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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155374/testing-the-waters-from-moringa-seeds-to-fruit-peels-researchers-are-seeking-out-new-ways-to-clean-up-the-world-s-drinking-water
#1
Wudan Yan
Water on Earth-in our oceans, rivers, lakes, and wetlands-might seem plentiful, but water that is clean and safe enough to drink actually isn't so abundant. Nearly one in ten people still lacks access to safe water worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. In some of the world's most remote and impoverished communities, people live with no taps, showers, flushing toilets, or nearby springs, making it difficult to keep water supplies safe from bacteria, chemicals, and particulates. Moreover, access to clean drinking water isn't just a problem in the developing world; groundwater in developed countries is typically used far more quickly than it is being replenished...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155157/synthesis-characterization-and-the-antifungal-activity-of-chitosan-derivatives-containing-urea-groups
#2
Jingjing Zhang, Wenqiang Tan, Zhenpeng Zhang, Yinping Song, Qing Li, Fang Dong, Zhanyong Guo
As an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, chitosan has been drawing broad attention due to its natural properties. For the further utilization of chitosan, chemical modification can be applied in improving its water solubility and the bioactivities. In this study, four chitosan derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of chloracetyl chitosan derivative with quaternary ammonium salt (CTCS) and urea groups bearing 4-amino-pyridine, including BCTCS, 2CBCTCS, 3CBCTCS, and 4CBCTCS. The structure characteristics of synthesized products were established based on FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155033/the-gut-virome-of-the-protochordate-model-organism-ciona-intestinalis-subtype-a
#3
Brittany A Leigh, Anni Djurhuus, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
The identification of host-specific bacterial and viral communities associated with diverse animals has led to the concept of the metaorganism, which defines the animal and all of its associated microbes as a single unit. Here we sequence the viruses found in the gut (i.e., the gut virome) of the marine invertebrate model system, Ciona intestinalis subtype A, in samples collected one year apart. We present evidence for a host-associated virome that is distinct from the surrounding seawater and contains some temporally-stable members...
November 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154736/lactobacilli-fermented-cow-s-milk-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-memory-impairment-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Nurul Huda Musa, Vasudevan Mani, Siong Meng Lim, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154538/enhanced-removal-of-dissolved-hg-ii-cd-ii-and-au-iii-from-water-by-bacillus-subtilis-bacterial-biomass-containing-an-elevated-concentration-of-sulfhydryl-sites
#5
Qiang Yu, Jeremy B Fein
In this study, the sorption of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Au(III) onto Bacillus subtilis biomass with an elevated concentration of sulfhydryl sites, induced by adding excess glucose to the growth medium (termed 'High Sulfhydryl Bacillus subtilis' or HSBS) was compared to that onto B. subtilis biomass with a low concentration of sulfhydryl sites (termed 'Low Sulfhydryl Bacillus subtilis' or LSBS) and to sorption onto a commercially available cation exchange resin. Our results show that HSBS exhibits sorption capacities for the three studied metals that are two to five times greater than the sorption capacities of LSBS for these metals...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154153/effects-of-temperature-and-hrt-on-performance-of-a-novel-insulated-anaerobic-filter-iaf-system-incorporated-with-the-waste-heat-input-for-building-wastewater-treatment
#6
Chalearn Bouted, Chavalit Ratanatamskul
Effects of temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of the novel insulated anaerobic filter system (IAF) incorporated with the waste heat input in treating building wastewater were investigated. In this study, an electric heater was used to simulate the waste heat input from air conditioner to the IAF system. The wastewater was collected from an office building in Phitsanulok province, Thailand. The HRTs of IAF system were varied to 9, 18 and 27 h, whereas the water temperatures were raised from 30 °C to 35 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C by electric heating to the IAF tank with the covered insulator...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153875/the-role-of-operating-parameters-and-oxidative-damage-mechanisms-of-advanced-chemical-oxidation-processes-in-the-combat-against-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-resistance-genes-present-in-urban-wastewater
#7
REVIEW
I Michael-Kordatou, P Karaolia, D Fatta-Kassinos
An upsurge in the study of antibiotic resistance in the environment has been observed in the last decade. Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly clear that urban wastewater is a key source of antibiotic resistance determinants, i.e. antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB&ARGs). Urban wastewater reuse has arisen as an important component of water resources management in the European Union and worldwide to address prolonged water scarcity issues. Especially, biological wastewater treatment processes (i...
