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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933562/protective-approaches-and-mechanisms-of-microencapsulation-to-the-survival-of-probiotic-bacteria-during-processing-storage-and-gastrointestinal-digestion-a-review
#1
Huan Liu, Steve W Cui, Maoshen Chen, Yue Li, Rong Liang, Feifei Xu, Fang Zhong
In recent years, there is a rising interest in the number of food products containing probiotic bacteria with favorable health benefit effects. However, the viability of probiotic bacteria is always questionable when they exposure to the harsh environment during processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. To overcome these problems, microencapsulation of cells is currently receiving considerable attention and has obtained valuable effects. According to the drying temperature, the commonly used technologies can be divided into two patterns: high temperature drying (spray drying, fluid bed drying) and low temperature drying (ultrasonic vacuum spray drying, spray chilling, electrospinning, supercritical technique, freeze drying, extrusion, emulsion, enzyme gelation and impinging aerosol technique)...
September 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932364/role-of-food-in-environmental-transmission-of-helicobacter-pylori
#2
REVIEW
Mohammad Zamani, Amin Vahedi, Zahra Maghdouri, Javad Shokri-Shirvani
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that has infected more than half of the world's population. This pathogen colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is usually acquired during childhood. It is an important cause of peptic ulcers, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. Among the risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori infection, poor socioeconomic status, poor sanitization and hygiene practices, and contaminated food and water, are the most significant ones. The main route of H. pylori transmission is still unknown...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932199/bacillus-a-biological-tool-for-crop-improvement-through-bio-molecular-changes-in-adverse-environments
#3
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930645/spores-and-vegetative-cells-of-phenotypically-and-genetically-diverse-i-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato-i-are-common-bacteria-in-fresh-water-of-northeastern-poland
#4
Marek Bartoszewicz, Urszula Czyzewska
Gram-positive rods named <i>B. cereus sensu lato</i> (<i>sl</i>), are common in natural habitats and food products. It is believed that they are restricted to spores, however their ecology in aquatic habitats is still poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the rain-dependent fluctuations of the concentration of <i>B. cereus sl</i> vegetative cells and spores with evaluation of their phylogenetic and population structure in relation to the toxicity and psychrotolerance...
September 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925557/analysis-of-multiple-haloarchaeal-genomes-suggests-that-the-quinone-dependent-respiratory-nitric-oxide-reductase-is-an-important-source-of-nitrous-oxide-in-hypersaline-environments
#5
Javier Torregrosa-Crespo, Pedro González-Torres, Vanesa Bautista, Julia M Esclapez, Carmen Pire, Mónica Camacho, María José Bonete, David J Richardson, Nicholas J Watmough, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Microorganisms, including Bacteria and Archaea, play a key role in denitrification, which is the major mechanism by which fixed nitrogen returns to the atmosphere from soil and water. Whilst the enzymology of denitrification is well understood in Bacteria, the details of the last two reactions in this pathway, which catalyse the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) via nitrous oxide (N2 O) to nitrogen (N2 ), are little studied in Archaea, and hardly at all in haloarchaea. This work describes an extensive interspecies analysis of both complete and draft haloarchaeal genomes aimed at identifying the genes that encode respiratory nitric oxide reductases (Nors)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#6
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919889/dehalococcoides-as-a-potential-biomarker-evidence-for-uncharacterized-organohalides-in-environmental-samples
#7
Qihong Lu, Ling Yu, Zhiwei Liang, Qingyun Yan, Zhili He, Tiangang Luan, Dawei Liang, Shanquan Wang
The massive production and improper disposal of organohalides resulted in worldwide contamination in soil and water. However, their environmental survey based on chromatographic methods was hindered by challenges in testing the extremely wide variety of organohalides. Dehalococcoides as obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria exclusively use organohalides as electron acceptors to support their growth, of which the presence could be coupled with organohalides and, therefore, could be employed as a biomarker of the organohalide pollution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917709/in-vitro-interactions-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-vibrio-harveyi
#8
María Reyes-Batlle, Alberto J Martín-Rodríguez, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic protozoa widely distributed in the environment. They are frequently found in water and soil samples, but they have also been reported to be associated with bacterial human pathogens such as Legionella spp. Campylobacter spp or Vibrio cholerae among others. Including within Vibrio spp. V. harveyi (Johnson and Shunk, 1936) is a bioluminescent marine bacteria which has been found swimming freely in tropical marine waters, being part of the stomach and intestine microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916459/variation-in-campylobacter-jejuni-culturability-in-presence-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#9
María Reyes-Batlle, Cecilia Girbau, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Aurora Fernández-Astorga, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916044/antibiotic-affinity-strategy-for-bioluminescent-detection-of-viable-gram-positive-bacteria-using-daptomycin-as-recognition-agent
#10
Mengyao Wang, Yue Wu, Yong He, Xiaoxiao Su, Hui Ouyang, Zhifeng Fu
A bioluminescent method was proposed for rapid detection of viable Gram-positive bacteria based on a novel antibiotic-affinity strategy on a magnetic beads (MBs) platform. Daptomycin, a highly efficient lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria, was used as a recognition agent to functionalize MBs. The daptomycin-functionalized MBs showed high capture and concentration efficiency for Gram-positive bacteria due to the strong binding between daptomycin and bacterial cell membrane in the presence of Ca(2+) ion...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914802/phylogenetic-analysis-and-antimicrobial-profiles-of-cultured-emerging-opportunistic-pathogens-phyla-actinobacteria-and-proteobacteria-identified-in-hot-springs
#11
Jocelyn Leonie Jardine, Akebe Luther King Abia, Vuyo Mavumengwana, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905318/the-effects-of-climate-catchment-land-use-and-local-factors-on-the-abundance-and-community-structure-of-sediment-ammonia-oxidizing-microorganisms-in-yangtze-lakes
#12
Xiaoliang Jiang, Yujing Wu, Guihua Liu, Wenzhi Liu, Bei Lu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in regulating the nitrification process in lake ecosystems. However, the relative effects of climate, catchment land use and local conditions on the sediment ammonia-oxidizing communities in lakes remain unclear. In this study, the diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB communities were investigated in ten Yangtze lakes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), clone library and quantitative PCR techniques. The results showed that the abundances of both AOA and AOB in bare sediments were considerably but not significantly higher than those in vegetated sediments...
