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cationic antimicrobial peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550757/serum-levels-of-peptide-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-elderly-patients-with-depression
#1
Elżbieta Kozłowska, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Cathelicidin LL-37 is a small cationic that plays an important role in antimicrobial defense, as it kills a broad spectrum of infectious agents by disrupting their membranes, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, some viruses and fungi; and it neutralizes activity of bacterial endotoxins. Moreover, cathelicidin LL-37 exerts proinflammatory effect, while numerous reports indicate the role of inflammation in the development of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circulating levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in elderly depressed patients...
May 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549244/ll-37-induced-human-mast-cell-activation-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-mrgx2
#2
Yangyang Yu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yarui Zhang, Yihong Lai, Wenwen Chen, Zhangang Xiao, Wei Zhang, Meiling Jin, Bo Yu
Human LL-37 is an important class of cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) that is known to stimulate mast cell activation. While many studies have been conducted on LL-37, to date little is known about the functional receptors for LL-37-induced human mast cell activation, in particular in terms of the release of de novo synthesized mediators. Thus, the aim of the present study is to identify the functional receptors for LL-37-induced human mast cell activation in terms of the degranulation and release of de novo synthesized mediators and investigate the downstream signalling pathways involved in mast cell activation...
May 23, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#3
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534905/antimicrobial-peptide-inspired-nh125-analogues-bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-eradicating-agents-and-rapid-killers-of-mrsa-persisters
#4
Akash Basak, Yasmeen Abouelhassan, Ran Zuo, Hussain Yousaf, Yousong Ding, Robert W Huigens
During microbial infection, antimicrobial peptides are utilized by the immune response to rapidly eradicate microbial pathogens through the destruction of cellular membranes. Inspired by antimicrobial peptides, quaternary ammonium cationic (QAC) compounds have emerged as agents capable of destroying bacterial membranes leading to rapid bacterial death, including the eradication of persistent, surface-attached bacterial biofilms. NH125, an imidazolium cation with a sixteen membered fatty tail, was recently reported to eradicate persister cells and was our starting point for the development of novel antimicrobial agents...
May 23, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#5
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505117/hiv-enhancing-and-hiv-inhibiting-properties-of-cationic-peptides-and-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Cole, Amy L Cole
Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. In the context of sexually transmitted HIV-1, we take an unconventional approach that questions this paradigm. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the cationic polypeptides present in the human genital or anorectal mucosa, or human semen, are capable of enhancing HIV-1 infection, often in addition to other reported roles as viral inhibitors...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501515/shrimp-humoral-responses-against-pathogens-antimicrobial-peptides-and-melanization
#7
Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanichyakit, Suwattana Visetnan, Piti Amparyup, Kunlaya Somboonwiwat, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Sureerat Tang
Diseases have caused tremendous economic losses and become the major problem threatening the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. The knowledge of host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens is essential for the implementation of efficient strategies to prevent disease outbreaks. Like other invertebrates, shrimp rely on the innate immune system to defend themselves against a range of microbes by recognizing and destroying them through cellular and humoral immune responses. Detection of microbial pathogens triggers the signal transduction pathways including the NF-κB signaling, Toll and Imd pathways, resulting in the activation of genes involved in host defense responses...
May 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493394/determination-of-effective-charges-and-ionic-mobilities-of-polycationic-antimicrobial-peptides-by-capillary-isotachophoresis-and-capillary-zone-electrophoresis
#8
Tereza Tůmová, Lenka Monincová, Ondřej Nešuta, Václav Čeřovský, Václav Kašička
Capillary ITP (CITP) and CZE were applied to the determination of effective charges and ionic mobilities of polycationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Twelve AMPs (deca- to hexadecapeptides) containing three to seven basic amino acid residues (His, Lys, Arg) at variable positions of peptide chain were investigated. Effective charges of the AMPs were determined from the lengths of their ITP zones, ionic mobilities, and molar concentrations, and from the same parameters of the reference compounds. Lengths of the ITP zones of AMPs and reference compounds were obtained from their CITP analyses in cationic mode using leading electrolyte (LE) composed of 10 mM NH4 OH, 40 mM AcOH (acetic acid), pH 4...
