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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147807/distinct-diversity-patterns-of-planctomycetes-associated-with-the-freshwater-macrophyte-nuphar-lutea-l-smith
#1
Anastasia A Ivanova, Dmitriy A Philippov, Irina S Kulichevskaya, Svetlana N Dedysh
Members of the phylum Planctomycetes were originally described as freshwater bacteria. Most recent studies, however, address planctomycete diversity in other environments colonized by these microorganisms, including marine and terrestrial ecosystems. This study was initiated in order to revisit the specific patterns of planctomycete diversity in freshwater habitats using cultivation-independent approaches. The specific focus was made on planctomycetes associated with Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith, an emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, which is widespread in the Holarctic...
November 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147114/antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-isolates-from-captive-green-turtles-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-bacteriophages
#2
Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini, Ellen Ariel, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145163/spread-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-harboring-integron-via-swine-farm-waste-water-treatment-plant
#3
Jin-Hyeong Park, Young-Ji Kim, Binn-Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143238/yeasts-and-bacterial-biosurfactants-as-demulsifiers-for-petroleum-derivative-in-seawater-emulsions
#4
Fernanda Cristina P Rocha E Silva, Bruno Augusto C Roque, Nathalia Maria P Rocha E Silva, Raquel D Rufino, Juliana M Luna, Valdemir A Santos, Ibrahim M Banat, Leonie A Sarubbo
Oil sludge or waste generated in transport, storage or refining forms highly stable mixtures due to the presence and additives with surfactant properties and water forming complex emulsions. Thus, demulsification is necessary to separate this residual oil from the aqueous phase for oil processing and water treatment/disposal. Most used chemical demulsifiers, although effective, are environmental contaminants and do not meet the desired levels of biodegradation. We investigated the application of microbial biosurfactants as potential natural demulsifiers of petroleum derivatives in water emulsions...
November 15, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139076/extended%C3%A2-spectrum%C3%A2-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-bacteria-isolated-from-hospital-wastewaters-rivers-and-aquaculture-sources-in-nigeria
#5
Olawale Olufemi Adelowo, Serena Caucci, Omowunmi Abosede Banjo, Ozioma Chinyere Nnanna, Eunice Olubunmi Awotipe, Florence Bosede Peters, Obasola Ezekiel Fagade, Thomas U Berendonk
Untreated wastewater is a risk factor for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. However, little is known about the contribution of untreated wastewater to the burden of antibiotic resistance in the Nigerian environment. In this study, a total of 143 ceftazidime-/cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria isolated from untreated wastewater and untreated wastewater-contaminated surface and groundwater in Nigeria were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, integrons and integron gene cassettes by PCR...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138307/microdiversity-of-an-abundant-terrestrial-bacterium-encompasses-extensive-variation-in-ecologically-relevant-traits
#6
Alexander B Chase, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin L Brodie, Zulema Gomez-Lunar, Adam C Martiny, Jennifer B H Martiny
Much genetic diversity within a bacterial community is likely obscured by microdiversity within operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined by 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, it is unclear how variation within this microdiversity influences ecologically relevant traits. Here, we employ a multifaceted approach to investigate microdiversity within the dominant leaf litter bacterium, Curtobacterium, which comprises 7.8% of the bacterial community at a grassland site undergoing global change manipulations. We use cultured bacterial isolates to interpret metagenomic data, collected in situ over 2 years, together with lab-based physiological assays to determine the extent of trait variation within this abundant OTU...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136882/growth-of-escherichia-coli-on-the-gaas-001-surface
#7
Elnaz Nazemi, Walid M Hassen, Eric H Frost, Jan J Dubowski
Detection of pathogenic bacteria and monitoring their susceptibility to antibiotics are of great importance in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutical research, as well as water and food industries. In order to develop a photonic biosensor for detection of bacteria by taking advantage of photoluminescence (PL) of GaAs-based devices, we have investigated the capture and growth of Escherichia coli K12 on bare and biofunctionalized surfaces of GaAs (001) - a material of interest for capping different semiconductor microstructures...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133387/insights-into-functions-of-the-h-channel-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-from-atomistic-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#8
