keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nutritional geometry

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226540/micro-tube-mass-production-device-for-microbial-culture
#1
K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, K Higashi, N Miki, K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, K Higashi, N Miki, K Higashi, K Fujimoto, M Ogawa, N Miki
This paper describes mass production system of micro-tubes for microbial culture in an open environment. Microbes are used in many fields, such as food, medicine, environmental and energy. We proposed a microbe culture system using hydrogel micro-tubes, which can protect the target microbes inside from competitive microbes outside of the tubes while allow oxygen and nutrition to diffuse through. The hydrogel micro-tubes can be produced by a microfluidic device, which can precisely control the flow and therefore, the tube geometry...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117494/the-seasonal-feeding-ecology-of-the-javan-slow-loris-nycticebus-javanicus
#2
Francis Cabana, Ellen Dierenfeld, Wirdateti Wirdateti, Giuseppe Donati, K A I Nekaris
OBJECTIVES: To describe the strategy employed by exudativorous primates during seasonal shifts in food abundance using the Javan slow loris as a model. Males and females may cope differently as well as exploit fallback foods in different proportions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observing 15 free ranging Javan slow lorises over a year, we quantified their seasonal diet and nutrient intake using intake rates. For gum intake rates, we conducted a trial with 10 captive Javan slow lorises measuring the length of time it took for them to ingest 10 g of gum...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088923/an-assessment-of-the-influence-of-macronutrients-on-growth-performance-and-nutrient-utilisation-in-broiler-chickens-by-nutritional-geometry
#3
Sonia Y Liu, Peter H Selle, David Raubenheimer, David J Cadogan, Stephen J Simpson, Aaron J Cowieson
The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#4
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072422/the-fitness-costs-and-trade-off-shapes-associated-with-the-exclusion-of-nine-antibiotics-by-ompf-porin-channels
#5
Katherine Phan, Thomas Ferenci
The trade-off relationship between antibiotic exclusion and nutrient access across the Gram-negative outer membrane is determined by structural constraints in porin channels. The precise nutritional cost of exclusion is unknown for different antibiotics, as are the shapes of the nutrition-susceptibility trade-off. Using a library of 10 engineered isogenic Escherichia coli strains with structural modifications of OmpF porin expressed at a constant level, susceptibilities were measured for nine antibiotics and the nutritional fitness costs estimated by competitions in chemostats...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032184/unique-effects-of-energy-versus-estrogen-deficiency-on-multiple-components-of-bone-strength-in-exercising-women
#6
E A Southmayd, R J Mallinson, N I Williams, D J Mallinson, M J De Souza
: Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in exercising women (n = 60) grouped according to energy status (energy replete (EnR: n = 30) vs...
December 28, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029711/the-complex-interplay-between-macronutrient-intake-cuticular-hydrocarbon-expression-and-mating-success-in-male-decorated-crickets
#7
James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Scott K Sakaluk, John K Sakaluk, John Hunt
The condition-dependence of male sexual traits plays a central role in sexual selection theory. Relatively little, however, is known about the condition-dependence of chemical signals used in mate choice and their subsequent effects on male mating success. Furthermore, few studies have isolated the specific nutrient(s) responsible for condition-dependent variation in male sexual traits. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to determine the effect of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression and mating success in male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778382/merging-elemental-and-macronutrient-approaches-for-a-comprehensive-study-of-energy-and-nutrient-flows
#8
Shawn M Wilder, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Global warming and predation risk can have important impacts on animal physiology and life histories that can have consequences for ecosystem function. Zhang et al. () recently tested the separate and interactive effects of warming and predation risk on the body composition of Daphnia magna. By measuring both the elemental and biochemical composition of individuals, they showed that D. magna body elemental composition responded opposite to theoretical predictions and previous studies but that these changes were explained by adaptive life-history shifts in allocation to protein in eggs versus body lipid reserves...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714355/bacterial-swarmer-cells-in-confinement-a-mesoscale-hydrodynamic-simulation-study
#9
Thomas Eisenstecken, Jinglei Hu, Roland G Winkler
A wide spectrum of Peritrichous bacteria undergo considerable physiological changes when they are inoculated onto nutrition-rich surfaces and exhibit a rapid and collective migration denoted as swarming. Thereby, the length of such swarmer cells and their number of flagella increases substantially. In this article, we investigated the properties of individual E. coli-type swarmer cells confined between two parallel walls via mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations, combining molecular dynamics simulations of the swarmer cell with the multiparticle particle collision dynamics approach for the embedding fluid...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676395/urinary-citrate-an-index-of-acid-base-status-predicts-bone-strength-in-youths-and-fracture-risk-in-adult-females
#10
Jonas Esche, Simone Johner, Lijie Shi, Eckhard Schönau, Thomas Remer
CONTEXT: Diet can impact on bone strength via metabolic shifts in acid-base status. In contrast to the strongly diet-dependent biomarker urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL), the amount of renally excreted citrate integrates nutritional and systemic influences on acid-base homeostasis with high citrate indicating prevailing alkalization. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between urinary citrate excretion and bone strength as well as long-term fracture risk...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650504/resource-allocation-and-compensation-during-development-in-holometabolous-insects
