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N-acetyl cysteine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932980/tnf-%C3%AE-induced-cpla2-expression-via-nadph-oxidase-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cascade-on-human-pulmonary-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#1
Chih-Chung Lin, Wei-Ning Lin, Rou-Ling Cho, Chen-Yu Wang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and then enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) in inflammatory diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α induced cPLA2 expression were not fully defined in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We found that TNF-α-stimulated increases in cPLA2 mRNA (5.2 folds) and protein (3.9 folds) expression, promoter activity (4.3 folds), and PGE2 secretion (4.7 folds) in HPAEpiCs, determined by Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay and PGE2 ELISA kit...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931343/evaluation-of-omnigenesputum-stabilised-sputum-for-long-term-transport-and-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-in-nepal
#2
B Maharjan, C D Kelly-Cirino, A Weirich, P S Curry, H Hoffman, K Avsar, B Shrestha
SETTING: German Nepal TB Project, National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether transporting samples in OMNIgeneSPUTUM (OM-S) reagent from a peripheral collection site to a central laboratory in Nepal can improve tuberculosis (TB) detection and increase the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF testing. DESIGN: One hundred sputum samples were split manually. Each portion was assigned to the OM-S group (OM-S added at collection, airline-couriered without cold chain, no other processing required) or the standard-of-care (SOC) group (samples airline-couriered on ice, sodium hydroxide + N-acetyl-L-cysteine processing required at the laboratory)...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929749/critical-role-of-x-box-binding-protein-1-in-nadph-oxidase-4-triggered-cardiac-hypertrophy-is-mediated-by-receptor-interacting-protein-kinase-1
#3
Li Chen, Mingyue Zhao, Junli Li, Yu Wang, Qinxue Bao, Siyuan Wu, Xueqin Deng, Xiaoju Tang, Wenchao Wu, Xiaojing Liu
NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and the NOX4-related redox signaling are implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. NOX4 is interrelated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s) is a key mediator of ERS while its role in cardiac hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Recently, receptor interacting protein kinase 1(RIPK1) has been increasingly reported to be associated with ERS. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that Xbp1s mediates NOX4-triggered cardiac hypertrophy via RIPK1 signaling...
December 8, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926485/axitinib-induces-senescence-associated-cell-death-and-necrosis-in-glioma-cell-lines-the-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-potentiates-axitinib-induced-cytotoxicity-in-a-p21-waf-cip1-dependent-manner
#4
Maria Beatrice Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Massimo Nabissi, Claudio Cardinali, Matteo Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini, Angela Santoni, Giorgio Santoni
Glioblastoma is associated with a poor overall survival despite new treatment advances. Antiangiogenic strategies targeting VEGF based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently undergoing extensive research for the treatment of glioma.Herein we demonstrated that the TKI axitinib induces DNA damage response (DDR) characterized by γ-H2AX phosphorylation and Chk1 kinase activation leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe in U87, T98 and U251 glioma cell lines. Moreover, we found that p21(Waf1/Cip1) increased levels correlates with induction of ROS and senescence-associated cell death in U87 and T98 cell lines, which are reverted by N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920204/studies-on-the-detection-expression-glycosylation-dimerization-and-ligand-binding-properties-of-mouse-siglec-e
#5
Shoib Siddiqui, Flavio Schwarz, Stevan Springer, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Lingquan Deng, Andrea Verhagen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Weiping Jiang, Daniel Kim, Jie Zhou, Beibei Ding, Xi Chen, Nissi Varki, Ajit Varki
CD33-related Siglecs are a family of proteins widely expressed on innate immune cells. Binding of sialylated glycans or other ligands triggers signals that inhibit or activate inflammation. Immunomodulation by Siglecs has been extensively studied, but relationships between structure and functions are poorly explored. Here we present new data relating the structure and function of Siglec-E, the major CD33-related Siglec expressed on mouse neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. We generated nine new rat monoclonal antibodies specific to mouse Siglec-E, with no cross-reactivity to Siglec-F...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#6
