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cationic antimicrobial peptide

Sandra C Vega, Diana A Martínez, María Del S Chalá, Hernán A Vargas, Jaiver E Rosas
Multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a public health crisis that requires the urgent design of new antibacterial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Seeking to obtain new, lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-based synthetic peptides as viable early-stage candidates for future development as AMPs against clinically relevant bacteria, we designed, synthesized and screened three new cationic peptides derived from bovine LfcinB. These peptides contain at least one RRWQWR motif and differ by the copy number (monomeric, dimeric or tetrameric) and structure (linear or branched) of this motif...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Patrícia Branco, Helena Albergaria, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista
Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally-secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically-synthesized analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Monica Raina, Amber M Bates, Carol L Fischer, Ann Progulske-Fox, Taher Abbasi, Shireen Vali, Kim A Brogden
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- or calcium-dependent proteinases involved in normal maintenance of extracellular matrix. When elevated, they contribute to the tissue destruction seen in periodontal disease. Recently, we found that human beta defensin 3 (HBD3), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, alters chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB). In this study, the hypotheses that HagB induces MMP production in dendritic cells and that HBD3 mixed with HagB prior to treatment alters HagB-induced MMP profiles were tested...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tsukuru Masuda, Naohiko Shimada, Atsushi Maruyama
Membrane active peptides (MAPs) have potential applications in drug delivery systems and as antimicrobials. We previously showed that a cationic comb-type copolymer, poly(allylamine)-graft-dextran (PAA-g-Dex), forms a soluble inter-polyelectrolyte complex with an anionic MAP, the E5 peptide, resulting in significant enhancement of the membrane disruption activity of E5. In this study, we designed a novel comb-type cationic copolymer composed of a PAA main chain and thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) graft chains (PAA-g-PNIPAAm)...
March 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Thibaut Thery, Elke K Arendt
Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides of the immune system found in several organs during plant development. A synthetic peptide, KT43C, a linear analogue of the native Cp-thionin II found in cowpea seeds, was evaluated for its antifungal potential. It was found that KT43C displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger. Like native plant defensins, KT43C showed thermostability up to 100 °C and cation sensitivity. The synthetic peptide decreased the fungal growth without inducing morphogenic changes in the fungal hyphae...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Laura Marise de Freitas, Esteban Nicolás Lorenzón, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Lucas Henrique de Paula Zago, Marciana Pierina Uliana, Kleber Thiago de Oliveira, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Carla Raquel Fontana
In the past few years, the World Health Organization has been warning that the post-antibiotic era is an increasingly real threat. The rising and disseminated resistance to antibiotics made mandatory the search for new drugs and/or alternative therapies that are able to eliminate resistant microorganisms and impair the development of new forms of resistance. In this context, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are highlighted for the treatment of localized infections...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feng Zhao, Xin-Qiang Lan, Yan Du, Pei-Yi Chen, Jiao Zhao, Fang Zhao, Wen-Hui Lee, Yun Zhang
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as important candidate therapeutic agents, which exert potent microbicidal properties against bacteria, fungi and some viruses. Based on our previous findings king cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is a 34-amino acid peptide that exerts strong antibacterial and weak hemolytic activity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of both OH-CATH30 and its analog D-OH-CATH30 against clinical isolates comparing with routinely utilized antibiotics in vitro...
March 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Ruchi Omar, Arpita Yadav
In this opinion article, the authors discuss a number of interesting, beneficial properties of naturally occurring and synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with the prospective aim of bringing these compounds into therapeutic use to avoid antibiotic resistance and utilize their numerous properties. The structural diversity and the conformational freedom of these compounds adversely affects their mechanistic elucidation. Our molecular level mechanistic exploration of these peptides has shown their ion carriage properties and systematically explains their antibiotic activity through disruption of bacterial cell homeostasis and inhibition of 14-α demethylase enzyme...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yago Santana de Oliveira, Poliana G Corrêa, Nancy Oguiura
β-Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides showing little sequence similarity but highly conserved tertiary structure stabilized by a six-cysteines-motif. Using a PCR approach, we described β-defensin sequences with two exons in three species of Colubridae snakes with high sequence similarity between them. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the characteristics of β-defensin family. The phylogenetic analysis using β-defensin coding sequences of different snakes grouped them in two main branches: genes organized in three or two exons...