September 13, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904645/fitness-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-the-environment-a-laboratory-activity
#13
Massimiliano Marvasi, Manika Choudhury, Nimisha Binesh Vala, Max Teplitski
In this laboratory experiment, we propose an opportunity for students to broaden their understanding of the ecology of antibiotic-resistant and sensitive waterborne bacteria. Antibiotics can be found in rivers or soil as a consequence of agricultural practices or as a result of human use. Concentrations of antibiotics in the environment may range from a few ng to μg L(-1). Such concentrations can affect the selection and fitness of resistant bacteria. In this laboratory activity, students learn how to set up a fitness experiment by using an isogenic pair of antibiotic-resistant and sensitive bacteria in the presence or absence of selective pressure...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903077/assessing-toxicity-of-metal-contaminated-soil-from-glassworks-sites-with-a-battery-of-biotests
#14
M Hagner, M Romantschuk, O-P Penttinen, A Egfors, C Marchand, A Augustsson
The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-eastern Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox™ test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids...
September 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886689/predator-versus-pathogen-how-does-predatory-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-interface-with-the-challenges-of-killing-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-host-setting
#15
David Negus, Chris Moore, Michelle Baker, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. bacteriovorus predation and the physiological properties that would influence its survival in a mammalian host. Bacterial pathogens increasingly display conventional antibiotic resistance by expressing and varying surface and soluble biomolecules...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886559/sewage-treatment-effluents-in-delhi-a-key-contributor-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-bacteria-and-genes-to-the-environment
#16
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. Lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate sewage treatment facilities in these countries are fueling the problem associated with emergence of AR. Rapid proliferation of AR mediated by treated and untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. This study aims to understand the occurrence, fate, and routes of proliferation of carbapenem (KPC) and extended spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria, and selected resistant genes in the samples collected from different unit operations in 12 STPs in New Delhi over two seasons...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883810/from-farms-to-markets-gram-negative-bacteria-resistant-to-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-fruits-and-vegetables-in-a-region-of-north-africa
#17
Ferielle Mesbah Zekar, Sophie A Granier, Muriel Marault, Lydia Yaici, Benoit Gassilloud, Charles Manceau, Abdelaziz Touati, Yves Millemann
The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Algeria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876132/removal-of-escherichia-coli-and-enterococcus-faecalis-after-hand-washing-with-antimicrobial-and-nonantimicrobial-soap-and-persistence-of-these-bacteria-in-rinsates
#18
J Pérez-Garza, S García, N Heredia
Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10(3) or 10(6) CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875904/lewinella-maritima-sp-nov-and-lewinella-lacunae-sp-nov-novel-bacteria-from-marine-environments
#19
Heeyoung Kang, Haneul Kim, Yochan Joung, Kiseong Joh
Two Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, marine bacteria, designated HME9321T and HME9359T, were isolated from seawater and lagoon water samples in the Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains revealed that they belonged to the genus Lewinella within the family Saprospiraceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain HME9321T showed highest similarities with Lewinella aquimaris HDW-36T (95.2 %), Lewinella marina MKG-38T (94.7 %) and Lewinella xylanilytica 13-9-B8T (94...
September 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873945/diversity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-bacteria-isolated-from-different-brazilian-coral-species
#20
Letícia B Pereira, Bruna R Z Palermo, Camila Carlos, Laura M M Ottoboni
Corals harbor a wide diversity of bacteria associated with their mucus. These bacteria can play an important role in nutrient cycling, degradation of xenobiotics and defense against pathogens by producing antimicrobial compounds. However, the diversity of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, especially in the Brazilian coral species, remains poorly understood. The present work compares the diversity of cultivable bacteria isolated from the mucus and surrounding environments of four coral species present along the Brazilian coast, and explores the antibacterial activity of these bacteria...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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