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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105721/bioarchaeology-in-the-ancient-near-east-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-southern-levant
#1
Susan Guise Sheridan
The synthesis of biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory provides a bioarchaeological model to reconstruct nuanced aspects of demography, diet, disease, death, daily activities, and biodistance, even in the absence of discrete burials. Numerous skeletal assemblages in the southern Levant are composed of mixed and fragmented bones resulting from generational use of cemeteries, mass burial, and additional communal burial practices. Others become commingled due to taphonomic processes such as flooding, geological events, or human mediated mechanisms like looting, improper excavation, and poor curation...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028461/an-integrative-systematic-revision-and-biogeography-of-rhynchocalamus-snakes-reptilia-colubridae-with-a-description-of-a-new-species-from-israel
#2
Karin Tamar, Jiří Šmíd, Bayram Göçmen, Shai Meiri, Salvador Carranza
BACKGROUND: The colubrid snakes of the genus Rhynchocalamus are seldom studied and knowledge of their ecology and life history is scarce. Three species of Rhynchocalamus are currently recognized, R. satunini (from Turkey eastwards to Iran), R. arabicus (Yemen and Oman), and R. melanocephalus (from the Sinai Peninsula northwards to Turkey). All are slender, secretive, mainly nocturnal and rare fossorial snakes. This comprehensive study is the first to sample all known Rhynchocalamus species in order to review the intra-generic phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980031/archaeointensity-results-spanning-the-past-6-kiloyears-from-eastern-china-and-implications-for-extreme-behaviors-of-the-geomagnetic-field
#3
Shuhui Cai, Guiyun Jin, Lisa Tauxe, Chenglong Deng, Huafeng Qin, Yongxin Pan, Rixiang Zhu
Variations of the Earth's geomagnetic field during the Holocene are important for understanding centennial to millennial-scale processes of the Earth's deep interior and have enormous potential implications for chronological correlations (e.g., comparisons between different sedimentary recording sequences, archaeomagnetic dating). Here, we present 21 robust archaeointensity data points from eastern China spanning the past ∼6 kyr. These results add significantly to the published data both regionally and globally...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930348/regional-diversity-on-the-timing-for-the-initial-appearance-of-cereal-cultivation-and-domestication-in-southwest-asia
#4
Amaia Arranz-Otaegui, Sue Colledge, Lydia Zapata, Luis Cesar Teira-Mayolini, Juan José Ibáñez
Recent studies have broadened our knowledge regarding the origins of agriculture in southwest Asia by highlighting the multiregional and protracted nature of plant domestication. However, there have been few archaeobotanical data to examine whether the early adoption of wild cereal cultivation and the subsequent appearance of domesticated-type cereals occurred in parallel across southwest Asia, or if chronological differences existed between regions. The evaluation of the available archaeobotanical evidence indicates that during Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultivation of wild cereal species was common in regions such as the southern-central Levant and the Upper Euphrates area, but the plant-based subsistence in the eastern Fertile Crescent (southeast Turkey, Iran, and Iraq) focused on the exploitation of plants such as legumes, goatgrass, fruits, and nuts...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902736/provisioning-the-ritual-neolithic-site-of-kfar-hahoresh-israel-at-the-dawn-of-animal-management
#5
Jacqueline S Meier, A Nigel Goring-Morris, Natalie D Munro
It is widely agreed that a pivotal shift from wild animal hunting to herd animal management, at least of goats, began in the southern Levant by the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (10,000-9,500 cal. BP) when evidence of ritual activities flourished in the region. As our knowledge of this critical change grows, sites that represent different functions and multiple time periods are needed to refine the timing, pace and character of changing human-animal relationships within the geographically variable southern Levant...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889491/pramipexole-enhances-disadvantageous-decision-making-lack-of-relation-to-changes-in-phasic-dopamine-release