February 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Morgan Young-Speirs, Dominique Drouin, Paloma Araujo Cavalcante, Herman W Barkema, Eduardo R Cobo
Cathelicidins are a primitive class of host defense peptides, known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. However, these small, cationic, proteolytically activated peptides are diverse in structure, encompassing a wide range of activities on host immune and inflammatory cell responses. The dual capacity of cathelicidins to directly control infection and regulate host defenses highlights the potential use of cathelicidins as alternatives to antibiotics and immunomodulators...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Greana Kirubakar, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Christoph Schaudinn, Flavia Dematheis, Gudrun Holland, Murat Eravci, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, Astrid Lewin
Lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG) is one of the components of the mycobacterial membrane which contributes to the resistance towards cationic antimicrobial peptides, a host-induced frontline defense against invading pathogens. Its production is catalyzed by LysX, a bifunctional protein with lysyl transferase and lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity. Comparative proteome analysis of a lysX mutant of M. avium strain104 and the wild type indicated that the lysX mutant strain undergoes a transition in phenotype by switching the carbon metabolism to β-oxidation of fatty acids along with accumulation of lipid inclusions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Qiuyu Wang, Lili Jin, Huan Wang, Sijia Tai, Hongsheng Liu, Dianbao Zhang
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are major outer membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria and produce strong inflammatory responses in animals. Most antibiotics have shown little clinical anti-endotoxin activity while some antimicrobial peptides have proved to be effective in blocking LPS. Here, the anti-LPS activity of the synthetic peptide AWRK6, which is derived from antimicrobial peptide dybowskin-2CDYa, has been investigated in vitro and in vivo. The positively charged α-helical AWRK6 was found to be effective in blocking the binding of LBP (LPS binding protein) with LPS in vitro using ELISA...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C Luz, J Calpe, F Saladino, Fernando B Luciano, M Fernandez-Franzón, J Mañes, G Meca
ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) is a cationic peptide with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the use of ɛ-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of ɛ-Poly-l-lysine (ɛ-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum . Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A...
January 2018: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
Ching-Wei Tsai, Ze-Wei Lin, Wen-Fang Chang, Yi-Fan Chen, Wei-Wen Hu
Indolicidin (IL) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide and our previous study has demonstrated its potential as a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) to promote gene delivery. However, the cytotoxicity of IL arisen from its membrane perturbation capacity may restrict its clinical application. To promote gene delivery safety and efficiency, an almost mirror-symmetric IL derivative, SAP10 (RRWKFFPWRR-CONH 2 ), was designed in this study. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to understand the association between SAP10 and model lipid bilayers...
February 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Peter R Judzewitsch, Thuy-Khanh Nguyen, Sivaprakash Shanmugam, Edgar H H Wong, Cyrille Andre Jean Marie Boyer
The biological effects of sequence control in synthetic antimicrobial polymers are currently not well understood. As such, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of monomer distribution within linear high-order multiblock copolymers which were made in a one-pot synthesis approach via photoinduced electron transfer-reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerisation (PET-RAFT). Through different combinations of monomer/polymer block order, the antimicrobial and haemolytic activities are tuneable in a manner comparable to antimicrobial peptides...
February 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Cansu Ergene, Edmund F Palermo
The rising incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections, combined with a declining number of new antibiotic drug approvals, has generated an alarming therapeutic gap that critically undermines public health. Host Defense Peptides (HDPs), sometimes referred to as "Nature's Antibiotics", are short chain, amphiphilic and cationic peptide sequences found in all multicellular organisms as part of their innate immunity. While there is a vast diversity in terms of HDP sequence and secondary structure, they all seem to share physiochemical characteristics that can be appropriated for macromolecular design by the synthetic polymer chemist...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sunithi Gunasekera, Taj Muhammad, Adam A Strömstedt, K Johan Rosengren, Ulf Göransson
The human host defence peptide LL-37 is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with immunomodulatory functions. Residues 18-29 in LL-37 have previously been identified as a minimal peptide (KR-12) that retains antibacterial activity with decreased cytotoxicity. In this study, we generated analogues of KR-12 by Ala and Lys scans to identify key elements for activity. These were tested against a panel of human pathogens and for membrane permeabilization on liposomes. Replacements of hydrophobic and cationic residues with Ala were detrimental for antibiotic potency...
February 11, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues Alves, Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto, Diego Felipe Alves Batista, Fernanda de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcela da Silva Rubio, Andrei Itajahy Secundo de Souza, Adriana Maria de Almeida, Paul Andrew Barrow, Angelo Berchieri Junior
Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations...
February 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Yelda Asad, Sajjad Ahmad, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Kara E Ranaghan, Syed Sikander Azam
The bacterium Providencia stuartii, is associated with urinary tract infections and is the most common cause of purple urine bag syndrome. The increasing multi-drug resistance pattern shown by the pathogen and lack of licensed vaccines make treatment of infections caused by P. stuartii challenging. As vaccinology data against the pathogen is scarce, an in silico proteome based Reverse Vaccinology (RV) protocol, in combination with subtractive proteomics is introduced in this work to screen potential vaccine candidates against P...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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