May 11, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483966/the-synergistic-efficacy-of-aedes-aegypti-antimicrobial-peptide-cecropin-a2-and-tetracycline-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Zhaojun Zheng, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Qingzhong Liu, Elamparithi Jayamani, Wooseong Kim, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Rijun Zhang, Andreas Vilcinskas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has created an urgent need for alternative drugs with new mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates that could address the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics. We studied the antimicrobial efficacy and bactericidal mechanism of cecropin A2, a 36-residue α-helical cationic peptide derived from Aedes aegypti cecropin A, focusing on the common pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa The peptide showed little hemolytic activity and toxicity towards mammalian cells and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against most clinical P...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476090/identifying-the-selectivity-of-antimicrobial-peptides-to-cell-membranes-by-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#10
Thaddeus W Golbek, Johannes Franz, J Elliott Fowler, Karl F Schilke, Tobias Weidner, Joe E Baio
Cationic amphiphilic peptides have been engineered to target both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria while avoiding damage to other cell types. However, the exact mechanism of how these peptides target, bind, and disrupt bacterial cell membranes is not understood. One specific peptide that has been engineered to selectively capture bacteria is WLBU2 (sequence: RRWVRRVRRWVRRVVRVVRRWVRR). It has been suggested that WLBU2 activity stems from the fact that when interacting with bacterial cell membranes the peptide assumes an α-helical structure and inserts itself into the membrane...
May 5, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473710/a-short-artificial-antimicrobial-peptide-shows-potential-to-prevent-or-treat-bone-infections
#11
N Bormann, A Koliszak, S Kasper, L Schoen, K Hilpert, R Volkmer, J Kikhney, B Wildemann
Infection of bone is a severe complication due to the variety of bacteria causing it, their resistance against classical antibiotics, the formation of a biofilm and the difficulty to eradicate it. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring peptides and promising candidates for treatment of joint infections. This study aimed to analyze the effect of short artificial peptides derived from an optimized library regarding (1) antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species, (2) efficacy on biofilms, and (3) effect on osteoblast‑like cells...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469603/targeted-modification-of-a-novel-amphibian-antimicrobial-peptide-from-phyllomedusa-tarsius-to-enhance-its-activity-against-mrsa-and-microbial-biofilm
#12
Yitian Gao, Di Wu, Lei Wang, Chen Lin, Chengbang Ma, Xinping Xi, Mei Zhou, Jinao Duan, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin secretions of amphibians are fundamental components of a unique defense system that has evolved to protect these hosts from microbial invasion. Medusins constitute a recently-discovered AMP family from phyllomedusine leaf frog skin and exhibit highly-conserved structural characteristics. Here, we report a novel medusin, medusin-PT, from the skin secretion of the Tarsier Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa tarsius. The mature peptide was initially identified from its cloned biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNA as obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469145/investigation-of-cationicity-and-structure-of-pseudin-2-analogues-for-enhanced-bacterial-selectivity-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#13
Dasom Jeon, Min-Cheol Jeong, Binu Jacob, Jeong Kyu Bang, Eun-Hee Kim, Chaejoon Cheong, In Duk Jung, Yoonkyung Park, Yangmee Kim
Pseudin-2 (Ps), isolated from the frog Pseudis paradoxa, exhibits potent antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. To develop antimicrobial peptides with anti-inflammatory activity and low cytotoxicity, we designed Ps analogues with Lys substitutions, resulting in elevated amphipathic α-helical structure and cationicity. We further substituted Gly(11) with Pro (Ps-P analogues) to increase bacterial cell selectivity. Ps analogues retained antimicrobial activity and exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, whereas Ps-P analogues exhibited lower cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468662/heterologous-expression-of-abaecin-peptide-from-apis-mellifera-in-pichia-pastoris
#14
Denis Prudencio Luiz, Juliana Franco Almeida, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Nilson Nicolau-Junior, Carlos Ueira-Vieira
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the first line of host immune defense against pathogens. Among AMPs from the honeybee Apis mellifera, abaecin is a major broad-spectrum antibacterial proline-enriched cationic peptide. RESULTS: For heterologous expression of abaecin in Pichia pastoris, we designed an ORF with HisTag, and the codon usage was optimized. The gene was chemically synthetized and cloned in the pUC57 vector. The new ORF was sub-cloned in the pPIC9 expression vector and transformed into P...