#6
Romina Pes, Sean C Godar, Andrew T Fox, Lauren M Burgeno, Hunter J Strathman, David P Jarmolowicz, Paola Devoto, Beth Levant, Paul E Phillips, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato
Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876762/the-stable-microbiome-of-inter-and-sub-tidal-anemone-species-under-increasing-pco2
#7
Erinn M Muller, Maoz Fine, Kim B Ritchie
Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871955/challenges-to-practicing-sexual-medicine-in-the-middle-east
#8
REVIEW
Abdulaziz Baazeem
INTRODUCTION: The Middle East is a vast region that includes the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, Iran, the Levant, and North Africa. Some of the world's earliest civilizations appeared in this region and major religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam originated there. It is an influential region in politics, economy, and resources, but it remains largely enigmatic to those outside the region. The various ethnicities, religions, traditions, and customs in the region have made it unique and diverse at the same time...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853237/multi-species-collapses-at-the-warm-edge-of-a-warming-sea
#9
Gil Rilov
Even during the current biodiversity crisis, reports on population collapses of highly abundant, non-harvested marine species were rare until very recently. This is starting to change, especially at the warm edge of species' distributions where populations are more vulnerable to stress. The Levant basin is the southeastern edge of distribution of most Mediterranean species. Coastal water conditions are naturally extreme, and are fast warming, making it a potential hotspot for species collapses. Using multiple data sources, I found strong evidence for major, sustained, population collapses of two urchins, one large predatory gastropod and a reef-building gastropod...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848937/reconstructing-druze-population-history
#10
Scarlett Marshall, Ranajit Das, Mehdi Pirooznia, Eran Elhaik
The Druze are an aggregate of communities in the Levant and Near East living almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel whose ~1000 year old religion formally opposes mixed marriages and conversions. Despite increasing interest in genetics of the population structure of the Druze, their population history remains unknown. We investigated the genetic relationships between Israeli Druze and both modern and ancient populations. We evaluated our findings in light of three hypotheses purporting to explain Druze history that posit Arabian, Persian or mixed Near Eastern-Levantine roots...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845498/spatial-homogeneity-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-in-the-deep-eastern-mediterranean-sea-surface-sediments
#11
Sabine Keuter, Baruch Rinkevich
The diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the deep sea surface sediments was investigated in 9 stations (700-1900 m depth) in the Levantine basin by 454 massive tag sequencing of the 16S rDNA V4 region using universal primers. In total, 108,811 reads (an average of 10,088 per sample) were assigned to 5014 bacterial and 966 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs; at 97% cut off). The 55% of the reads were of archaea, indicating dominance of archaea over bacteria at eight of the stations. The diversity and estimated richness values were high (e...
June 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832758/carriers-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-macrohaplogroup-m-colonized-india-from-southeastern-asia
#12
Patricia Marrero, Khaled K Abu-Amero, Jose M Larruga, Vicente M Cabrera
BACKGROUND: From a mtDNA dominant perspective, the exit from Africa of modern humans to colonize Eurasia occurred once, around 60 kya, following a southern coastal route across Arabia and India to reach Australia short after. These pioneers carried with them the currently dominant Eurasian lineages M and N. Based also on mtDNA phylogenetic and phylogeographic grounds, some authors have proposed the coeval existence of a northern route across the Levant that brought mtDNA macrohaplogroup N to Australia...
