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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352745/negative-supercoiling-of-dna-by-gyrase-is-inhibited-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-during-adaptation-to-acid-stress
#1
Aoife M Colgan, Heather J Quinn, Stefani C Kary, Lesley A Mitchenall, Anthony Maxwell, Andrew Ds Cameron, Charles J Dorman
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4 to 5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates with upregulation of Salmonella genes involved in adaptation to the macrophage environment. Bacterial ATP levels did not increase during adaptation to acid pH unless the bacterium was deficient in MgtC, a cytoplasmic-membrane-located inhibitor of proton-driven F1 F0 ATP synthase activity. Inhibiting ATP binding by DNA gyrase and topo IV with novobiocin enhanced the effect of low pH on DNA relaxation...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352397/bio-prospectus-of-cadmium-bioadsorption-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-mitigate-health-and-environmental-impacts
#2
REVIEW
Narendra Kumar, Vandna Kumari, Chand Ram, Kiran Thakur, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350767/revealing-potential-functions-of-vbnc-bacteria-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-biodegradation
#3
REVIEW
Xiaomei Su, Ahmed Maruf Bamba, Shuo Zhang, Yunge Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Hongjun Lin, Linxian Ding
The bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites is not running smoothly, because of the lower activity of PAH-degrading bacteria in actual bioremediation applications. The phenomenon of "viable but non culturable" (VBNC) state may be a main limiting factor for their poor biodegradation capabilities of PAHs. Due to their abilities of entering into the VBNC state, most of bacterial populations with PAH-degradation potential remain unculturable. Resuscitation of VBNC bacteria will enhance the degradation capability of indigenous bacteria which will eventually obtain their better capabilities in environmental bioremediation...
January 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350440/abrupt-burial-imparts-persistent-changes-to-the-bacterial-diversity-of-turbidite-associated-sediment-profiles
#4
B K Harrison, A Myrbo, B E Flood, J V Bailey
The emplacement of subaqueous gravity-driven sediment flows imposes a significant physical and geochemical impact on underlying sediment and microbial communities. Although previous studies have established lasting mineralogical and biological signatures of turbidite deposition, the response of bacteria and archaea within and beneath debris flows remains poorly constrained. Both bacterial cells associated with the underlying sediment and those attached to allochthonous material must respond to substantially altered environmental conditions and selective pressures...
January 19, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#5
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349105/draft-genome-sequence-of-brevibacterium-epidermidis-ez-k02-isolated-from-nitrocellulose-contaminated-wastewater-environments
#6
Elvira E Ziganshina, Waleed S Mohammed, Swapnil P Doijad, Elena I Shagimardanova, Natalia E Gogoleva, Ayrat M Ziganshin
Brevibacterium spp. are aerobic, nonbranched, asporogenous, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which may exhibit a rod-coccus cycle when cells get older and can be found in various environments. ​Several Brevibacterium species have industrial importance and are capable of biotransformation of various contaminants. Here we describe the draft genome sequence of Brevibacterium epidermidis EZ-K02 isolated from nitrocellulose-contaminated wastewater environments. The genome comprises 3,885,924 bp, with a G + C content of 64...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348510/genome-and-secretome-analysis-of-pochonia-chlamydosporia-provide-new-insight-into-egg-parasitic-mechanisms
#7
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348211/membrane-protein-insertion-through-a-mitochondrial-%C3%AE-barrel-gate
#8
Alexandra I C Höhr, Caroline Lindau, Christophe Wirth, Jian Qiu, David A Stroud, Stephan Kutik, Bernard Guiard, Carola Hunte, Thomas Becker, Nikolaus Pfanner, Nils Wiedemann
The biogenesis of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Gram-negative bacteria requires the insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membranes. Homologous Omp85 proteins are essential for membrane insertion of β-barrel precursors. It is unknown if precursors are threaded through the Omp85-channel interior and exit laterally or if they are translocated into the membrane at the Omp85-lipid interface. We have mapped the interaction of a precursor in transit with the mitochondrial Omp85-channel Sam50 in the native membrane environment...
