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cationic antimicrobial peptide

Naroa Serna, Laura Sánchez-García, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Mónica Roldán, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistances is a serious concern in human and animal health. In this context, naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) might play a main role in a next generation of drugs against bacterial infections. Taking an innovative approach to design self-organizing functional proteins, we have generated here protein-only nanoparticles with intrinsic AMP microbicide activity. Using a recombinant version of the GWH1 antimicrobial peptide as building block, these materials show a wide antibacterial activity spectrum in absence of detectable toxicity on mammalian cells...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Annarita Falanga, Ersilia Nigro, Margherita Gabriella De Biasi, Aurora Daniele, Giancarlo Morelli, Stefania Galdiero, Olga Scudiero
Cyclic peptides are receiving significant attention thanks to their antimicrobial activity and high serum stability, which is useful to develop and design novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides appear to be key components of innate defences against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Among the others, defensins possess a strong microbicidial activity. Defensins are cationic and amphipathic peptides with six cysteine residues connected by three disulfide bonds found in plants, insects, and mammals; they are divided in three families: α-, β-, and θ-defensins...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Manish Bajaj, Satish K Pandey, Tamanna Nain, Surinder K Brar, Prabhjot Singh, Shivakanksha Singh, Nishima Wangoo, Rohit K Sharma
The nanoparticles of silver/gold and cationic peptides have been recognized as potent antimicrobials for long, but their combined effect has so far not been explored. The present study reports the green synthesis of short cationic dipeptide stabilized AuNPs/AgNPs based nanohybrid materials. It thoroughly investigates the effect of conjugation of short cationic peptides on the antimicrobial properties of metallic nanoparticles. In the context of the antimicrobial evaluation of synthesized nanoconjugates, it was observed that peptide capped AgNPs exhibited higher antimicrobial activity as compared to peptide capped AuNPs as well as native peptides and unconjugated metallic nanoparticles...
July 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Maarten Coorens, Viktoria A F Schneider, A Marit de Groot, Albert van Dijk, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Maaike R Scheenstra, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Activation of the immune system needs to be tightly regulated to provide protection against infections and, at the same time, to prevent excessive inflammation to limit collateral damage to the host. This tight regulation includes regulating the activation of TLRs, which are key players in the recognition of invading microbes. A group of short cationic antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, have previously been shown to modulate TLR activation by synthetic or purified TLR ligands and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammation during infections...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Miriam Moreno-Montoro, Manuel Olalla-Herrera, José Ángel Rufián-Henares, Rafael Giménez Martínez, Beatriz Miralles, Triana Bergillos, Miguel Navarro-Alarcón, Paula Jauregi
Increasing evidence on goat milk and the health benefits of its derived products beyond its nutritional value show its potential as a functional food. In this study, goat milk fractions were tested for their total antioxidant capacity using different methods (ORAC, ABTS, DPPH and FRAP), as well as their angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial (against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus) activities. Different whey fractions (whey, cation exchange membrane permeate P and retentate R) of two fermented skimmed goat milks (ultrafiltered goat milk fermented with the classical starter bacteria or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain) were assessed...
July 13, 2017: Food & Function
Shruti Mukherjee, Rajiv K Kar, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga, Kamal H Mroue, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Anirban Bhunia
Multidrug resistance against the existing antibiotics is one of the most challenging threats across the globe. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in this regard, are considered to be one of the effective alternatives that can overcome bacterial resistance. MSI-594, a 24-residue linear alpha-helical cationic AMP, has been shown to function via the carpet mechanism to disrupt bacterial membrane systems. To better understand the role of lipid composition in the function of MSI-594, in the present study, eight different model membrane systems have been studied using accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations...
July 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jakob P Ulmschneider
How can highly charged, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) translocate across hydrophobic lipid bilayers despite the prohibitive energetic penalty to do so? A common explanation has been the formation of peptide-lined channels. However, for most AMPs, no structures of membrane pores have been found despite clear evidence of membrane leakage and antimicrobial activity. The study here suggests an alternative and simple reason: for the AMP PGLa from Xenopus laevis (charge +5), such pores are not needed to explain both leakage and peptide translocation...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Zohreh Mohammadi Azad, Hoda Moravej, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Faramarz Masjedian, Raziyeh Nazari, Reza Mirnejad, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam
PURPOSE: In the last few decades, increasing microbial resistance to common antibiotics has attracted researchers' attention to the development of new classes of antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to evaluate antimicrobial effects of the CM11 peptide alone and combined with common antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis. METHODOLOGY: A total of 50 pathogenic samples of B. melitensis were isolated from patients and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was evaluated by E-test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Luis G Vargas Buonfiglio, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Mahmoud H Abou Alaiwa, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Jennifer A Borcherding, Alicia K Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Vicki H Grassian, Alejandro P Comellas
BACKGROUND: Sustained exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is a global cause of mortality. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a byproduct of coal combustion and is a source of anthropogenic PM with worldwide health relevance. The airway epithelia are lined with fluid called airway surface liquid (ASL), which contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs). Cationic AMPs bind negatively charged bacteria to exert their antimicrobial activity. PM arriving in the airways could potentially interact with AMPs in the ASL to affect their antimicrobial activity...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Stéphanie Antunes, Jean-Philippe Corre, Guillain Mikaty, Céline Douat, Pierre L Goossens, Gilles Guichard
Membrane-active foldamers have recently emerged as potential mimics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Amphiphilic cationic helical N,N'-linked oligoureas are one such class of AMP mimics with activities in vitro against a broad range of bacteria including Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive sporulating bacillus and causing agent of anthrax. Here we have used site-selective chemical modifications of the oligourea backbone to gain additional insight into the relationship between structure and function and modulate anthracidal activity...
