keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nutritional geometry

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122389/the-nutritional-geometry-of-liver-disease-including-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#1
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer, Victoria C Cogger, Laurence Macia, Samantha M Solon-Biet, David G Le Couteur, Jacob George
Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#2
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987632/moderate-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-by-short-term-dietary-methionine-overload-alters-bone-microarchitecture-and-collagen-features-during-growth
#3
Petar Milovanovic, Dragan Hrncic, Ksenija Radotic, Mira Stankovic, Dragosav Mutavdzic, Danijela Djonic, Aleksandra Rasic-Markovic, Dragan Djuric, Olivera Stanojlovic, Marija Djuric
AIMS: In general, hyperhomocysteinemia is increasingly appreciated as a risk factor for various diseases, including osteoporosis. However, its effects in non-adults remain largely unknown. Our aim was to determine whether dietary-caused increased homocysteine levels have deleterious effects on bone structure during growth. MAIN METHODS: We developed a model of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia caused by short-term methionine nutritional overload in growing rats. 30-days-old male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to either experimental group subject to a 30-days hypermethionine diet or control group...
October 4, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952433/bio-inspired-biomaterials-and-their-drug-delivery-perspectives-a-review
#4
Angel M Villalba-Rodríguez, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Ishtiaq Ahmed, K Karthik, Yashpal S Malik, Kuldeep Dhama, Hafiz M N Iqbal
A number of disease conditions require controlled or sustained drug release to achieve complete recovery. In recent years, there has been a considerable research interest in bio-inspired biomaterials due to their potential as an alternative to the in-use traditional synthetic counterparts. Research is underway worldwide on the development of 'greener' technologies with an aim to engineer novel drug delivery systems (DDS). Bio-based constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world and to address growing concerns about a global dependence on non-renewable petroleum-based resources...
September 24, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831686/food-versus-pharmacy-assessment-of-nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-improve-bone-health-in-energy-deficient-exercising-women
#5
REVIEW
Emily A Southmayd, Adelaide C Hellmers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize our current knowledge surrounding treatment strategies aimed at recovery of bone mass in energy-deficient women suffering from the Female Athlete Triad. RECENT FINDINGS: The independent and interactive contributions of energy status versus estrogen status on bone density, geometry, and strength have recently been reported, highlighting the importance of addressing both energy and estrogen in treatment strategies for bone health...
October 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826630/a-theoretical-exploration-of-dietary-collective-medication-in-social-insects
#6
Laure-Anne Poissonnier, Mathieu Lihoreau, Tamara Gomez-Moracho, Audrey Dussutour, Jerome Buhl
Animals often alter their food choices following a pathogen infection in order to increase immune function and combat the infection. Whether social animals that collect food for their brood or nestmates adjust their nutrient intake to the infection states of their social partners is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an individual-based model of nutritional geometry to examine the impact of collective nutrient balancing on pathogen spread in a social insect colony. The model simulates a hypothetical social insect colony infected by a horizontally transmitted parasite...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694843/quantifying-pruning-impacts-on-olive-tree-architecture-and-annual-canopy-growth-by-using-uav-based-3d-modelling
#7
F M Jiménez-Brenes, F López-Granados, A I de Castro, J Torres-Sánchez, N Serrano, J M Peña
BACKGROUND: Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning)...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673915/collective-foraging-in-spatially-complex-nutritional-environments
#8
Mathieu Lihoreau, Michael A Charleston, Alistair M Senior, Fiona J Clissold, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson, Jerome Buhl
Nutrition impinges on virtually all aspects of an animal's life, including social interactions. Recent advances in nutritional ecology show how social animals often trade-off individual nutrition and group cohesion when foraging in simplified experimental environments. Here, we explore how the spatial structure of the nutritional landscape influences these complex collective foraging dynamics in ecologically realistic environments. We introduce an individual-based model integrating key concepts of nutritional geometry, collective animal behaviour and spatial ecology to study the nutritional behaviour of animal groups in large heterogeneous environments containing foods with different abundance, patchiness and nutritional composition...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542353/identification-of-cow-and-buffalo-milk-based-on-beta-carotene-and-vitamin-a-concentration-using-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#9
Rahat Ullah, Saranjam Khan, Hina Ali, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Saleem
The current study presents the application of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of cow and buffalo milk based on β-carotene and vitamin-A which is of prime importance from the nutritional point of view. All samples were collected from healthy animals of different breeds at the time of lactation in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan. Cow and buffalo milk shows differences at fluorescence emission appeared at band position 382 nm, 440 nm, 505 nm and 525 nm both in classical geometry (right angle) setup as well as front face fluorescence setup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274839/dietary-protein-aging-and-nutritional-geometry
#10
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David Raubenheimer, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Gregory J Cooney, Victoria C Cogger, Luigi Fontana
Nearly a century of research has shown that nutritional interventions can delay aging and age- related diseases in many animal models and possibly humans. The most robust and widely studied intervention is caloric restriction, while protein restriction and restriction of various amino acids (methionine, tryptophan) have also been shown to delay aging. However, there is still debate over whether the major impact on aging is secondary to caloric intake, protein intake or specific amino acids. Nutritional geometry provides new perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and aging by focusing on calories, macronutrients and their interactions across a landscape of diets, and taking into account compensatory feeding in ad libitum-fed experiments...