May 3, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459130/identification-and-characterization-of-multifunctional-cationic-and-amphipathic-peptides-from-soybean-proteins
#15
Masayuki Taniguchi, Kengo Saito, Takafumi Nomoto, Toshiki Namae, Akihito Ochiai, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In the present study, we identified and chemically synthesized three cationic and amphipathic peptides (Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11) from soybean proteins. These peptides had high isoelectric points, high positive net charges, and included multiple hydrophobic amino acids. Subsequently, we identified multiple functions of these peptides, including antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities, and examined their cytotoxic activities against mammalian red blood cells. Glycinin-17, BCAS-16, and BCBS-11 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans whereas Glycinin-17 did not possess antimicrobial effects on Propionibacterium acnes and Streptococcus mutans...
April 29, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457962/disruption-of-drug-resistant-biofilms-using-de-novo-designed-short-%C3%AE-helical-antimicrobial-peptides-with-idealized-facial-amphiphilicity
#16
Jasmeet Singh Khara, Sybil Obuobi, Ying Wang, Melissa Shea Hamilton, Brian D Robertson, Sandra M Newton, Yi Yan Yang, Paul R Langford, Pui Lai Rachel Ee
The escalating threat of antimicrobial resistance has increased pressure to develop novel therapeutic strategies to tackle drug-resistant infections. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as a promising class of therapeutics for various systemic and topical clinical applications. In this study, the de novo design of α-helical peptides with idealized facial amphiphilicities, based on an understanding of the pertinent features of protein secondary structures, is presented. Synthetic amphiphiles composed of the backbone sequence (X1Y1Y2X2)n, where X1 and X2 are hydrophobic residues (Leu or Ile or Trp), Y1 and Y2 are cationic residues (Lys), and n is the number repeat units (2 or 2...
April 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450045/arginine-lysine-positional-swap-of-the-ll-37-peptides-reveals-evolutional-advantages-of-the-native-sequence-and-leads-to-bacterial-probes
#17
Xiuqing Wang, José Carlos Bozelli Junior, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Richard M Epand, Guangshun Wang
Antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. Although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (K-R) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. This study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (GF-17 and 17BIPHE2) derived from human cathelicidin LL-37. K-R positional swap showed little effect on minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides...
April 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#18
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423018/comprehensive-analysis-of-phospholipids-and-glycolipids-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#19
Rafi Rashid, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Iris H Gao, Zeus J Nair, Jaspal K Kumar, Liang Gao, Kimberly A Kline, Markus R Wenk
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. The development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. In E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels, whereas multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) converts anionic PG into cationic lysyl-PG via a trans-esterification reaction, providing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423004/variations-in-the-interaction-of-human-defensins-with-escherichia-coli-possible-implications-in-bacterial-killing
#20
Basil Mathew, Ramakrishnan Nagaraj
Human α and β-defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides characterized by three disulfide bonds with a triple stranded β-sheet motif. It is presumed that interaction with the bacterial cell surface and membrane permeabilization by defensins is an important step in the killing process. In this study, we have compared interactions of three human α-defensins HNP3, HNP4, HD5 and human β-defensins HBD1-4 that are active against Escherichia coli, with its cell surface and inner membrane as well as negatively charged model membranes...
2017: PloS One
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