October 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153521/efficacy-of-colostrum-replacer-versus-maternal-colostrum-on-immunological-status-health-and-growth-of-preweaned-dairy-calves
#8
A Lago, M Socha, A Geiger, D Cook, N Silva-Del-Río, C Blanc, R Quesnell, C Leonardi
Commercially available colostrum replacers (CR) are commonly used when maternal colostrum (MC) is unavailable, for managerial convenience, to ensure quality consistency at first feeding, or in disease control and eradication programs. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of feeding First Day Formula (Accelerated Genetics, Baraboo, WI) CR versus pooled MC on immunological status, growth, and health of preweaned dairy calves. A total of 1,220 Jersey and Jersey × Holstein calves born on a California Central Valley dairy farm were assigned after birth to receive either CR or MC following a systematic allocation procedure...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153257/pseudomonas-silesiensis-sp-nov-strain-a3-t-isolated-from-a-biological-pesticide-sewage-treatment-plant-and-analysis-of-the-complete-genome-sequence
#9
Michał A Kaminski, Ewa M Furmanczyk, Adam Sobczak, Andrzej Dziembowski, Leszek Lipinski
Microorganisms classified in to the Pseudomonas genus are a ubiquitous bacteria inhabiting variety of environmental niches and have been isolated from soil, sediment, water and different parts of higher organisms (plants and animals). Members of this genus are known for their metabolic versatility and are able to utilize different chemical compounds as a source of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus, which makes them an interesting microorganism for bioremediation or bio-transformation. Moreover, Pseudomonas sp...
November 3, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153154/a-100-year-review-from-ascorbic-acid-to-zinc-mineral-and-vitamin-nutrition-of-dairy-cows
#10
W P Weiss
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152703/multiplex-pcr-to-detect-bacteriophages-from-natural-whey-cultures-of-buffalo-milk-and-characterisation-of-two-phages-active-against-lactococcus-lactis-%C3%AE-apr-1-and-%C3%AE-apr-2
#11
Giuseppe Aprea, William Michael Mullan, Nicoletta Murru, Gerald Fitzgerald, Marialuisa Buonanno, Maria Luisa Cortesi, Vincenza Annunziata Prencipe, Giacomo Migliorati
This work investigated bacteriophage induced starter failures in artisanal buffalo Mozzarella production plants in Southern Italy. Two hundred and ten samples of whey starter cultures were screened for bacteriophage infection. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed phage infection in 28.56% of samples, all showing acidification problems during cheese making. Based on DNA sequences, bacteriophages for Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), Lactobacillus delbruekii (L. delbruekii) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151997/genetic-investigation-of-beta-lactam-associated-antibiotic-resistance-among-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-water-sources
#12
Reza Ranjbar, Mehrdad Sami
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is an important factor threatening human health. It is widely accepted that antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) released from humans and animals into the water sources, can introduce their resistance genes into the natural bacterial community. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of blaTEM, blaCTX, blaSHV, blaOXA and blaVEB associated-antibiotic resistance among E. coli bacteria isolated from different water resources in Iran...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151644/preparation-characterization-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-chitosan-silver-nanocomposites-films-against-fish-pathogenic-bacteria-and-fungi
#13
S H S Dananjaya, D C M Kulatunga, G I Godahewa, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Chulhong Oh, Madurani Edussuriya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa
Abstract: Development of nanostructured films using natural polymers and metals has become a considerable interest in various biomedical applications. Objective of the present study was to develop silver nano particles (AgNPs) embedded chitosan films with antimicrobial properties. Based on the Ag content, two types of chitosan silver nano films, named as CAgNfs-12 (12 mM) and CAgNfs-52 (52 mM) were prepared and characterized. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images of two CAgNfs showed the circular AgNPs, which were uniformly embedded and distributed in the matrix of chitosan films...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151640/improved-sprouting-and-growth-of-mung-plants-in-chromate-contaminated-soils-treated-with-marine-strains-of-staphylococcus-species
#14
Elroy J Pereira, Suzana Fonseca, Ram M Meena, Nagappa Ramaiah
