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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817637/genetic-diversity-of-the-o-antigens-of-proteus-species-and-the-development-of-a-suspension-array-for-molecular-serotyping
#1
Xiang Yu, Agnieszka Torzewska, Xinjie Zhang, Zhiqiu Yin, Dominika Drzewiecka, Hengchun Cao, Bin Liu, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Rozalski, Lei Wang
Proteus species are well-known opportunistic pathogens frequently associated with skin wound and urinary tract infections in humans and animals. O antigen diversity is important for bacteria to adapt to different hosts and environments, and has been used to identify serotypes of Proteus isolates. At present, 80 Proteus O-serotypes have been reported. Although the O antigen structures of most Proteus serotypes have been identified, the genetic features of these O antigens have not been well characterized. The O antigen gene clusters of Proteus species are located between the cpxA and secB genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816463/signaling-related-mobility-changes-in-bacterial-chemotaxis-receptors-revealed-by-solid-state-nmr
#2
Maryam Kashefi, Lynmarie K Thompson
Bacteria employ remarkable membrane-bound nanoarrays to sense their environment and direct their swimming. Arrays consist of chemotaxis receptor trimers of dimers that are bridged at their membrane-distal tips by rings of two cytoplasmic proteins, a kinase CheA and a coupling protein CheW. It is not clear how ligand binding to the periplasmic domain of the receptor deactivates the CheA kinase bound to the cytoplasmic tip ~300 Å away, but the mechanism is thought to involve changes in dynamics within the cytoplasmic domain...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#3
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#4
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814725/micromotor-enabled-active-drug-delivery-for-in-vivo-treatment-of-stomach-infection
#5
Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Pavimol Angsantikul, Jinxing Li, Miguel Angel Lopez-Ramirez, Doris E Ramírez-Herrera, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Chuanrui Chen, Jorge Delezuk, Richard Samakapiruk, Valentin Ramez, Liangfang Zhang, Joseph Wang
Advances in bioinspired design principles and nanomaterials have led to tremendous progress in autonomously moving synthetic nano/micromotors with diverse functionalities in different environments. However, a significant gap remains in moving nano/micromotors from test tubes to living organisms for treating diseases with high efficacy. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, in vivo therapeutic micromotors application for active drug delivery to treat gastric bacterial infection in a mouse model using clarithromycin as a model antibiotic and Helicobacter pylori infection as a model disease...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814720/seasonal-total-methane-depletion-in-limestone-caves
#6
Chris L Waring, Stuart I Hankin, David W T Griffith, Michael A Kertesz, Victoria Kobylski, Neil L Wilson, Nicholas V Coleman, Graham Kettlewell, Robert Zlot, Michael Bosse, Graham Bell
Methane concentration in caves is commonly much lower than the external atmosphere, yet the cave CH4 depletion causal mechanism is contested and dynamic links to external diurnal and seasonal temperature cycles unknown. Here, we report a continuous 3-year record of cave methane and other trace gases in Jenolan Caves, Australia which shows a seasonal cycle of extreme CH4 depletion, from ambient ~1,775 ppb to near zero during summer and to ~800 ppb in winter. Methanotrophic bacteria, some newly-discovered, rapidly consume methane on cave surfaces and in external karst soils with lifetimes in the cave of a few hours...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814284/effect-of-poly-hexamethylene-biguanide-hydrochloride-phmb-treated-non-sterile-medical-gloves-upon-the-transmission-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-carbapenem-resistant-e-coli-mrsa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-contact-surfaces
#7
S Ali, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of accidental contamination of the near-patient environment has potential to reduce acquisition of healthcare-associated infection(s). Although medical gloves should be removed when soiled or touching the environment, compliance is variable. The use of antimicrobial-impregnated medical gloves could reduce the horizontal-transfer of bacterial contamination between surfaces. AIM: Determine the activity of antimicrobial-impregnated gloves against common hospital pathogens: Streptococcus pyogenes, carbapenem-resistant E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812698/urbanization-erodes-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-and-may-cause-microbial-communities-to-converge
#8
Dietrich J Epp Schmidt, Richard Pouyat, Katalin Szlavecz, Heikki Setälä, D Johan Kotze, Ian Yesilonis, Sarel Cilliers, Erzsébet Hornung, Miklós Dombos, Stephanie A Yarwood
Urbanization alters the physicochemical environment, introduces non-native species and causes ecosystem characteristics to converge. It has been speculated that these alterations contribute to loss of regional and global biodiversity, but so far most urban studies have assessed macro-organisms and reported mixed evidence for biodiversity loss. We studied five cities on three continents to assess the global convergence of urban soil microbial communities. We determined the extent to which communities of bacteria, archaea and fungi are geographically distributed, and to what extent urbanization acts as a filter on species diversity...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811613/transcriptomic-analysis-of-nickel-exposure-in-sphingobium-sp-ba1-cells-using-rna-seq
#9
M Volpicella, C Leoni, C Manzari, M Chiara, E Picardi, E Piancone, F Italiano, A D'Erchia, M Trotta, D S Horner, G Pesole, L R Ceci
Nickel acts as cofactor for a number of enzymes of many bacteria species. Its homeostasis is ensured by proteins working as ion efflux or accumulation systems. These mechanisms are also generally adopted to counteract life-threatening high extra-cellular Ni(2+) concentrations. Little is known regarding nickel tolerance in the genus Sphingobium. We studied the response of the novel Sphingobium sp. ba1 strain, able to adapt to high Ni(2+) concentrations. Differential gene expression in cells cultured in 10 mM Ni(2+), investigated by RNA-seq analysis, identified 118 differentially expressed genes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811611/the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-six-essential-oils-and-their-cyto-genotoxicity-to-human-hel-12469-cells
#10
Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Domenico Pangallo, Katarína Kozics
Six essential oils (from oregano, thyme, clove, lavender, clary sage, and arborvitae) exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antimicrobial activity was shown against pathogenic (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) and environmental bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Pseudomonas fragi) and fungi (Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#11
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809851/grape-pomace-compost-harbors-organohalide-respiring-dehalogenimonas-species-with-novel-reductive-dehalogenase-genes
#12
Yi Yang, Steven A Higgins, Jun Yan, Burcu Şimşir, Karuna Chourey, Ramsunder Iyer, Robert L Hettich, Brett Baldwin, Dora M Ogles, Frank E Löffler
Organohalide-respiring bacteria have key roles in the natural chlorine cycle; however, most of the current knowledge is based on cultures from contaminated environments. We demonstrate that grape pomace compost without prior exposure to chlorinated solvents harbors a Dehalogenimonas (Dhgm) species capable of using chlorinated ethenes, including the human carcinogen and common groundwater pollutant vinyl chloride (VC) as electron acceptors. Grape pomace microcosms and derived solid-free enrichment cultures were able to dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to less chlorinated daughter products including ethene...