Vivek Sharma, Pablo G Jambrina, Markus Kaukonen, Edina Rosta, Peter R Rich
Proton pumping A-type cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) terminates the respiratory chains of mitochondria and many bacteria. Three possible proton transfer pathways (D, K, and H channels) have been identified based on structural, functional, and mutational data. Whereas the D channel provides the route for all pumped protons in bacterial A-type CcOs, studies of bovine mitochondrial CcO have led to suggestions that its H channel instead provides this route. Here, we have studied H-channel function by performing atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the entire, as well as core, structure of bovine CcO in a lipid-solvent environment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127817/heavy-metals-detection-using-biosensor-cells-of-a-novel-marine-luminescent-bacterium-vibrio-sp-mm1-isolated-from-the-caspian-sea
#9
Mojtaba Mohseni, Jaber Abbaszadeh, Shima-Sadat Maghool, Mohammad-Javad Chaichi
Monitoring and assessing toxic materials which are being released into the environment along with wastewater is a growing concern in many industries. The current research describes a highly sensitive and rapid method for the detection of toxic concentrations of heavy metals in aquatic environments. Water samples were collected from southern coasts of the Caspian Sea followed by screening of luminescent bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis, including gene sequence of 16S rRNA, and biochemical tests were performed for identification of the isolate...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126315/packaging-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-bacteria-into-fecal-pellets-by-the-ciliate-tetrahymena-pyriformis
#10
Alix M Denoncourt, Valérie E Paquet, Steve J Charette
Mycobacteria are widespread microorganisms that live in various environments, including man-made water systems where they cohabit with protozoa. Environmental mycobacterial species give rise to many opportunistic human infections and can infect phagocytic protozoa. Protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates feeding on bacteria can sometimes get rid of non-digestible or pathogenic material by packaging it into secreted fecal pellets. Usually, packaged bacteria are still viable and are protected against chemical and physical stresses...
November 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126033/natural-attenuation-of-chlorinated-ethenes-in-hyporheic-zones-a-review-of-key-biogeochemical-processes-and-in-situ-transformation-potential
#11
REVIEW
John J Weatherill, Siavash Atashgahi, Uwe Schneidewind, Stefan Krause, Sami Ullah, Nigel Cassidy, Michael O Rivett
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water...
October 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125596/contrasting-the-relative-importance-of-species-sorting-and-dispersal-limitation-in-shaping-marine-bacterial-versus-protist-communities
#12
Wenxue Wu, Hsiao-Pei Lu, Akash Sastri, Yi-Chun Yeh, Gwo-Ching Gong, Wen-Chen Chou, Chih-Hao Hsieh
A central challenge in microbial ecology is to understand the underlying mechanisms driving community assembly, particularly in the continuum of species sorting and dispersal limitation. However, little is known about the relative importance of species sorting and dispersal limitation in shaping marine microbial communities; especially, how they are related to organism types/traits and water depth. Here, we used variation partitioning and null model analysis to compare mechanisms driving bacterial and protist metacommunity dynamics at the basin scale in the East China Sea, based on MiSeq paired-end sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 18S rDNA, respectively, in surface, deep chlorophyll maximum and bottom layers...
November 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121118/diversity-and-characterization-of-bacteria-associated-with-the-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-crab-austinograea-sp-comparing-with-those-of-two-shallow-water-crabs-by-16s-ribosomal-dna-analysis
#13
Na Zhang, Chengwen Song, Minxiao Wang, Yuan Liu, Min Hui, Zhaoxia Cui
For deep-sea hydrothermal vent crabs, recent investigations have revealed some epibiotic bacteria, but no study has described the bacterial community associated with the gill and intestine. In this study, the microbiota attached to the gill and intestine of the hydrothermal vent crab Austinograea sp. and two shallow-water crab species (Eriocheir sinensis and Portunus trituberculatus) were compared by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. The highest and lowest diversity in bacterial communities were observed in the gill and intestine of Austinograea sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117584/environmental-and-health-effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate
#14
REVIEW
A H C Van Bruggen, M M He, K Shin, V Mai, K C Jeong, M R Finckh, J G Morris
The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health...
