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psychiatry biology autism ADHD

J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, A McGonigal, R Lopez, C Daudet, I Kotwas, F Bartolomei
The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique...
December 2015: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Henriette Schmock, Anders Vangkilde, Kit Melissa Larsen, Elvira Fischer, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Charlotte Olesen, Flemming Skovby, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Morten Mørup, Ollie Hulme, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Michael Didriksen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Thomas Werge, Line Olsen
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental brain disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are complex disorders with heterogeneous etiologies. Schizophrenia and autism are difficult to treat and often cause major individual suffering largely owing to our limited understanding of the disease biology. Thus our understanding of the biological pathogenesis needs to be substantiated to enable development of more targeted treatment options with improved efficacy...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Teri Smith, Susan Sharp, Ann M Manzardo, Merlin G Butler
Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lauren C Milner, Mildred K Cho
BACKGROUND: Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial...
January 1, 2014: AJOB Primary Research
Izabela Sokolowska, Armand G Ngounou Wetie, Kelly Wormwood, Johannes Thome, Costel C Darie, Alisa G Woods
The etiology and pathogenesis of many psychiatric disorders are unclear with many signaling pathways and complex interactions still unknown. Primary information provided from gene expression or brain activity imaging experiments is useful, but can have limitations. There is a current effort focusing on the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic proteomic potential biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. Despite this work, there is still no biological diagnostic test available for any mental disorder. Biomarkers may advance the care of psychiatric illnesses and have great potential to knowledge of psychiatric disorders but several drawbacks must be considered...
August 2015: Journal of Neural Transmission
Michael Rutter
Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response...
November 2013: Development and Psychopathology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for the five disorders in 33,332 cases and 27,888 controls of European ancestory...
April 20, 2013: Lancet
Anita Thapar, Evangelia Stergiakouli
This review covers the key types of genetic research design, the methodology involved and emerging, and established findings in relation to child and adolescent psychiatry. Traditional family, twin, and adoption studies show that child and adolescent psychiatric disorders are familial and genetically influenced. Genes and environment contribute to all disorders. Genetic factors seem especially important for autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Twin and adoption study designs are now being used to examine gene-environment interplay, the effects of environmental risk factors, co-morbidity, phenotype definition, and developmental change...
July 2008: Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded a plethora of new findings in the past 3 years. By early 2009, GWAS on 47 samples of subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia will be completed. Taken together, these GWAS constitute the largest biological experiment ever conducted in psychiatry (59 000 independent cases and controls, 7700 family trios and >40 billion genotypes). We know that GWAS can work, and the question now is whether it will work for psychiatric disorders...
January 2009: Molecular Psychiatry
P J Asherson, S Curran
BACKGROUND: Twin studies demonstrate the importance of genes and environment in the aetiology of childhood psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Advances in molecular genetics enable the identification of genes involved in complex disorders and enable the study of molecular mechanisms and gene--environment interactions. AIMS: To review the role of molecular genetics studies in childhood behavioural and developmental traits. METHOD: Molecular approaches to complex disorders are reviewed, with examples from autism, reading disability and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
August 2001: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
C Trevarthen, K J Aitken
We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others...
January 2001: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
S Eliez, A L Reiss
Over the past 10 years, innovations in physics and computer science have promoted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an essential tool for investigating the biological substrates of psychiatric disorders. Requiring no radiation exposure, MRI is now the preferred imaging technique for pediatric populations. However, the rapid technical advances in MRI pulse sequences, data processing, and analysis have made it increasingly complex for clinicians to compare and critically evaluate MRI research studies. This paper selectively reviews MRI research on five psychiatric conditions occurring in childhood or adolescence: ADHD, autism, childhood-onset schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, and early-onset depression...
September 2000: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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