April 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Hong Li, Tiandi Yang, Tingting Liao, Aleksandra W Debowski, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Stuart M Haslam, Anne Dell, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
H. pylori is a Gram-negative extracellular bacterium, first discovered by the Australian physicians Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in 1982, that colonises the human stomach mucosa. It is the leading cause of peptic ulcer and commonly infects humans worldwide with prevalence as high as 90% in some countries. H. pylori infection usually results in asymptomatic chronic gastritis, however 10-15% of cases develop duodenal or gastric ulcers and 1-3% develop stomach cancer. Infection is generally acquired during childhood and persists for life in the absence of antibiotic treatment...
April 25, 2017: Microbial Cell
Katarzyna Pogoda, Ewelina Piktel, Piotr Deptuła, Paul B Savage, Małgorzata Lekka, Robert Bucki
Development of new antibacterial agents requires generation of new methods that will allow characterization of mechanisms of novel antibacterial actions as well as observation of pathogen susceptibility to antibiotics. A family of synthetic cationic lipids, such as ceragenins, which mimic the action of membrane-targeting natural cationic antibacterial peptides, shows promise as a new family of bactericidal agents. Here we report that treatment of Bacillus subtillis cells with human cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 (1-100μg/mL) leads to physicochemical changes of bacterial cells surface...
June 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Laszlo Otvos
The preclinical in vitro and in vivo benchmark figures of cationic antimicrobial peptides have to be revisited based on the newly discovered alternative modes of action.
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in a variety of difficult-to-treat infections frequently due to biofilm formation. To identify useful antibiofilm strategies, this article evaluated efficacy of two newly engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (17BIPHE2 and DASamP2), traditional antibiotics, and their combinations against biofilms at different stages. 17BIPHE2 is designed based on the 3D structure of human cathelicidin LL-37 and DASamP2 is derived from database screening. While both peptides show effects on bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and preformed biofilms, select antibiotics only inhibit biofilm formation, probably due to direct bacterial killing...
June 25, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
Jung-Kil Seo, Dong-Gyun Kim, Ryunkyoung Oh, Kwon-Sam Park, In-Ah Lee, Sang-Man Cho, Ki-Young Lee, Bo-Hye Nam
We purified an ∼6.4-kDa antimicrobial peptide from an acidified gill extract of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identified peptide was composed of 54 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 6484.6 Da. Comparison of the amino acid sequence and molecular weight with those of other known proteins or peptides revealed that the peptide had high identity with the 60S ribosomal protein L29, and so was named cgRPL29...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sushmita Das, Abul Hasan Sardar, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Pradeep Das
OBJECTIVES: Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the cutaneous aftermath of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. Vitamin D-regulated cationic antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) has microbicidal and immunomodulatory role against cutaneous infections, but its role in PKDL remains elusive. METHODS: Skin snips and blood-derived monocytes of PKDL patients (n=46), before (BT) and after (AT) chemotherapy, were used for this study...
June 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Menghua Xiong, Zhiyuan Han, Ziyuan Song, Jin Yu, Hanze Ying, Lichen Yin, Jianjun Cheng
The application of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is largely hurdled by their non-specific toxicity against mammalian cells, which is usually associated with helical structure, hydrophobicity and charge density. We introduced a random coil-to-helix transition mechanism into the design of AMPs, which minimized the toxicity against mammalian cells while maintained high antimicrobial activity. By incorporating anionic phosphorylated tyrosine into the cationic polypeptide, the helical structure of AMPs was distorted due to the side-chain charge interaction...
June 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Luz Elena Triana-Vidal, Mariana Souza Castro, Osmindo Rodrigues Pires Júnior, Alice Cunha Morales Álvares, Sonia Maria de Freitas, Wagner Fontes, Jimmy Alexander Guerrero Vargas, Jorge Alberto Zúñiga-Baos, Isabel de Fátima Correia Batista, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
In efforts to find new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we studied the skin secretion of the endemic Colombian frog Dendropsophus columbianus belonging to a genus that has not been investigated previously. From HPLC-fractionated secretion, we identified one peptide with slightly antibacterial activity. Its peptide sequence showed no sequence similarity to current annotated peptides. We named this novel peptide dendropsophin 1 (Dc1). Afterward, two analogues were designed (Dc1.1 and Dc1.2) to improve the cationic and amphipathic features...
June 29, 2017: Natural Product Research
Kensuke Yanashima, Panjit Chieosilapatham, Eri Yoshimoto, Ko Okumura, Hideoki Ogawa, François Niyonsaba
Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides not only display antimicrobial activities against numerous pathogens but also exert a broader spectrum of immune-modulating functions. Innate defense regulators (IDRs) are a class of host defense peptides synthetically developed from natural or endogenous cationic host defense peptides. Of the IDRs developed to date, IDR-1018 is more efficient not only in killing bacteria but also in regulating the various functions of macrophages and neutrophils and accelerating the wound healing process...
June 26, 2017: Immunologic Research
Ezra M C Chung, Scott N Dean, Crystal N Propst, Barney M Bishop, Monique L van Hoek
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional molecules that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. We have identified a histone H1-derived peptide from the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), called VK25. Using this peptide as inspiration, we designed a synthetic peptide called DRGN-1. We evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of both peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. DRGN-1, more than VK25, exhibited potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity, and permeabilized bacterial membranes...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
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