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Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Johann Waringer, Hans Malicky
The paper gives a description of the hitherto unknown larvae of Micropterna coiffaiti, Micropterna taurica, and Potamophylax goulandriorum (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of published keys, the larva of Micropterna coiffaiti keys together with Micropterna sequax, Stenophylax mitis, and Stenophylax permistus. Species can be easily diagnosed by presence/absence and the structure of posterior sclerites at the lateral protuberances, by the extent of head spinule fields, and by the number of posterolateral setae on abdominal dorsum IX...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
Monica N Ramsey, Lisa A Maher, Danielle A Macdonald, Arlene Rosen
'Neolithization' pathway refers to the development of adaptations that characterized subsequent Neolithic life, sedentary occupations, and agriculture. In the Levant, the origins of these human behaviors are widely argued to have emerged during the Early Epipaleolithic (ca. 23 ka cal BP). Consequently, there has been a pre-occupation with identifying and modeling the dietary shift to cereal and grains during this period, which is considered to have been a key development that facilitated increasing sedentism and, eventually, agriculture...
2016: PloS One
Lesley A Gregoricka, Susan Guise Sheridan
OBJECTIVES: Across the Mediterranean and Near East, the transition from the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1200 BC) to the Early Iron Age (ca. 1200-900 BC) was accompanied by profound cultural change. While this transformation was initially attributed to invasion or conquest, more recent, nuanced interpretations of archaeological and biological data now emphasize the decline of palatial economies, a shift away from centralized political authority, and internal social restructuring amidst rapid climate change in lieu of "collapse...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Olivia Cheronet, John A Finarelli, Ron Pinhasi
The Neolithic transition brought about fundamental social, dietary and behavioural changes in human populations, which, in turn, impacted skeletal morphology. Crania are shaped through diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors, reflecting various elements of an individual's life. To determine the transition's effect on cranial morphology, we investigated its potential impact on the face and vault, two elements potentially responding to different influences. Three datasets from geographically distant regions (Ukraine, Iberia, and the Levant plus Anatolia) were analysed...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ronald F Levant, Rosalie J Hall, Ingrid K Weigold, Eric R McCurdy
The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Alla Yaroshevich, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Elisabeta Boaretto, Valentina Caracuta, Noam Greenbaum, Naomi Porat, Joel Roskin
Three engraved limestone plaquettes from the recently excavated Epipaleolithic open-air site Ein Qashish South in the Jezreel Valley, Israel comprise unique evidence for symbolic behavior of Late Pleistocene foragers in the Levant. The engravings, uncovered in Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran deposits (ca. 23ka and ca. 16.5ka BP), include the image of a bird-the first figurative representation known so far from a pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic-along with geometric motifs such as chevrons, crosshatchings and ladders...
2016: PloS One
Ronald F Levant, Ryon C McDermott, Amber A Hewitt, Kathleen M Alto, Kyle T Harris
Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Caroline Solazzo, Blandine Courel, Jacques Connan, Bart E van Dongen, Holly Barden, Kirsty Penkman, Sheila Taylor, Beatrice Demarchi, Pierre Adam, Philippe Schaeffer, Arie Nissenbaum, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Michael Buckley
Mortuary practices in human evolution record cognitive, social changes and technological innovations. The Neolithic Revolution in the Levant was a watershed in this domain that has long fascinated the archaeological community. Plaster modelled skulls are well known at Jericho and several other Neolithic sites, and in Nahal Hemar cave (Israel, ca. 8200 -7300 cal. BC) excavations yielded six unique human skulls covered with a black organic coating applied in a net pattern evoking a headdress. This small cave was used as storage for paraphernalia in the semi-arid area of the Judean desert and the dry conditions preserved other artefacts such as baskets coated with a similar dark substance...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iosif Lazaridis, Dani Nadel, Gary Rollefson, Deborah C Merrett, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Kendra Sirak, Sarah Connell, Kristin Stewardson, Eadaoin Harney, Qiaomei Fu, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Eppie R Jones, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, György Lengyel, Fanny Bocquentin, Boris Gasparian, Janet M Monge, Michael Gregg, Vered Eshed, Ahuva-Sivan Mizrahi, Christopher Meiklejohn, Fokke Gerritsen, Luminita Bejenaru, Matthias Blüher, Archie Campbell, Gianpiero Cavalleri, David Comas, Philippe Froguel, Edmund Gilbert, Shona M Kerr, Peter Kovacs, Johannes Krause, Darren McGettigan, Michael Merrigan, D Andrew Merriwether, Seamus O'Reilly, Martin B Richards, Ornella Semino, Michel Shamoon-Pour, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Antonio Torroni, James F Wilson, Loic Yengo, Nelli A Hovhannisyan, Nick Patterson, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000 and 1,400 bc, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Chiara Levante, Claudio Ronco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Blood Purification
Martin Mascher, Verena J Schuenemann, Uri Davidovich, Nimrod Marom, Axel Himmelbach, Sariel Hübner, Abraham Korol, Michal David, Ella Reiter, Simone Riehl, Mona Schreiber, Samuel H Vohr, Richard E Green, Ian K Dawson, Joanne Russell, Benjamin Kilian, Gary J Muehlbauer, Robbie Waugh, Tzion Fahima, Johannes Krause, Ehud Weiss, Nils Stein
The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
Pavel Flegontov, Alexei Kassian, Mark G Thomas, Valentina Fedchenko, Piya Changmai, George Starostin
In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lidar Sapir-Hen, Tamar Dayan, Hamoudi Khalaily, Natalie D Munro
The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007-2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah'el, Northern Israel...
2016: PloS One
Maria Luisa Savo Sardaro, Alessia Levante, Valentina Bernini, Monica Gatti, Erasmo Neviani, Camilla Lazzi
This study focused on the spxB gene, which encodes for pyruvate oxidase. The presence of spxB in the genome and its transcription could be a way to produce energy and allow bacterial growth during carbohydrate starvation. In addition, the activity of pyruvate oxidase, which produces hydrogen peroxide, could be a mechanism for interspecies competition. Because this gene seems to provide advantages for the encoding species for adaptation in complex ecosystems, we studied spxB in a large set of cheese isolates belonging to the Lactobacillus casei group...
October 2016: Food Microbiology
Miriam Schneider, Beth Levant, Martin Reichel, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity...
June 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nisreen Alwan, Hamid-Reza Esmaeili, Friedhelm Krupp
Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C...
2016: PloS One
M Capello, L Cutroneo, S Consani, E Dinelli, G Vagge, C Carbone
In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows...
August 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kazuhiro Sato, Miki Yamane, Nami Yamaji, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Akemi Tagiri, Julian G Schwerdt, Geoffrey B Fincher, Takashi Matsumoto, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Takao Komatsuda
Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys...
2016: Nature Communications
Rebecca Biton, Renaud Boistel, Rivka Rabinovich, Sarig Gafny, Vlad Brumfeld, Salvador Bailon
The Hula Painted Frog (Latonia nigriventer) is a rare frog species endemic to the Hula Valley, Israel. The species is the sole relict of a clade that was widespread mainly in Europe from the Oligocene until the beginning of the Pleistocene. The osteological characteristics of L. nigriventer are described based on X-ray microtomography scans of extant specimens and Pleistocene bones from the Hula Valley, to elucidate the evolutionary history of Alytidae and more specifically of Latonia. Based on the osteological description of L...
September 2016: Journal of Morphology
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