January 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346942/transitions-in-optimal-adaptive-strategies-for-populations-in-fluctuating-environments
#9
Andreas Mayer, Thierry Mora, Olivier Rivoire, Aleksandra M Walczak
Biological populations are subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Different adaptive strategies can allow them to cope with these fluctuations: specialization to one particular environmental condition, adoption of a generalist phenotype that compromises between conditions, or population-wise diversification (bet hedging). Which strategy provides the largest selective advantage in the long run depends on the range of accessible phenotypes and the statistics of the environmental fluctuations. Here, we analyze this problem in a simple mathematical model of population growth...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346623/a-large-scale-field-study-of-bacterial-communities-in-cereal-aphid-populations-across-morocco
#10
Samir Fakhour, Jérôme Ambroise, François Renoz, Vincent Foray, Jean-Luc Gala, Thierry Hance
Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346541/practical-implications-of-erythromycin-resistance-gene-diversity-on-surveillance-and-monitoring-of-resistance
#11
Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth L Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Heather K Allen, Schuyler D Smith, Adina Howe
Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346534/microbial-community-structure-of-sea-spray-aerosols-at-three-california-beaches
#12
Katherine Graham, Linsey C Marr, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
We characterized the microbial communities in SSA, water, and sand of three beaches in central California (Cowell Beach, Baker Beach, and Lovers Point) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Average concentrations of 16S rRNA genes in SSA ranged from 2.4 × 104 to 1.4 × 105 gene copies per m3 of air. A total of 9,781 distinct OTUs were identified in SSA and of these, 1,042 OTUs were found in SSA of all beaches. SSA microbial communities included marine taxa, as well as some associated with the terrestrial environment...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343832/infection-dynamics-of-insecticide-degrading-symbionts-from-soil-to-insects-in-response-to-insecticide-spraying
#13
Hideomi Itoh, Tomoyuki Hori, Yuya Sato, Atsushi Nagayama, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Insecticide resistance is a serious concern in modern agriculture, and an understanding of the underlying evolutionary processes is pivotal to prevent the problem. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris, a notorious pest of leguminous crops, acquires a specific Burkholderia symbiont from the environment every generation, and harbors the symbiont in the midgut crypts. The symbiont's natural role is to promote insect development but the insect host can also obtain resistance against the insecticide fenitrothion (MEP) by acquiring MEP-degrading Burkholderia from the environment...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343830/biological-rejuvenation-of-iron-oxides-in-bioturbated-marine-sediments
#14
Jacob P Beam, Jarrod J Scott, Sean M McAllister, Clara S Chan, James McManus, Filip J R Meysman, David Emerson
The biogeochemical cycle of iron is intricately linked to numerous element cycles. Although biological processes that catalyze the reductive side of the iron cycle are established, little is known about microbial oxidative processes on iron cycling in sedimentary environments-resulting in the formation of iron oxides. Here we show that a potential source of sedimentary iron oxides originates from the metabolic activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria from the class Zetaproteobacteria, presumably enhanced by burrowing animals in coastal sediments...
January 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343413/exposure-to-and-colonisation-by-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-uk-coastal-water-users-environmental-surveillance-exposure-assessment-and-epidemiological-study-beach-bum-survey
#15
Anne F C Leonard, Lihong Zhang, Andrew J Balfour, Ruth Garside, Peter M Hawkey, Aimee K Murray, Obioha C Ukoumunne, William H Gaze
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users...
December 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342145/the-gram-negative-bacterial-periplasm-size-matters
#16
Samuel I Miller, Nina R Salama
Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by two membrane bilayers separated by a space termed the periplasm. The periplasm is a multipurpose compartment separate from the cytoplasm whose distinct reducing environment allows more efficient and diverse mechanisms of protein oxidation, folding, and quality control. The periplasm also contains structural elements and important environmental sensing modules, and it allows complex nanomachines to span the cell envelope. Recent work indicates that the size or intermembrane distance of the periplasm is controlled by periplasmic lipoproteins that anchor the outer membrane to the periplasmic peptidoglycan polymer...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340947/the-impact-of-depuration-on-mussel-hepatopancreas-bacteriome-composition-and-predicted-metagenome
#17
J A Rubiolo, A Lozano-Leon, R Rodriguez-Souto, N Fol Rodríguez, M R Vieytes, L M Botana
Due to the rapid elimination of bacteria through normal behaviour of filter feeding and excretion, the decontamination of hazardous contaminating bacteria from shellfish is performed by depuration. This process, under conditions that maximize shellfish filtering activity, is a useful method to eliminate microorganisms from bivalves. The microbiota composition in bivalves reflects that of the environment of harvesting waters, so quite different bacteriomes would be expected in shellfish collected in different locations...
January 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340853/do-bioresorbable-polyesters-have-antimicrobial-properties
#18
Lukas Gritsch, Christopher Lovell, Wolfgang H Goldmann, Aldo R Boccaccini
Biodegradable and bioresorbable polyesters (BBPEs) are a widespread class of aliphatic polymers with a plethora of applications in the medical field. Some reports speculate that these polymers have intrinsic antibacterial activity as a consequence of their acidic degradation by-products. The release of organic acids as a result of the hydrolytic degradation of BBPEs in vivo and the resulting pH drop could be an effective inhibitor of the growth of pathogens in the local environment adjacent to BBPE-based devices...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340254/response-of-methane-production-via-propionate-oxidation-to-carboxylated-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-in-paddy-soil-enrichments
#19
Jianchao Zhang, Xingxuan Xia, Siliang Li, Wei Ran
Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) have become a growing concern in terms of their fate and toxicity in aqueous environments. Methane (CH4) is a major product of organic matter degradation in waterlogged environments. In this study, we determined the effect of MWCNTs-COOH on the production of CH4 from propionate oxidation in paddy soil enrichments. The results showed that the methanogenesis from propionate degradation was accelerated in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. In addition, the rates of CH4 production and propionate degradation increased with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339823/phosphate-insensitive-aminophosphonate-mineralisation-within-oceanic-nutrient-cycles
#20
Jason P Chin, John P Quinn, John W McGrath
Many areas of the ocean are nutrient-poor yet support large microbial populations, leading to intense competition for and recycling of nutrients. Organic phosphonates are frequently found in marine waters, but require specialist enzymes for catabolism. Previous studies have shown that the genes that encode these enzymes in marine systems are under Pho regulon control and so are repressed by inorganic phosphate. This has led to the conclusion that phosphonates are recalcitrant in much of the ocean, where phosphorus is not limiting despite the degradative genes being common throughout the marine environment...
January 16, 2018: ISME Journal
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