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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631499/the-microbial-contamination-and-the-presence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-water-and-on-the-surfaces-of-public-recreation-water-facilities
#1
Karmen Godič Torkar, Mirjana Dražetić
The microbiological quality of bathing water and the surfaces of the surrounding pool platforms of two pools was estimated. ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water and surface samples were also studied. The water samples were satisfactory in 31 (86.1 %) out of 36 cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Escherichia coli were identified in only 2 (5.5 %) cases. There were no correlations between the HPC and number of enterobacteria in the pool water and those found in the surface samples...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630803/putative-archaeal-viruses-from-the-mesopelagic-ocean
#2
Dean R Vik, Simon Roux, Jennifer R Brum, Ben Bolduc, Joanne B Emerson, Cory C Padilla, Frank J Stewart, Matthew B Sullivan
Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#3
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621734/the-roles-of-spinochromes-in-four-shallow-water-tropical-sea-urchins-and-their-potential-as-bioactive-pharmacological-agents
#4
Lola Brasseur, Elise Hennebert, Laurence Fievez, Guillaume Caulier, Fabrice Bureau, Lionel Tafforeau, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut
Spinochromes are principally known to be involved in sea urchin pigmentation as well as for their potentially interesting pharmacological properties. To assess their biological role in sea urchin physiology, experiments are undertaken on crude extracts from four species and on four isolated spinochromes in order to test their antibacterial, antioxidant, inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. First, the antibacterial assays show that the use of crude extracts as representatives of antibacterial effects of spinochromes are inaccurate...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620364/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-s-aureus-l-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-spp-detection-in-raw-milk-with-pre-enrichment
#5
Tian Ding, Yuanjie Suo, Zhaohuan Zhang, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Yong Zhao
This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water) in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 10(2) CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611742/analysis-of-the-genome-and-mobilome-of-a-dissimilatory-arsenate-reducing-aeromonas-sp-o23a-reveals-multiple-mechanisms-for-heavy-metal-resistance-and-metabolism
#6
Witold Uhrynowski, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Lukasz Dziewit, Monika Radlinska, Pawel S Krawczyk, Leszek Lipinski, Dorota Adamska, Lukasz Drewniak
Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606076/flocculating-performance-of-a-bioflocculant-produced-by-arthrobacter-humicola-in-sewage-waste-water-treatment
#7
Mayowa Oladele Agunbiade, Esta Van Heerden, Carolina H Pohl, Anofi Tom Ashafa
BACKGROUND: The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa...
June 12, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603518/microbial-extracellular-polymeric-substances-epss-in-ocean-systems
#8
REVIEW
Alan W Decho, Tony Gutierrez
Microbial cells (i.e., bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in oceans secrete a diverse array of large molecules, collectively called extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) or simply exopolymers. These secretions facilitate attachment to surfaces that lead to the formation of structured 'biofilm' communities. In open-water environments, they also lead to formation of organic colloids, and larger aggregations of cells, called 'marine snow.' Secretion of EPS is now recognized as a fundamental microbial adaptation, occurring under many environmental conditions, and one that influences many ocean processes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601032/photoinduced-transformation-of-pyridinium-based-ionic-liquids-and-implications-for-their-photochemical-behavior-in-surface-waters
#9
Paola Calza, Giorgio Noè, Debora Fabbri, Valentina Santoro, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Claudio Medana
The photochemical reactivity of three ionic liquids (1-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, and 1-(3-cyanopropyl)pyridinium chloride) was studied by combining laboratory experiments and photochemical modeling, to get insight into the possible behavior in surface-water environments. Among the studied compounds, phototransformation in sunlit surface waters could be an important attenuation pathway for 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPOTFB). In this case the reaction with the carbonate radicals (CO3(-)) would prevail at low values of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), while the direct photolysis would be important at intermediate to high DOC values...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598346/application-of-long-amplicon-propidium-monoazide-pcr-to-assess-the-effects-of-temperature-and-background-microbiota-on-pathogens-in-river-water
#10
Avid Banihashemi, Michele I Van Dyke, Peter M Huck
The decay rates of enteric waterborne pathogens were evaluated following the introduction of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni and Arcobacter butzleri into river water at different temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C) for a period of 28 days. To improve the accuracy of the results a molecular viability assay, long amplicon propidium monoazide-polymerase chain reaction (PMA-PCR), was used to quantify the viable cell concentration and results from PCR with and without PMA were compared...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592325/isolation-and-characterization-of-the-first-phage-infecting-ecologically-important-marine-bacteria-erythrobacter
#11
Longfei Lu, Lanlan Cai, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Erythrobacter comprises a widespread and ecologically significant genus of marine bacteria. However, no phage infecting Erythrobacter spp. has been reported to date. This study describes the isolation and characterization of phage vB_EliS-R6L from Erythrobacter. METHODS: Standard virus enrichment and double-layer agar methods were used to isolate and characterize the phage. Morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and a one-step growth curve assay was performed...