November 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811771/the-larvae-of-micropterna-coiffaiti-d%C3%A3-camps-1963-micropterna-taurica-martynov-1917-and-potamophylax-goulandriorum-malicky-1974-trichoptera-%C3%A2-limnephilidae-including-a-key-to-the-hitherto-known-stenophylacini-larvae-of-the-hellenic-western-balkan-region
#13
Johann Waringer, Hans Malicky
The paper gives a description of the hitherto unknown larvae of Micropterna coiffaiti, Micropterna taurica, and Potamophylax goulandriorum (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of published keys, the larva of Micropterna coiffaiti keys together with Micropterna sequax, Stenophylax mitis, and Stenophylax permistus. Species can be easily diagnosed by presence/absence and the structure of posterior sclerites at the lateral protuberances, by the extent of head spinule fields, and by the number of posterolateral setae on abdominal dorsum IX...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796701/bedouin-women-s-gender-preferences-when-choosing-obstetricians-and-gynecologists
#14
Hadar Amir, Hanaa Abokaf, Yifat Amir Levy, Foad Azem, Eyal Sheiner
Patients' preferences in choosing obstetricians/gynecologists are widely investigated, but studies among traditional populations are lacking. Bedouins comprise a traditional Arab Muslim society in the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia), The Levant (Syria, Jordan and Israel) and North Africa (Egypt). Most of the Bedouins in Israel populate several villages, mostly in the southern part of the country. This cross-sectional study compared 200 Bedouin and 200 Jewish women who responded to an anonymous questionnaire...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766667/captagon-use-and-trade-in-the-middle-east
#15
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766019/the-larvae-of-micropterna-coiffaiti-d%C3%A3-camps-1963-micropterna-taurica-martynov-1917-and-potamophylax-goulandriorum-trichoptera-limnephilidae-including-a-key-to-the-hitherto-known-stenophylacini-larvae-of-the-hellenic-western-balkan-region
#16
Johann Waringer, Hans Malicky
The paper gives a description of the hitherto unknown larvae of Micropterna coiffaiti, Micropterna taurica, and Potamophylax goulandriorum (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of published keys, the larva of Micropterna coiffaiti keys together with Micropterna sequax, Stenophylax mitis, and Stenophylax permistus. Species can be easily diagnosed by presence/absence and the structure of posterior sclerites at the lateral protuberances, by the extent of head spinule fields, and by the number of posterolateral setae on abdominal dorsum IX...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760164/risk-reliability-and-resilience-phytolith-evidence-for-alternative-neolithization-pathways-at-kharaneh-iv-in-the-azraq-basin-jordan
#17
Monica N Ramsey, Lisa A Maher, Danielle A Macdonald, Arlene Rosen
'Neolithization' pathway refers to the development of adaptations that characterized subsequent Neolithic life, sedentary occupations, and agriculture. In the Levant, the origins of these human behaviors are widely argued to have emerged during the Early Epipaleolithic (ca. 23 ka cal BP). Consequently, there has been a pre-occupation with identifying and modeling the dietary shift to cereal and grains during this period, which is considered to have been a key development that facilitated increasing sedentism and, eventually, agriculture...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627996/continuity-or-conquest-a-multi-isotope-approach-to-investigating-identity-in-the-early-iron-age-of-the-southern-levant
#18
Lesley A Gregoricka, Susan Guise Sheridan
OBJECTIVES: Across the Mediterranean and Near East, the transition from the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1200 BC) to the Early Iron Age (ca. 1200-900 BC) was accompanied by profound cultural change. While this transformation was initially attributed to invasion or conquest, more recent, nuanced interpretations of archaeological and biological data now emphasize the decline of palatial economies, a shift away from centralized political authority, and internal social restructuring amidst rapid climate change in lieu of "collapse...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622425/morphological-change-in-cranial-shape-following-the-transition-to-agriculture-across-western-eurasia
#19
Olivia Cheronet, John A Finarelli, Ron Pinhasi
The Neolithic transition brought about fundamental social, dietary and behavioural changes in human populations, which, in turn, impacted skeletal morphology. Crania are shaped through diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors, reflecting various elements of an individual's life. To determine the transition's effect on cranial morphology, we investigated its potential impact on the face and vault, two elements potentially responding to different influences. Three datasets from geographically distant regions (Ukraine, Iberia, and the Levant plus Anatolia) were analysed...
September 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598043/construct-validity-evidence-for-the-male-role-norms-inventory-short-form-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach-using-the-bifactor-model
#20
Ronald F Levant, Rosalie J Hall, Ingrid K Weigold, Eric R McCurdy
The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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