March 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273475/integrative-physiology-at-the-crossroads-of-nutrition-microbiota-animal-physiology-and-human-health
#11
REVIEW
François Leulier, Lesley T MacNeil, Won-Jae Lee, John F Rawls, Patrice D Cani, Martin Schwarzer, Liping Zhao, Stephen J Simpson
Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268376/micro-tube-mass-production-device-for-microbial-culture
#12
K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, K Higashi, N Miki
This paper describes mass production system of micro-tubes for microbial culture in an open environment. Microbes are used in many fields, such as food, medicine, environmental and energy. We proposed a microbe culture system using hydrogel micro-tubes, which can protect the target microbes inside from competitive microbes outside of the tubes while allow oxygen and nutrition to diffuse through. The hydrogel micro-tubes can be produced by a microfluidic device, which can precisely control the flow and therefore, the tube geometry...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226540/micro-tube-mass-production-device-for-microbial-culture
#13
K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, K Higashi, N Miki, K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, K Higashi, N Miki, K Higashi, K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, N Miki
This paper describes mass production system of micro-tubes for microbial culture in an open environment. Microbes are used in many fields, such as food, medicine, environmental and energy. We proposed a microbe culture system using hydrogel micro-tubes, which can protect the target microbes inside from competitive microbes outside of the tubes while allow oxygen and nutrition to diffuse through. The hydrogel micro-tubes can be produced by a microfluidic device, which can precisely control the flow and therefore, the tube geometry...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117494/the-seasonal-feeding-ecology-of-the-javan-slow-loris-nycticebus-javanicus
#14
Francis Cabana, Ellen Dierenfeld, Wirdateti Wirdateti, Giuseppe Donati, K A I Nekaris
OBJECTIVES: To describe the strategy employed by exudativorous primates during seasonal shifts in food abundance using the Javan slow loris as a model. Males and females may cope differently as well as exploit fallback foods in different proportions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observing 15 free ranging Javan slow lorises over a year, we quantified their seasonal diet and nutrient intake using intake rates. For gum intake rates, we conducted a trial with 10 captive Javan slow lorises measuring the length of time it took for them to ingest 10 g of gum...
April 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088923/an-assessment-of-the-influence-of-macronutrients-on-growth-performance-and-nutrient-utilisation-in-broiler-chickens-by-nutritional-geometry
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sonia Y Liu, Peter H Selle, David Raubenheimer, David J Cadogan, Stephen J Simpson, Aaron J Cowieson
The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#16
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
April 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072422/the-fitness-costs-and-trade-off-shapes-associated-with-the-exclusion-of-nine-antibiotics-by-ompf-porin-channels
#17
Katherine Phan, Thomas Ferenci
The trade-off relationship between antibiotic exclusion and nutrient access across the Gram-negative outer membrane is determined by structural constraints in porin channels. The precise nutritional cost of exclusion is unknown for different antibiotics, as are the shapes of the nutrition-susceptibility trade-off. Using a library of 10 engineered isogenic Escherichia coli strains with structural modifications of OmpF porin expressed at a constant level, susceptibilities were measured for nine antibiotics and the nutritional fitness costs estimated by competitions in chemostats...
June 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032184/unique-effects-of-energy-versus-estrogen-deficiency-on-multiple-components-of-bone-strength-in-exercising-women
#18
E A Southmayd, R J Mallinson, N I Williams, D J Mallinson, M J De Souza
Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in exercising women (n = 60) grouped according to energy status (energy replete (EnR: n = 30) vs...
April 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029711/the-complex-interplay-between-macronutrient-intake-cuticular-hydrocarbon-expression-and-mating-success-in-male-decorated-crickets
#19
J Rapkin, K Jensen, C M House, S K Sakaluk, J K Sakaluk, J Hunt
The condition dependence of male sexual traits plays a central role in sexual selection theory. Relatively little, however, is known about the condition dependence of chemical signals used in mate choice and their subsequent effects on male mating success. Furthermore, few studies have isolated the specific nutrients responsible for condition-dependent variation in male sexual traits. Here, we used nutritional geometry to determine the effect of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression and mating success in male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778382/merging-elemental-and-macronutrient-approaches-for-a-comprehensive-study-of-energy-and-nutrient-flows
#20
Shawn M Wilder, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Global warming and predation risk can have important impacts on animal physiology and life histories that can have consequences for ecosystem function. Zhang et al. () recently tested the separate and interactive effects of warming and predation risk on the body composition of Daphnia magna. By measuring both the elemental and biochemical composition of individuals, they showed that D. magna body elemental composition responded opposite to theoretical predictions and previous studies but that these changes were explained by adaptive life-history shifts in allocation to protein in eggs versus body lipid reserves...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
keyword
keyword
69344
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"