June 7, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588144/effect-of-water-flow-and-chemical-environment-on-microbiota-growth-and-composition-in-the-human-colon
#12
Jonas Cremer, Markus Arnoldini, Terence Hwa
The human gut harbors a dynamic microbial community whose composition bears great importance for the health of the host. Here, we investigate how colonic physiology impacts bacterial growth, which ultimately dictates microbiota composition. Combining measurements of bacterial physiology with analysis of published data on human physiology into a quantitative, comprehensive modeling framework, we show how water flow in the colon, in concert with other physiological factors, determine the abundances of the major bacterial phyla...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585863/contamination-of-carcasses-and-utensils-in-small-swine-slaughterhouses-by-salmonella-in-the-northwestern-region-of-the-state-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#13
Claudius Couto Cabral, Pedro Henrique Nunes Panzenhagen, Karina Frensel Delgado, Gabriela Rodrigues Alves Silva, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Robson Maia Franco, Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that constantly threatens food safety in developed countries and underdeveloped countries such as Brazil, where it is responsible for 38% of notified cases of foodborne illness. Swine are one of the main meat-producing species that may asymptomatically carry Salmonella, periodically shedding the bacteria through feces. The state of Rio de Janeiro is not a major producer of swine meat, but small slaughterhouses are operational and produce meat for consumption within the state, although few studies have been conducted in the region...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582974/breathable-vapor-toxicant-barriers-based-on-multilayer-graphene-oxide
#14
Ruben Spitz Steinberg, Michelle Cruz, Naser G A Mahfouz, Yang Qiu, Robert H Hurt
There is tremendous interest in graphene-based membranes as protective molecular barriers or molecular sieves for separation technologies. Graphene oxide (GO) films in the dry state are known to be effective barriers for molecular transport and to expand in the presence of moisture to create enlarged intersheet gallery spaces that allow rapid water permeation. Here we explore an application for GO membranes as water-breathable barrier layers for personal protective equipment, which are designed to allow outward perspiration while protecting the wearer from chemical toxicants or biochemical agents in the local environment...
June 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574457/cyanobacterial-toxins-of-the-laurentian-great-lakes-their-toxicological-effects-and-numerical-limits-in-drinking-water
#15
REVIEW
Todd R Miller, Lucas J Beversdorf, Chelsea A Weirich, Sarah L Bartlett
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. Seasonally, they dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N₂ fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules...
June 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570897/simultaneous-selenate-reduction-and-denitrification-by-a-consortium-of-enriched-mine-site-bacteria
#16
Gaurav Subedi, Jon Taylor, Ido Hatam, Susan A Baldwin
Increasing selenium concentrations in aquatic environments downstream of mine sites is of great concern due to selenium's bioaccumulation propensity and teratogenic toxicity. Removal of selenium from mine influenced water is complicated by the presence of nitrate, which is also elevated in mine influenced water due to the use of explosives in mining. In many biological treatment processes, nitrate as a thermodynamically more preferable electron acceptor inhibits selenate reduction. Here we report on an enrichment of a bacterial assemblage from a mine impacted natural marsh sediment that was capable of simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification...
May 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555063/the-occurrence-of-the-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-the-haihe-river-china
#17
Dong Yang, Zhigang Qiu, Zhiqiang Shen, Hong Zhao, Min Jin, Huaying Li, Weili Liu, Jun-Wen Li
Antibiotic failure is occurring worldwide. In a routine surveillance study on antibioticresistance genes (ARGs) in natural water bodies, we noted the detection of colistin-resistance gene mcr-1, previously identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from human beings and animals in several countries. The mcr-1 gene might be present in water environments, because aquatic ecosystems are recognized as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs. In this study, a qPCR assay was developed to monitor and quantify the mcr-1 gene in the Haihe River, China...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555050/a-three-year-follow-up-study-of-antibiotic-and-metal-residues-antibiotic-resistance-and-resistance-genes-focusing-on-kshipra-a-river-associated-with-holy-religious-mass-bathing-in-india-protocol-paper
#18
Vishal Diwan, Manju Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Vivek Parashar, Harshada Shah, Vijay K Mahadik, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Ashok J Tamhankar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. METHOD/DESIGN: Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551887/bacteriological-safety-assessment-hygienic-habits-and-cross-contamination-risks-in-a-nigerian-urban-sample-of-household-kitchen-environment
#19
Bernard O Ejechi, Ono P Ochei
Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551539/contribution-of-bacteriophage-and-plasmid-dna-to-the-mobilization-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-a-river-receiving-treated-wastewater-discharges
#20
Itziar Lekunberri, Marta Villagrasa, José Luis Balcázar, Carles M Borrego
In this study, we quantified eleven antibiotic compounds and nine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water samples collected upstream and downstream of the discharge point from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) into the Ter River. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, whereas the concentration of ARGs in bacterial, phage and plasmid DNA fractions was determined by real-time PCR to explore their contribution to environmental antibiotic resistance. WWTP discharges resulted in higher concentrations of antibiotic residues as well as ARGs in water samples collected downstream the impact point...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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