November 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116763/interaction-of-human-enteric-viruses-with-microbial-compounds-implication-for-virus-persistence-and-disinfection-treatments
#15
Prunelle Waldman, Alba Meseguer, Francoise S Lucas, Laurent Moulin, Sébastien Wurtzer
Although the interaction between phages and bacteria has already been well described, it only recently emerged that human viruses also interact with bacteria in the mammalian gut. We studied whether this interaction could occur in tap water and thus confer enteric viruses protection against temperature and the classical disinfection methods used in drinking water production. We demonstrated that the addition of lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan of bacterial origin to enterovirus provides thermal protection through stabilization of the viral capsid...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116537/critical-analysis-of-excessive-utilization-of-crude-protein-in-ruminants-ration-impact-on-environmental-ecosystem-and-opportunities-of-supplementation-of-limiting-amino-acids-a-review
#16
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Rab N Soomro, Khawar Hayat, Mohamed A E Mohamed, Bello M Bodinga, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Protein quality plays a key role than quantity in growth, production, and reproduction of ruminants. Application of high concentration of dietary crude protein (CP) did not balance the proportion of these limiting amino acids (AA) at duodenal digesta of high producing dairy cow. Thus, dietary supplementation of rumen-protected AA is recommended to sustain the physiological, productive, and reproductive performance of ruminants. Poor metabolism of high CP diets in rumen excretes excessive nitrogen (N) through urine and feces in the environment...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113502/osteogenic-and-antibacterial-properties-of-vancomycin-laden-mesoporous-bioglass-plga-composite-scaffolds-for-bone-regeneration-in-infected-bone-defects
#17
Tao Cheng, Haiyun Qu, Guoyou Zhang, Xianlong Zhang
Chronic osteomyelitis and infected bone defects are substantial challenges faced by orthopaedic surgeons. In this study, vancomycin was loaded into mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) to form a local antibiotic delivery system and then a bone tissue-engineering scaffold combining MBG and poly-(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was prepared by freeze-drying fabrication. In vitro degradation and water contact angle analysis suggested that the MBG-incorporated PLGA scaffold exhibited controlled degradability, stabilizing the pH of the surrounding environment and improved the hydrophilicity...
November 7, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107775/bacterial-archaeal-and-fungal-community-responses-to-acid-mine-drainage-laden-pollution-in-a-rice-paddy-soil-ecosystem
#18
Han Wang, Yufei Zeng, Chuling Guo, Yanping Bao, Guining Lu, John R Reinfelder, Zhi Dang
Lacking sufficient clean water, the paddy soils along the Hengshi River have suffered from long-term acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination. The impacted cropland is too heavily contaminated to grow food safely. The microbial communities inhabiting the environment play pivotal roles in the crop growth, health, and ecological services. In this study, the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in the impacted paddy soil were examined using high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that AMD irrigation considerably enriched the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria and the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota, while the fungal community was more stable...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107352/review-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-china-and-its-environment
#19
REVIEW
Min Qiao, Guang-Guo Ying, Andrew C Singer, Yong-Guan Zhu
Antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis linked to increased, and often unrestricted, antibiotic use in humans and animals. As one of the world's largest producers and consumers of antibiotics, China is witness to some of the most acute symptoms of this crisis. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widely distributed in surface water, sewage treatment plant effluent, soils and animal wastes. The emergence and increased prevalence of ARGs in the clinic/hospitals, especially carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, has raised the concern of public health officials...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104567/the-skin-mucus-microbial-community-of-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#20
Giusi Minniti, Live Heldal Hagen, Davide Porcellato, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Phillip B Pope, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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