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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926812/isotope-and-microbiome-data-provide-complementary-information-to-identify-natural-nitrate-attenuation-processes-in-groundwater
#1
Elena Hernández-Del Amo, Anna Menció, Frederic Gich, Josep Mas-Pla, Lluís Bañeras
Natural attenuation processes alleviate the impact of fertilization practices on groundwater resources. Therefore, identifying the occurrence of denitrification has become a requirement for water quality management. Several approaches are useful for this purpose, such as isotopic and microbiological methods, each of them providing distinct but complementary information about denitrification reactions, attenuation rates and their occurrence in the aquifer. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of both approaches to describe denitrification in a consolidated rock aquifer (limestone and marls), with a porosity related to fracture networks located in the northeastern sector of the Osona basin (NE Spain)...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925557/analysis-of-multiple-haloarchaeal-genomes-suggests-that-the-quinone-dependent-respiratory-nitric-oxide-reductase-is-an-important-source-of-nitrous-oxide-in-hypersaline-environments
#2
Javier Torregrosa-Crespo, Pedro González-Torres, Vanesa Bautista, Julia M Esclapez, Carmen Pire, Mónica Camacho, María José Bonete, David J Richardson, Nicholas J Watmough, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Microorganisms, including Bacteria and Archaea, play a key role in denitrification, which is the major mechanism by which fixed nitrogen returns to the atmosphere from soil and water. Whilst the enzymology of denitrification is well understood in Bacteria, the details of the last two reactions in this pathway, which catalyse the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) via nitrous oxide (N2 O) to nitrogen (N2 ), are little studied in Archaea, and hardly at all in haloarchaea. This work describes an extensive interspecies analysis of both complete and draft haloarchaeal genomes aimed at identifying the genes that encode respiratory nitric oxide reductases (Nors)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923406/negative-environmental-impacts-of-antibiotic-contaminated-effluents-from-pharmaceutical-industries
#3
Ana Bielen, Ana Šimatović, Josipa Kosić-Vukšić, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Sanja Babić, Tamara Jurina, Juan José González Plaza, Milena Milaković, Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923024/sero-epidemiology-study-of-leptospirosis-in-febrile-patients-from-terai-region-of-nepal
#4
Lalmani Regmi, Kishor Pandey, Meena Malla, Santosh Khanal, Basu Dev Pandey
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis. METHODS: We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922632/antibacterial-and-anti-biofouling-coating-on-hydroxyapatite-surface-based-on-peptide-modified-tannic-acid
#5
Xiao Yang, Pei Huang, Haihuan Wang, Shuang Cai, Yixue Liao, Ziqin Mo, Xinyuan Xu, Chunmei Ding, Changsheng Zhao, Jianshu Li
Hydroxyapatite-based implant is widely used in the fields of artificial teeth and bones. However, the problem of microbial communities on hydroxyapatite surfaces remain a great challenge. In order to inhibit bacterial adhesion and activity in a long term, a salivary acquired pellicle (SAP) bioinspired tannic acid (SAP3-TA) is synthesized and characterized. The SAP inspired peptide sequence DDDEEK has a good adsorption performance on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HA). Tannic acid (TA) is a natural polyphenolic compound that can be extracted from green tea, and it has been proved to have an effective antibacterial property...
September 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#6
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920165/distinctive-patterns-in-the-taxonomical-resolution-of-bacterioplankton-in-the-sediment-and-pore-waters-of-contrasted-freshwater-lakes
#7
J Keshri, A S Pradeep Ram, T Sime-Ngando
Bacteria assemblages in lake sediments play a key role in various biogeochemical processes, yet their association with interstitial pore waters has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we utilized Illumina next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the seasonal bacterial communities in the sediments and pore waters of three contrasted temperate freshwater lakes, namely Pavin, Aydat, and Grangent (French Massif Central). Despite occupying seemingly similar habitats, bacterial communities differed substantially between sediments and pore waters at all seasons with low sharing of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 6...
