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Nutritional geometry

Shawn M Wilder, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Global warming and predation risk can have important impacts on animal physiology and life histories that can have consequences for ecosystem function. Zhang et al. () recently tested the separate and interactive effects of warming and predation risk on the body composition of Daphnia magna. By measuring both the elemental and biochemical composition of individuals, they showed that D. magna body elemental composition responded opposite to theoretical predictions and previous studies but that these changes were explained by adaptive life-history shifts in allocation to protein in eggs versus body lipid reserves...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Thomas Eisenstecken, Jinglei Hu, Roland G Winkler
A wide spectrum of Peritrichous bacteria undergo considerable physiological changes when they are inoculated onto nutrition-rich surfaces and exhibit a rapid and collective migration denoted as swarming. Thereby, the length of such swarmer cells and their number of flagella increases substantially. In this article, we investigated the properties of individual E. coli-type swarmer cells confined between two parallel walls via mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations, combining molecular dynamics simulations of the swarmer cell with the multiparticle particle collision dynamics approach for the embedding fluid...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Jonas Esche, Simone Johner, Lijie Shi, Eckhard Schönau, Thomas Remer
CONTEXT: Diet can impact on bone strength via metabolic shifts in acid-base status. In contrast to the strongly diet-dependent biomarker urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL), the amount of renally excreted citrate integrates nutritional and systemic influences on acid-base homeostasis with high citrate indicating preferential alkalization. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between urinary citrate excretion and bone strength as well as long-term fracture risk...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David Nestel, Nikos T Papadopoulos, Carlos Pascacio-Villafán, Nicoletta Righini, Alma R Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
We provide an extensive review on current knowledge and future research paths on the topic of resource allocation and compensation during development in holometabolous insects, emphasizing the role of resource management during development, and how compensatory mechanisms may be acting to remediate nutritional deficiencies carried over from earlier stages of development. We first review resource allocation in "open" and "closed" developmental stages and then move on to the topic of modelling resource allocation and its trade-offs...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
G Maulucci, O Cohen, B Daniel, A Sansone, P I Petropoulou, S Filou, A Spyridonidis, G Pani, M De Spirito, C Chatgilialoglu, C Ferreri, K E Kypreos, S Sasson
Metabolic homeostasis of fatty acids is complex and well-regulated in all organisms. The biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in mammals provides substrates for β-oxidation and ATP production. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are products of desaturases that introduce a methylene group in cis geometry in SFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) are products of elongation and desaturation of the essential linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. The liver processes dietary fatty acids and exports them in lipoproteins for distribution and storage in peripheral tissues...
September 5, 2016: Free Radical Research
A D DiVasta, H A Feldman, J M O'Donnell, J Long, M B Leonard, C M Gordon
: We conducted the first comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) outcomes in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. We observed deficits in bone density by both tools. pQCT assessments were associated with many of the same clinical parameters as have been previously established for DXA. INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) commonly exhibit bone loss, but effects on bone geometry are less clear...
July 8, 2016: Osteoporosis International
David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Juliano Morimoto, Stuart Wigby
Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andrea Kelly, Joan Schall, Virginia A Stallings, Babette S Zemel
Osteopenia and increased fracture rates are well-recognized in adults with CF, but neither the specific contributions of cortical and trabecular bone deficits to bone fragility nor their presence in youth with CF are well-characterized. This study sought to characterize cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and biomechanical competence in children with CF and determine their relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) measures of total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD, cortical, muscle, and fat cross-sectional areas (CSA), periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and the polar unweighted section modulus (Zp) of the tibia were converted to age- and tibial length-adjusted Z-scores in 97 CF and 199 healthy children (aged 8-21y)...
September 2016: Bone
David G Le Couteur, Samantha Solon-Biet, Devin Wahl, Victoria C Cogger, Bradley J Willcox, D Craig Willcox, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
Nutrition has profound effects on ageing and lifespan. Caloric restriction is the major nutritional intervention that historically has been shown to influence lifespan and/or healthspan in many animal models. Studies have suggested that a reduction in protein intake can also increase lifespan, albeit not as dramatically as caloric restriction. More recent research based on nutritional geometry has attempted to define the effects of nutrition on ageing over a broad landscape of dietary macronutrients and energy content...