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917510/activation-of-interleukin-6-and-8-expressions-by-methylmercury-in-human-u937-macrophages-involves-rela-and-p50
#7
Megumi Yamamoto, Noureen Khan, Muflihatul Muniroh, Eriko Motomura, Rie Yanagisawa, Takami Matsuyama, Christoph F A Vogel
The accumulation of macrophages has been observed around lesions of the brain in patients with Minamata disease. In this condition, mercury has been detected histochemically in macrophages throughout the brain. However, the role of macrophages in the neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) and the molecular mechanisms of their response to MeHg exposure remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated how MeHg affects the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in cultured human U937 macrophages...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917341/the-effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-nac-on-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-inducing-cardiovascular-toxicity-a-case-control-study
#8
Fakhreddin Taghaddosinejad, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Mahdi Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Morteza Hajihosseini, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a very effective indoor and outdoor pesticide. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the survival time, hemodynamics, and cardiac biochemical parameters at various time intervals in some cases of AlP poisoning. METHODS: This research was a case-control study to evaluate 63 AlP poisoned patients during 2010-2012. Patients with cardiovascular complications of AlP to be treated with intravenous NAC plus conventional treatment were considered as the case group and compared with patients who did not receive NAC...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916916/aniline-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-of-primary-cultured-hepatocytes
#9
Yue Wang, Hong Gao, Xiao-Lin Na, Shu-Ying Dong, Hong-Wei Dong, Jia Yu, Li Jia, Yong-Hui Wu
The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915491/the-effects-of-changes-in-glutathione-levels-through-exogenous-agents-on-intracellular-cysteine-content-and-protein-adduct-formation-in-chronic-alcohol-treated-vl17a-cells
#10
Mathan Kumar S, Madhumitha Haridoss, Kavitha Swaminathan, Ramesh Kumar G, Dahn L Clemens, Aparajita Dey
Alcohol mediated liver injury is associated with changes in the level of the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). It is interesting to investigate if the changes in intracellular GSH level through exogenous agents affect the intracellular cysteine content and the protein adduct formation indicative of oxidative insult in chronic alcohol treated liver cells. In VL-17A cells treated with 2 mM N- acetyl cysteine (NAC) or 0.1 mM ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) plus 100 mM ethanol, an increase in cysteine concentration which was accompanied by decreases in hydroxynonenal (HNE) and glutathionylated protein adducts were observed...
December 4, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913221/role-of-the-inflammasome-in-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-and-acute-liver-failure
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Hartmut Jaeschke
Drug-induced acute liver failure carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. Acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure and remains a major problem in Western medicine. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine is an effective antidote when given before the initial rise in toxicity; however, many patients present to the hospital after this stage occurs. As such, treatments which can alleviate late-stage acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure are imperative. While the initial mechanisms of toxicity are well described, a debate has occurred recently in the literature over whether or not there exists a second phase of injury, mediated by inflammatory processes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912102/toyocamycin-induces-apoptosis-via-the-crosstalk-between-reactive-oxygen-species-and-p38-erk-mapks-signaling-pathway-in-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells
#12
Sul-Gi Park, Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Hyeun-Deok Choi, Young-Wook Kim, Hyo-Won Nam, Young-Kyo Seo, Soon-Cheol Ahn
BACKGROUND: Toyocamycin, an antibiotic agent isolated from Streptomyces species, has been shown to have anticancer and chemopreventive effects on various cancer cells. Until now, Toyocamycin-induced apoptosis has not been reported to be involved in the regulation between mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. METHODS: Cell viability assay, western blot, cell-cycle arrest, annexin V/propidium iodide assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) flux were assayed...