September 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919889/dehalococcoides-as-a-potential-biomarker-evidence-for-uncharacterized-organohalides-in-environmental-samples
#8
Qihong Lu, Ling Yu, Zhiwei Liang, Qingyun Yan, Zhili He, Tiangang Luan, Dawei Liang, Shanquan Wang
The massive production and improper disposal of organohalides resulted in worldwide contamination in soil and water. However, their environmental survey based on chromatographic methods was hindered by challenges in testing the extremely wide variety of organohalides. Dehalococcoides as obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria exclusively use organohalides as electron acceptors to support their growth, of which the presence could be coupled with organohalides and, therefore, could be employed as a biomarker of the organohalide pollution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#9
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919336/staphylococcus-aureus-dry-surface-biofilms-are-more-resistant-to-heat-treatment-than-traditional-hydrated-biofilms
#10
A Almatroudi, S Tahir, H Hu, D Chowdhury, I B Gosbell, S O Jensen, G S Whiteley, A K Deva, T Glasbey, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realised. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. AIM: To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry heat and wet heat treatments. METHODS: S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917915/synergistic-effect-of-chitosan-zinc-oxide-hybrid-nanoparticles-on-antibiofouling-and-water-disinfection-of-mixed-matrix-polyethersulfone-nanocomposite-membranes
#11
Iqra Munnawar, Sadia S Iqbal, Muhammad N Anwar, Mehwish Batool, Sheraz Tariq, Nosheen Faitma, Asim L Khan, Asad U Khan, Umair Nazar, Tahir Jamil, Nasir M Ahmad
Antifouling polyethersulfone (PES) membranes for water disinfection were fabricated by incorporating varying concentrations of carbohydrate polymer chitosan and Zinc oxide hybrid nanoparticles (CS-ZnO HNPS). The CS-ZnO HNPS were prepared using chemical precipitation method and were characterized using SEM, XRD and FTIR. The membranes were then fabricated by incorporating nanoparticles of CS-ZnO HNPS with three different concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% w/w in the casting solution of PES through phase inversion method...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917709/in-vitro-interactions-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-vibrio-harveyi
#12
María Reyes-Batlle, Alberto J Martín-Rodríguez, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic protozoa widely distributed in the environment. They are frequently found in water and soil samples, but they have also been reported to be associated with bacterial human pathogens such as Legionella spp. Campylobacter spp or Vibrio cholerae among others. Including within Vibrio spp. V. harveyi (Johnson and Shunk, 1936) is a bioluminescent marine bacteria which has been found swimming freely in tropical marine waters, being part of the stomach and intestine microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916459/variation-in-campylobacter-jejuni-culturability-in-presence-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#13
María Reyes-Batlle, Cecilia Girbau, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Aurora Fernández-Astorga, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#14
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916044/antibiotic-affinity-strategy-for-bioluminescent-detection-of-viable-gram-positive-bacteria-using-daptomycin-as-recognition-agent
#15
Mengyao Wang, Yue Wu, Yong He, Xiaoxiao Su, Hui Ouyang, Zhifeng Fu
A bioluminescent method was proposed for rapid detection of viable Gram-positive bacteria based on a novel antibiotic-affinity strategy on a magnetic beads (MBs) platform. Daptomycin, a highly efficient lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria, was used as a recognition agent to functionalize MBs. The daptomycin-functionalized MBs showed high capture and concentration efficiency for Gram-positive bacteria due to the strong binding between daptomycin and bacterial cell membrane in the presence of Ca(2+) ion...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915485/long-acting-and-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-gelatin-micro-nanofibers-for-wound-dressing
#16
Rui Shi, Huan Geng, Min Gong, Jingjing Ye, Chengai Wu, Xiaohua Hu, Liqun Zhang
Trimethoxysilylpropyl octadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (QAS), which forms facile bonds with hydroxyl groups, acts asa cationic antibacterial agent. In this work, QAS was introduced into a polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin hybrid in increasing concentrations to fabricate a long-acting and broad-spectrum antimicrobial micro/nanofiber membrane as a novel wound dressing. The physical interactions and chemical bonding between QAS/PCL and QAS/gelatin were demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915476/microbial-remediation-of-fluoride-contaminated-water-via-a-novel-bacterium-providencia-vermicola-kx926492
#17
Shraboni Mukherjee, Priyanka Sahu, Gopinath Halder
The present study emphasizes on the isolation, identification and characterization of a fluoride-resistant bacteria from contaminated groundwater of a severely affected rural area. The isolate was investigated for its possible role towards bioremediation of fluoride. Bacterial growth was determined by various carbon and nitrogen sources. Influence of parameters like initial fluoride concentration (5-25 mg L(-1)), pH (3-9) and temperature (15-42 °C) on fluoride removal by Providencia sp. KX926492 were also examined...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915336/the-microbiome-associated-with-two-synechococcus-ribotypes-at-different-levels-of-ecological-interaction
#18
Cristiana Callieri, Stefano Amalfitano, Gianluca Corno, Andrea Di Cesare, Roberto Bertoni, Ester Eckert
Planktonic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitously distributed in marine and fresh waters, substantially contributing to total carbon fixation on a global scale. While their ecological relevance is acknowledged, increasing resolution in molecular techniques allows disentangling cyanobacteria's role at the micro-scale, where complex microbial interactions may drive the overall community assembly. The interplay between phylogenetically different Synechococcus clades and their associated bacterial communities can affect their ecological fate and susceptibility to protistan predation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914802/phylogenetic-analysis-and-antimicrobial-profiles-of-cultured-emerging-opportunistic-pathogens-phyla-actinobacteria-and-proteobacteria-identified-in-hot-springs
#19
Jocelyn Leonie Jardine, Akebe Luther King Abia, Vuyo Mavumengwana, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913976/hplc-hrms-for-the-characterization-of-transformation-products-of-ionic-liquids
#20
Debora Fabbri, Paola Calza, Giorgio Noè, Valentina Santoro, Claudio Medana
RATIONALE: Ionic liquids (ILs) are a subject of active research in the field of alternative solvents. We studied the behaviour of a piperidine IL, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPA), through the elucidation of its transformation products (TPs) in water. METHODS: The transformation pathways of BMPA were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap instrument on the basis of mass defect filtering...
September 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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