Marine bacteria possess a wide variety of bioremediation potential which is beneficial environmentally and economically. In this study, bacterial isolates from marine waters were screened for tolerance and growth in high concentrations of chromate (Cr(6+)). Two isolates, capable of tolerating Cr(6+) concentrations 300 µg mL(-1) or higher, and found to completely reduce 20 µg mL(-1) Cr(6+) were grown in Cr(6+) (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) spiked garden soil. Notably, both facilitated normal germination and growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seeds, which could hardly germinate in Cr(6+) spiked garden soil without either of these bacteria...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150889/novel-aqueous-oil-in-water-emulsions-containing-extracts-of-natural-coniferous-resins-are-strongly-antimicrobial-against-enterobacteria-staphylococci-and-yeasts-as-well-as-on-bacterial-biofilms
#15
Elias Haapakorva, Thomas Holmbom, Atte von Wright
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial properties of novel aqueous natural rapeseed oil/saline emulsions containing different soluble components of spruce resin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The composition of aqueous resin emulsions was analyzed by GC-MS and their antimicrobial properties were studied with challenge tests and with turbidometric assays. The emulsions were strongly antimicrobial against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including MRSA) as well as common yeasts...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150501/glna-truncation-in-salmonella-enterica-results-in-a-small-colony-variant-phenotype-attenuated-host-cell-entry-and-reduced-expression-of-flagellin-and-spi-1-associated-effector-genes
#16
Philipp Aurass, Juliane Düvel, Susanne Karste, Ulrich Nübel, Wolfgang Rabsch, Antje Flieger
Many pathogenic bacteria use sophisticated survival strategies to overcome harsh environmental conditions. One is the formation of slow-growing subpopulations termed small colony variants (SCVs). Here we characterize an SCV, which spontaneously emerged from an axenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium water culture. We found that the SCV harbors a frameshift mutation in the glutamine synthetase gene glnA leading to a ∼90% truncation of the corresponding protein. Glutamine synthetase, a central enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, converts glutamate and ammonia to glutamine...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150500/dynamics-of-heterotrophic-bacterial-assemblages-within-synechococcus-cultures
#17
Qiang Zheng, Yu Wang, Rui Xie, Andrew S Lang, Yanting Liu, Jiayao Lu, Xiaodong Zhang, Jun Sun, Curtis A Suttle, Nianzhi Jiao
Interactions between photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are central to the marine microbial ecosystem. Lab cultures of one of the dominant marine photoautotrophs, Synechococcus, have historically been difficult to render axenic, presumably because these bacteria depend upon other organisms to grow in these conditions. These tight associations between Synechococcus and heterotrophic bacteria represent a good, relevant system to study interspecies interactions. Ten individual Synechococcus strains, isolated from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters, were chosen for investigation...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149671/silver-nanoparticles-stimulate-the-proliferation-of-sulfate-reducing-bacterium-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#18
Zhaoyu Chen, Ji Lu, Shu-Hong Gao, Min Jin, Philip L Bond, Ping Yang, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
The intensive use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in cosmetics and textiles causes their release into sewer networks of urban water systems. Although a few studies have investigated antimicrobial activities of nanoparticles against environmental bacteria, little is known about potential impacts of the released AgNPs on sulfate reducing bacteria in sewers. Here, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hidenborough (D. vulgaris), a typical sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) in sewer systems...
November 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148919/bacterial-flora-analysis-of-coliforms-in-sewage-river-water-and-ground-water-using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#19
Yoshihiro Suzuki, Kouki Niina, Tomonori Matsuwaki, Kei Nukazawa, Atsushi Iguchi
The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148917/evaluation-of-antibacterial-activity-and-toxic-metal-removal-of-chemically-synthesized-magnetic-iron-oxide-titanium-coated-nanoparticles-and-application-in-bacterial-treatment
#20
Yasser A M Abdulhady, Mona M El-Shazly, Reham F El-Kased
Co-precipitation method was used for preparation of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles coated by titanium dioxide according to divalent salts used. The average size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated by titanium dioxide measured by particle size analyzer, ranged approximately between 20 nm and 100 nm with mean particle size of 60 nm. Characterization of the prepared nanoparticles was done by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscope indicating the sole existence of inverse cubic spinel phase of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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