondary metabolites to the nonallergic exacerbation of asthma. Pollen samples originating from 30 plant species were analyzed by HPLC coupled to PDA, ESIMS, and ELSD detectors and off-line NMR spectroscopy. Polyamine conjugates, flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones were identified. Polyamine conjugates were characteristic of all Asteraceae species...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111403/the-critical-role-of-autophagy-in-cadmium-induced-immunosuppression-regulated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-calpain-activation-in-raw264-7-mouse-monocytes
#20
Keum-Young So, Byung-Hoon Lee, Seon-Hee Oh
Cadmium (Cd) has toxic and suppressive effects on the immune system, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that autophagy plays a critical role in regulation of Cd-induced immunosuppression in RAW264.7 cells. Cd decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; cleaved caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1; increased DNA laddering; induced CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP); and reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression; indicating that caspase-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated apoptosis are involved in Cd-induced immunotoxicity...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology
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