October 24, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908781/heme-oxygenase-1-metabolite-biliverdin-not-iron-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication
#13
Angke Zhang, Hong Duan, Na Li, Lijuan Zhao, Fengxing Pu, Baicheng Huang, Chunyan Wu, Yuchen Nan, Taofeng Du, Yang Mu, Qin Zhao, Yani Sun, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907022/nicotine-induces-podocyte-apoptosis-through-increasing-oxidative-stress
#14
Xiqian Lan, Rivka Lederman, Judith M Eng, Seyedeh Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Moin A Saleem, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nicotine, one of the major components of cigarette smoking, has been demonstrated to increase proliferation of renal mesangial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of nicotine on podocyte injury. METHODS: To determine the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subunits) in podocytes, cDNAs and cell lysate of cultured human podocytes were used for the expression of nAChR mRNAs and proteins, respectively; and mouse renal cortical sections were subjected to immunofluorescant staining...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#15
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900814/effects-of-intratracheal-exposure-of-2-chloroethyl-ethyl-sulfide-cees-on-the-activation-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-c-ebp-and-its-protection-by-antioxidant-liposome
#16
Somdutta Sinha Roy, Shyamali Mukherjee, Salil K Das
Exposure of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) to guinea pigs causes lung injury by infiltration of neutrophils in interstitial lung spaces. A unique MAPK-regulated transcription factor, C/EBP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein), regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), involved in recruiting neutrophils in lung. The present study was to determine if CEES exposure causes activation of C/EBP, in particular the predominant β-isoform and if so whether it can be prevented by intratracheal delivery of an antioxidant liposome containing N-acetyl cysteine and tocopherols...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900412/demethyleneberberine-alleviates-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-mice-through-regulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-t-helper-cell-homeostasis
#17
Ying-Ying Chen, Rui-Yan Li, Mei-Jing Shi, Ya-Xing Zhao, Yan Yan, Xin-Xin Xu, Miao Zhang, Xiao-Tong Zhao, Yu-Bin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The activation of NF-κB signaling and unbalance of T-helper (Th) cells have been reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of colitis. Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis (CPC) is commonly used to treat inflammation and diarrhea. Demethyleneberberine (DMB), a component of CPC, was reported to treat alcoholic liver disease as a novel natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in our previous study. In this study, we investigated whether DMB could protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory colitis in mice by regulation of NF-κB pathway and Th cells homeostatis...
November 29, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898405/n-acetyl-cysteine-attenuated-the-deleterious-effects-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-on-the-kidney-of-non-diabetic-rats
#18
Karina Thieme, Karolline S Da Silva, Nelly T Fabre, Sergio Catanozi, Maria Beatriz Monteiro, Daniele Pereira Santos-Bezerra, Juliana Martins Costa-Pessoa, Maria Oliveira-Souza, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli, Maria Lucia Correa-Giannella
AIM: To assess the renal effects of chronic exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the absence of diabetes and the potential impact of concomitant treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). METHODS: Wistar rats received intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg/day of albumin modified (AlbAGE) or not (AlbC) by advanced glycation for 12 weeks and oral NAC (600mg/L; AlbAGE+NAC and AlbC+NAC, respectively). Biochemical, urinary and renal morphological analyses; carboxymethyl-lysine (CML, an AGE), CD68 (macrophage infiltration), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, marker of oxidative stress) immunostaining; intrarenal mRNA expression of genes belonging to pathways related to AGEs (Ager, Ddost, Nfkb1), renin-angiotensin system (Agt, Ren, Ace), fibrosis (Tgfb1, Col4a1), oxidative stress (Nox4, Txnip), and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2); and reactive oxidative species (ROS) content were performed...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897327/high-performance-liquid-chromatography-evaluation-of-the-enantiomeric-purity-of-amino-acids-by-means-of-automated-precolumn-derivatization-with-ortho-phthalaldehyde-and-chiral-thiols
#19
Raphael Kühnreich, Ulrike Holzgrabe
The use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) for the derivatization of amino acids (AA) is well known. It enables the separation of the derivatives on common reversed phase columns and improves the sensitivity with fluorescence detection. With the use of a chiral thiol an indirect enantioseparation of chiral amines and AAs is feasible. The major drawback of the OPA-derivatization is the poor stability of the products. Here, a method with an in-needle derivatization procedure is optimized to facilitate a quantitative conversion of the AA with OPA and the chiral thiols N-acetyl-L-cysteine or N-isobutyryl-L-cysteine, followed by a subsequent analysis, eluding the stability issue...
December 2016: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895157/beneficial-effects-of-myo-inositol-oxygenase-deficiency-in-cisplatin-induced-aki
#20
Rajesh K Dutta, Vinay K Kondeti, Isha Sharma, Navdeep S Chandel, Susan E Quaggin, Yashpal S Kanwar
Overexpression of the proximal tubular enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) induces oxidant stress in vitro However, the relevance of MIOX to tubular pathobiology remains enigmatic. To investigate the role of MIOX in cisplatin-induced tubular AKI, we generated conditional MIOX-overexpressing transgenic (MIOX-TG) mice and MIOX-knockout (MIOX(-/-)) mice with tubule-specific MIOX overexpression or knockout, respectively. Compared with cisplatin-treated wild-type (WT) mice, cisplatin-treated MIOX-TG mice had even greater increases in urea, creatinine, and KIM-1 levels and more tubular injury and apoptosis, but these effects were attenuated in cisplatin-treated MIOX(-/-) mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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