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environment water bacteria

Jacinta C Conrad, Ryan Poling-Skutvik
Bacteria overwhelmingly live in geometrically confined habitats that feature small pores or cavities, narrow channels, or nearby interfaces. Fluid flows through these confined habitats are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments colonized by bacteria. Moreover, these flows occur on timeand length scales comparable to those associated with motility of bacteria and with the formation and growth of biofilms, which are surface-associated communities that house the vast majority of bacteria and protect them from host and environmental stresses...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
S Prakash, K Rajeswari, P Divya, M Ferlin, C T Rajeshwari, B Vanavil
Curdlan gum is a neutral water-insoluble bacterial exopolysaccharide composed primarily of linear β-(1,3) glycosidic linkages. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the applications of curdlan and its derivatives. Curdlan is found to inhibit tumors and its sulfated derivative possess anti- HIV activity. Curdlan is biodegradable, non-toxic towards human, environment and edible which makes it suitable as drug-delivery vehicles for sustained drug release. The increasing demand for the growing applications of curdlan requires an efficient high yield fermentation production process so as to satisfy the industrial needs...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Xiao Lei Li, Jayaraman Narenkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Yen-Peng Ting
The present study describes the biocorrosion of mild steel (MS1010) and pure copper (Cu) in cooling water environments (both field and lab study). Electrochemical and surface analyses of both metals were carried out to confirm the corrosion susceptibility in the presence of bacteria and inhibitor. Surface analysis of the MS and Cu coupons revealed that biofilm was developed with increasing exposure time in the field study. In the lab study, accumulation of extracellular polymeric substance over the metal surface was noticed and led to the severe pitting type of corrosion on both metal surfaces...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Lipeng Gu, Bin Huang, Chaochao Lai, Zhixiang Xu, Huan He, Xuejun Pan
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is shown to act as an electron shuttle mediator which enhances the microbial degradation of steroid estrogens in natural water. Batch studies were conducted with 17β‑estradiol (E2), quinone-reducing bacteria, DOM, and Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor. The results show that anthraquinone‑2‑disulfonate (AQS) approximately doubles the microbial degradation of E2 by DOM alone. The effect decreases sharply at AQS concentrations above 1.0mmol·L-1 . Over three oxidation-reduction cycles, the electron-shuttling ability of AQS and the E2 biodegradation rate decreased step by step...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sheryl O Fernandes, Lankalapalli Surya Prakash, Mechirackal Balan Binish, Kottekkatu Padinchati Krishnan, Palayil John Kurian
Mn-oxidizing potential of two metal-tolerant bacterial strains - Halomonas meridiana and Marinobacter algicola isolated from the South West Indian Ridge waters were compared at varying concentrations of Mn (II), i.e., 1, 10, and 100 μmol and mmol L-1 . Accompanying changes in their morphology and metabolism were also determined. At concentrations >1 mmol L-1 Mn (II), Mn-oxidizing potential of M. algicola was 2-7 times greater than that of H. meridiana. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that exposure to elevated metal content prompted bacterial cells especially those of M...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Jana Kisková, Zuzana Perháčová, Ladislav Vlčko, Jana Sedláková, Simona Kvasnová, Peter Pristaš
Although neutral mine drainage is the less frequent subject of the interest than acid mine drainage, it can have adverse environmental effects caused mainly by precipitation of dissolved Fe. The aim of the study was to characterize the composition of bacterial population in environment with high concentration of iron and sulfur compounds represented by neutral mine drainage water of Elizabeth's shaft, Slovinky (Slovakia). Direct microscopic observations, cultivation methods, and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons were used to examine the bacterial population...