July 2016: Age and Ageing
Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
The impact of calorie amount on aging has been extensively described; however, variation over time and among laboratories in animal diet, housing condition, and strains complicates discerning the true influence of calories (energy) versus nutrients on lifespan. Within the dietary restriction field, single macronutrient manipulations have historically been researched as a means to reduce calories while maintaining adequate levels of essential nutrients. Recent reports of nutritional geometry, including rodent models, highlight the impact macronutrients have on whole organismal aging outcomes...
April 9, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Alistair M Senior, Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer
The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology...
May 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Laura Ruiz-Cantu, Andrew Gleadall, Callum Faris, Joel Segal, Kevin Shakesheff, Jing Yang
3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process...
March 2016: Biofabrication
Caner Alparslan, Onder Yavascan, Murat Sait Doğan, Serdar Saritas, Fatma Mutlubas Ozsan, Belde Kasap Demir, Ali Rahmi Bakiler, Nejat Aksu
OBJECTIVES: In this study, our aim was to evaluate the systolic cardiac parameters and related risk factors in children within 6 months after kidney transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 24 children who received kidney transplants. Clinical and laboratory parameters before and after transplant were recorded. Results were evaluated statistically, with a P value less than .05 considered significant. RESULTS: Before transplant, systolic cardiac functions were within normal limits...
February 11, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Alistair M Senior, Mathieu Lihoreau, Jerome Buhl, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alistair M Senior, Shinichi Nakagawa, Mathieu Lihoreau, Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer
The determinants of diet breadth are of interest to nutritionists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. A recent synthesis addressing this issue found conflicting evidence for the relationship between diet breadth and mean individual fitness. Specifically, it found that while, on average, a mixed diet does increase mean fitness, in some instances, a single food provides equal (or higher) fitness than a mixed diet. Critical to ecological and evolutionary considerations of diet, however, is not only mean fitness but also variance in fitness...
November 2015: American Naturalist
Qiaoqiao Zhu, Xin Gao, Howard B Levene, Mark D Brown, Weiyong Gu
STUDY DESIGN: Investigation of the effects of the impairment of different nutritional pathways on the intervertebral disc degeneration patterns in terms of spatial distributions of cell density, glycosaminoglycan content, and water content. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that impairment of different nutritional pathways would result in different degenerative patterns in human discs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Impairment of nutritional pathways has been found to affect cell viability in the disc...
April 2016: Spine
Adam C-N Wong, Andrew Holmes, Fleur Ponton, Mathieu Lihoreau, Kenneth Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson
The role of microbes as a part of animal systems has historically been an under-appreciated aspect of animal life histories. Recently, evidence has emerged that microbes have wide-ranging influences on animal behavior. Elucidating the complex relationships between host-microbe interactions and behavior requires an expanded ecological perspective, involving the host, the microbiome and the environment; which, in combination, is termed the holobiont. We begin by seeking insights from the literature on host-parasite interactions, then expand to consider networks of interactions between members of the microbial community...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Achyut Aryal, Sean C P Coogan, Weihong Ji, Jessica M Rothman, David Raubenheimer
Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods...
September 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Cristiane Matavelli, Maria João A Carvalho, Nelson E Martins, Christen K Mirth
Species coexist using the same nutritional resource by partitioning it either in space or time, but few studies explore how species-specific nutritional requirements allow partitioning. Zaprionus indianus and Drosophila simulans co-exist in figs by invading the fruit at different stages; Z. indianus colonizes ripe figs, whereas D. simulans oviposits in decaying fruit. Larvae feed on yeast growing on the fruit, which serves as their primary protein source. Because yeast populations increase as fruit decays, we find that ripe fruit has lower protein content than rotting fruit...
November 2015: Journal of Insect Physiology
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