#11
REVIEW
David Nestel, Nikos T Papadopoulos, Carlos Pascacio-Villafán, Nicoletta Righini, Alma R Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
We provide an extensive review on current knowledge and future research paths on the topic of resource allocation and compensation during development in holometabolous insects, emphasizing the role of resource management during development, and how compensatory mechanisms may be acting to remediate nutritional deficiencies carried over from earlier stages of development. We first review resource allocation in "open" and "closed" developmental stages and then move on to the topic of modelling resource allocation and its trade-offs...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593084/fatty-acid-related-modulations-of-membrane-fluidity-in-cells-detection-and-implications
#12
G Maulucci, O Cohen, B Daniel, A Sansone, P I Petropoulou, S Filou, A Spyridonidis, G Pani, M De Spirito, C Chatgilialoglu, C Ferreri, K E Kypreos, S Sasson
Metabolic homeostasis of fatty acids is complex and well-regulated in all organisms. The biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in mammals provides substrates for β-oxidation and ATP production. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are products of desaturases that introduce a methylene group in cis geometry in SFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) are products of elongation and desaturation of the essential linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. The liver processes dietary fatty acids and exports them in lipoproteins for distribution and storage in peripheral tissues...
November 2016: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392467/skeletal-outcomes-by-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa
#13
A D DiVasta, H A Feldman, J M O'Donnell, J Long, M B Leonard, C M Gordon
: We conducted the first comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) outcomes in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. We observed deficits in bone density by both tools. pQCT assessments were associated with many of the same clinical parameters as have been previously established for DXA. INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) commonly exhibit bone loss, but effects on bone geometry are less clear...
July 8, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296501/nutritional-ecology-and-human-health
#14
David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270223/differential-effects-of-male-nutrient-balance-on-pre-and-post-copulatory-traits-and-consequences-for-female-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Juliano Morimoto, Stuart Wigby
Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143111/trabecular-and-cortical-bone-deficits-are-present-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
Andrea Kelly, Joan Schall, Virginia A Stallings, Babette S Zemel
Osteopenia and increased fracture rates are well-recognized in adults with CF, but neither the specific contributions of cortical and trabecular bone deficits to bone fragility nor their presence in youth with CF are well-characterized. This study sought to characterize cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and biomechanical competence in children with CF and determine their relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) measures of total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD, cortical, muscle, and fat cross-sectional areas (CSA), periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and the polar unweighted section modulus (Zp) of the tibia were converted to age- and tibial length-adjusted Z-scores in 97 CF and 199 healthy children (aged 8-21y)...
September 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130207/new-horizons-dietary-protein-ageing-and-the-okinawan-ratio
#17
REVIEW
David G Le Couteur, Samantha Solon-Biet, Devin Wahl, Victoria C Cogger, Bradley J Willcox, D Craig Willcox, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
Nutrition has profound effects on ageing and lifespan. Caloric restriction is the major nutritional intervention that historically has been shown to influence lifespan and/or healthspan in many animal models. Studies have suggested that a reduction in protein intake can also increase lifespan, albeit not as dramatically as caloric restriction. More recent research based on nutritional geometry has attempted to define the effects of nutrition on ageing over a broad landscape of dietary macronutrients and energy content...
July 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073168/nutrition-and-energetics-in-rodent-longevity-research
#18
Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
The impact of calorie amount on aging has been extensively described; however, variation over time and among laboratories in animal diet, housing condition, and strains complicates discerning the true influence of calories (energy) versus nutrients on lifespan. Within the dietary restriction field, single macronutrient manipulations have historically been researched as a means to reduce calories while maintaining adequate levels of essential nutrients. Recent reports of nutritional geometry, including rodent models, highlight the impact macronutrients have on whole organismal aging outcomes...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993666/the-multidimensional-nutritional-niche
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Alistair M Senior, Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer
The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology...
May 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930179/characterisation-of-the-surface-structure-of-3d-printed-scaffolds-for-cell-infiltration-and-surgical-suturing
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Laura Ruiz-Cantu, Andrew Gleadall, Callum Faris, Joel Segal, Kevin Shakesheff, Jing Yang
3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process...
March 2016: Biofabrication
keyword
keyword
69344
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"