March 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Ana Plemenitaš, Aharon Oren
Hypersaline environments with salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation are inhabited by a great diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life. They all must cope with the low water activity of their environment, but different strategies exist to provide osmotic balance of the cells' cytoplasm with the salinity of the medium. One option used by many halophilic Archaea and a few representatives of the Bacteria is to accumulate salts, mainly KCl and to adapt the entire intracellular machinery to function in the presence of molar concentrations of salts...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Ian Singleton, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Foodborne illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated fresh produce is a common phenomenon and has severe effects on human health together with severe economic and social impacts. The implications of foodborne diseases associated with fresh produce have urged research into the numerous ways and mechanisms through which pathogens may gain access to produce, thereby compromising microbiological safety. This review provides a background on the various sources and pathways through which pathogenic bacteria contaminate fresh produce; the survival and proliferation of pathogens on fresh produce while growing and potential methods to reduce microbial contamination before harvest...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Thi Thu Hang Pham, Pierre Rossi, Hoang Dang Khoa Dinh, Ngoc Tu Anh Pham, Phuong Anh Tran, To Thi Khai Mui Ho, Quoc Tuc Dinh, Luiz Felippe De Alencastro
In Vietnam, intensive shrimp farms heavily rely on a wide variety of antibiotics (ABs) to treat animals or prevent disease outbreak. Potential for the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria is high, with the concomitant contamination of adjacent natural aquatic habitats used for irrigation and drinking water, impairing in turn human health system. In the present study, quantification of AB multi-resistant bacteria was carried out in water and sediment samples from effluent channels connecting a shrimp farming area to the Vam Co River (Long An Province, Vietnam)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kazimir Matović, Jelena Ćirić, Vesna Kaljević, Nebojša Nedić, Goran Jevtić, Nikola Vasković, Milan Ž Baltić
Honey is a natural substance produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) enjoyed by people due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical parameters (moisture, ash, water-insoluble content, reducing sugars, sucrose, free acidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, and electrical conductivity) and microbiological status (total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total number of sulfite-reducing clostridia, the presence of Salmonella spp...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yi-Lung Chen, Han-Yi Fu, Tzong-Huei Lee, Chao-Jen Shih, Lina Huang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wael Ismail, Yin-Ru Chiang
The environmental release and fate of estrogens are becoming an increasing public concern. Bacterial degradation has been considered the main process for eliminating estrogens from wastewater treatment plants. Various bacterial isolates are reportedly capable of aerobic estrogen degradation and several estrogen degradation pathways have been proposed in the proteobacteria and actinobacteria. However, the ecophysiological relevance of estrogen-degrading bacteria in the environment is unclear. In this study, we investigated estrogen degradation pathway and corresponding degraders in activated sludge collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant, Taipei, Taiwan...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Julia Klier, Olaf Dellwig, Thomas Leipe, Klaus Jürgens, Daniel P R Herlemann
Salinity has a strong impact on bacterial community composition such that freshwater bacterial communities are very different from those in seawater. By contrast, little is known about the composition and diversity of the bacterial community in the sediments (bacteriobenthos) at the freshwater-seawater transition (mesohaline conditions). In this study, partial 16S-rRNA sequences were used to investigate the bacterial community at five stations, representing almost freshwater (oligohaline) to marine conditions, in the Baltic Sea...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Shirley Wen-Yu Chiu, Ho-Wen Cheng, Zhi-Xin Chen, Huai-Hsien Wang, Ming-Yu Lai, Juen-Kai Wang, Yuh-Lin Wang
Recently, specific biomarkers in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bacteria have been successfully exploited for rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) - dubbed SERS-AST. The biomolecules responsible for these bacterial SERS biomarkers have been identified as several purine derivative metabolites involved in bacterial purine salvage pathways (W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, A. Sauer-Budge, R. Theberge, C. E. Costello and L. D. Ziegler, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2016, 408, 4631)...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Patricia Rojas, Nuria Rodriguez, Vicenta de la Fuente, Daniel Sánchez-Mata, Ricardo Amils, Jose Luis Sanz Martin
Soda lakes are inhabited by important haloalkaliphilic microbial communities that are well adapted to these extreme characteristics. The surface waters of the haloalkaline Mono Lake (CA, USA) are alkaline but, in contrast to its bottom waters, do not present high salinity. We have studied the microbiota present in the shoreline sediments of Mono Lake using next-generation sequencing techniques. The statistical indexes showed that Bacteria had a higher richness, diversity and evenness compared to Archaea. 17 phyla and 8 "candidate divisions", were identified among the Bacteria, with a predominance of the phyla <i>Firmicutes</i>, <i>Proteobacteria </i>and <i>Bacteroidetes</i>...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Ian Pepper, John P Brooks, Charles P Gerba
Recently, there has been increased concern about the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG), in treated domestic wastewaters, animal manures and municipal biosolids. The concern is whether these additional sources of ARB contribute to antibiotic resistance levels in the environment, i.e. "environmental antibiotic resistance." ARB and ARG occur naturally in soil and water, and it remains unclear whether the introduction of ARB in liquid and solid municipal and animal wastes via land application have any significant impact on the background levels of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and whether they affect human exposure to ARB...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hao Hu, Jin-Feng Liu, Cai-Yun Li, Shi-Zhong Yang, Ji-Dong Gu, Bo-Zhong Mu
The increasing usage of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in oilfields as a flooding agent to enhance oil recovery at so large quantities is an ecological hazard to the subsurface ecosystem due to persistence and inertness. Biodegradation of HPAM is a potentially promising strategy for dealing with this problem among many other methods available. To understand the responsible microorganisms and mechanism of HPAM biodegradation under anaerobic conditions, an enrichment culture from production waters of oil reservoirs were established with HPAM as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen incubated for over 328 days, and analyzed using both molecular microbiology and chemical characterization methods...
March 3, 2018: Biodegradation
José R Almeida, Bruno Mendes, Marcelo Lancellotti, Sergio Marangoni, Nuno Vale, Óscar Passos, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, Paula Gomes, Saulo L Da Silva
Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A2 s (PLA2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dong Wu, Ruoqi Ma, Huawei Wei, Kai Yang, Bing Xie
Around 350 million tons of solid waste is disposed of in landfills every year globally, with millions of cubic meters of landfill leachates released into neighboring environment. However, to date, little is known about the variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in on-site leachate treatment systems and its development in leachate-receiving water environment. Here, we quantified 7 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 3 types of culturable antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and 6 subtypes of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the effluents from a combined leachate treatment process, including biological treatment (MBR), physical separation (UF), ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and advanced oxidation process (AOP)...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
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