August 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809162/statistical-signatures-of-a-targeted-search-by-bacteria
#13
Hossein Jashnsaz, Gregory G Anderson, Steve Pressé
Chemoattractant gradients are rarely well-controlled in nature and recent attention has turned to bacterial chemotaxis toward typical bacterial food sources such as food patches or even bacterial prey. In environments with localized food sources reminiscent of a bacterium's natural habitat, striking phenomena -- such as the volcano effect or banding -- have been predicted or expected to emerge from chemotactic models. However, in practice, from limited bacterial trajectory data it is difficult to distinguish targeted searches from an untargeted search strategy for food sources...
August 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808742/a-more-comprehensive-community-of%C3%A2-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-aoa-revealed-by-genomic-dna-and-rna-analyses-of-amoa-gene-in-subtropical-acidic-forest-soils
#14
Ruo-Nan Wu, Han Meng, Yong-Feng Wang, Wensheng Lan, Ji-Dong Gu
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are the main nitrifiers which are well studied in natural environments, and AOA frequently outnumber AOB by orders especially in acidic conditions, making AOA the most promising ammonia oxidizers. The phylogeny of AOA revealed in related studies, however, often varied and hardly reach a consensus on functional phylotypes. The objective of this study was to compare ammonia-oxidizing communities by amoA gene and transcript based on both genomic DNA and RNA in extremely acidic forest soils (pH <4...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808131/intercellular-communication-via-the-comx-inducing-peptide-xip-of-streptococcus-mutans
#15
Justin Kaspar, Simon A M Underhill, Robert C Shields, Adrian Reyes, Suzanne Rosenzweig, Stephen J Hagen, Robert A Burne
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808127/the-components-of-the-unique-zur-regulon-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-mediate-cytoplasmic-zinc-handling
#16
Lucy Bütof, Christopher Schmidt-Vogler, Martin Herzberg, Cornelia Große, Dietrich H Nies
Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#17
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807561/mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-intact-francisella-bacteria-identifies-lipid-a-structure-remodeling-in-response-to-acidic-ph-stress
#18
Camille B Robert, Michael Thomson, Alain Vercellone, Francesca Gardner, Robert K Ernst, Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Jérôme Nigou
Structural modification of lipid A, the lipid anchor of LPS, is one of the strategies used by Gram-negative bacteria to evade host innate immunity. Francisella tularensis is a human pathogen that infects and replicates within phagocytic cells. It produces an atypical lipid A, whose structure precludes an efficient recognition by both innate immune players, TLR4 and cationic antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, a recent report indicates that the lipid A of Francisella (LVS vaccinal strain) undergoes polar modifications when bacteria are grown in human macrophages as compared to in broth...
August 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807417/fate-and-stability-of-polyamide-associated-bacterial-assemblages-after-their-passage-through-the-digestive-tract-of-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis
#19
Katharina Kesy, Alexander Hentzsch, Franziska Klaeger, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Stephanie Mothes, Matthias Labrenz
We examined whether bacterial assemblages inhabiting the synthetic polymer polyamide are selectively modified during their passage through the gut of Mytilus edulis in comparison to the biopolymer chitin with focus on potential pathogens. Specifically, we asked whether bacterial biofilms remained stable over a prolonged period of time and whether polyamide could thus serve as a vector for potential pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial diversity and identity were analysed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and sequencing of abundant bands...
August 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805634/honey-bee-gut-dysbiosis-a-novel-context-of-disease-ecology
#20
REVIEW
Kirk E Anderson, Vincent A Ricigliano
The honey bee microbiota has become a hot-spot of recent research. Highly co-evolved with its host, the hindgut microbiota of a worker honey bee consists of six bacterial species shown to occur reliably in particular proportions. Altered microbiota structure is associated with host deficiencies, and a variety of bacteria found throughout the hive environment can dominate the worker gut suppressing or displacing microbiota function. The synthesis presented here suggests environmental insults alter gut bacterial balance, leading to decreased host function and disease progression...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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