Read by QxMD icon Read

environment bacteria

Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jeroen Frank, Sebastian Lücker, Rolf H A M Vossen, Mike S M Jetten, Richard J Hall, Huub J M Op den Camp, Seyed Yahya Anvar
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are a group of strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. They are capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, thereby facilitating the release of fixed nitrogen into the atmosphere. The anammox process is thought to exert a profound impact on the global nitrogen cycle and has been harnessed as an environment-friendly method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. In this study, we present the first closed genome sequence of an anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis MBR1...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Lipeng Gu, Bin Huang, Chaochao Lai, Zhixiang Xu, Huan He, Xuejun Pan
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is shown to act as an electron shuttle mediator which enhances the microbial degradation of steroid estrogens in natural water. Batch studies were conducted with 17β‑estradiol (E2), quinone-reducing bacteria, DOM, and Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor. The results show that anthraquinone‑2‑disulfonate (AQS) approximately doubles the microbial degradation of E2 by DOM alone. The effect decreases sharply at AQS concentrations above 1.0mmol·L-1 . Over three oxidation-reduction cycles, the electron-shuttling ability of AQS and the E2 biodegradation rate decreased step by step...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Vatika Gupta, Kanika Jain, Rajni Garg, Anshu Malik, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Microbial colonization is an outcome of appropriate sensing and regulation of its gene expression. Bacillus anthracis adapts and thrives in its environment through complex regulatory mechanisms, among them, the two component systems (TCS). Many bacteria respond to the oxygen fluctuations via TCS. In the present work, a previously uncharacterized TCS, Bas1213-1214, of B. anthracis with a probable role in oxygen sensing has been characterized as a functional TCS. A substantial increase in the expression of Bas1213 was observed during the stationary growth phase, in presence of bicarbonate ions, and under oxidative stress thereby speculating the role of Bas1213 in toxin production and adaptive responses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yongjun Wei, Lei Zhang, Zhihua Zhou, Xing Yan
Polyketides (PKs) and nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are widely applied as drugs in use today, and one potential source for novel PKs and NRPs is the marine sediment microbes. However, the diversities of microbes and their PKs and NRPs biosynthetic genes in the marine sediment are rarely reported. In this study, 16S rRNA gene fragments of the Yellow Sea sediment were analyzed, demonstrating that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 62% of all the bacterial species and Actinobacteria bacteria which were seen as the typical PKs and NRPs producers only accounted for 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Karissa L Cross, Payal Chirania, Weili Xiong, Clifford J Beall, James G Elkins, Richard J Giannone, Ann L Griffen, Adam M Guss, Robert L Hettich, Snehal S Joshi, Elaine M Mokrzan, Roman K Martin, Igor B Zhulin, Eugene J Leys, Mircea Podar
The human oral microbiota encompasses representatives of many bacterial lineages that have not yet been cultured. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of previously uncultured Desulfobulbus oralis , the first human-associated representative of its genus. As mammalian-associated microbes rarely have free-living close relatives, D. oralis provides opportunities to study how bacteria adapt and evolve within a host. This sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium has adapted to the human oral subgingival niche by curtailing its physiological repertoire, losing some biosynthetic abilities and metabolic independence, and by dramatically reducing environmental sensing and signaling capabilities...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Sheryl O Fernandes, Lankalapalli Surya Prakash, Mechirackal Balan Binish, Kottekkatu Padinchati Krishnan, Palayil John Kurian
Mn-oxidizing potential of two metal-tolerant bacterial strains - Halomonas meridiana and Marinobacter algicola isolated from the South West Indian Ridge waters were compared at varying concentrations of Mn (II), i.e., 1, 10, and 100 μmol and mmol L-1 . Accompanying changes in their morphology and metabolism were also determined. At concentrations >1 mmol L-1 Mn (II), Mn-oxidizing potential of M. algicola was 2-7 times greater than that of H. meridiana. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that exposure to elevated metal content prompted bacterial cells especially those of M...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Paula M Tribelli, Nancy I López
It is well known that cold environments are predominant over the Earth and there are a great number of reports analyzing bacterial adaptations to cold. Most of these works are focused on characteristics traditionally involved in cold adaptation, such as the structural adjustment of enzymes, maintenance of membrane fluidity, expression of cold shock proteins and presence of compatible solutes. Recent works based mainly on novel "omic" technologies have presented evidence of the presence of other important features to thrive in cold...
March 13, 2018: Life
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Nicole R Falkowski, Ellen M Hunter, Shanna L Ashley, Gary B Huffnagle
RATIONALE: The "gut-lung axis" is commonly invoked to explain the microbiome's influence on lung inflammation. Yet the lungs harbor their own microbiome which is altered in respiratory disease. The relative influence of gut and lung bacteria on lung inflammation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if baseline lung immune tone reflects local (lung-lung) or remote (gut-lung) microbe-host interactions. METHODS: We compared lung, tongue, and cecal bacteria in forty healthy, genetically-identical 10-week old mice using 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Staffan Jacob, Louis Sallé, Lucie Zinger, Alexis S Chaine, Christine Ducamp, Léa Boutault, Andrew F Russell, Philipp Heeb
The microbiota has a broad range of impacts on host physiology and behaviour, pointing out the need to improve our comprehension of the drivers of host microbiota composition. Of particular interest is whether the microbiota is acquired passively, or whether and to what extent hosts themselves shape the acquisition and maintenance of their microbiota. In birds, the uropygial gland produces oily secretions used to coat feathers that have been suggested to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism regulating body feather microbiota...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Brittany Berdy, Amy L Spoering, Losee L Ling, Slava S Epstein
Most microbial species remain uncultivated, and modifying artificial nutrient media brings only an incremental increase in cultivability. We reasoned that an alternative way to cultivate species with unknown requirements is to use naturally occurring combinations of growth factors. To achieve this, we moved cultivation into the microbes' natural habitat by placing cells taken from varying environmental samples into diffusion chambers, which are then returned to nature for incubation. By miniaturizing the chambers and placing only one to several cells into each chamber, we can grow and isolate microorganisms in axenic culture in one step...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
Jana Kisková, Zuzana Perháčová, Ladislav Vlčko, Jana Sedláková, Simona Kvasnová, Peter Pristaš
Although neutral mine drainage is the less frequent subject of the interest than acid mine drainage, it can have adverse environmental effects caused mainly by precipitation of dissolved Fe. The aim of the study was to characterize the composition of bacterial population in environment with high concentration of iron and sulfur compounds represented by neutral mine drainage water of Elizabeth's shaft, Slovinky (Slovakia). Direct microscopic observations, cultivation methods, and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons were used to examine the bacterial population...
March 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Kati Saarinen, Jouni Laakso, Leena Lindström, Tarmo Ketola
Rapid environmental fluctuations are ubiquitous in the wild, yet majority of experimental studies mostly consider effects of slow fluctuations on organism. To test the evolutionary consequences of fast fluctuations, we conducted nine independent experimental evolution experiments with bacteria. Experimental conditions were same for all species, and we allowed them to evolve either in fluctuating temperature alternating rapidly between 20°C and 40°C or at constant 30°C temperature. After experimental evolution, we tested the performance of the clones in both rapid fluctuation and in constant environments (20°C, 30°C and 40°C)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Daniel R Garza, Marcel C van Verk, Martijn A Huynen, Bas E Dutilh
The environmental metabolome and metabolic potential of microorganisms are dominant and essential factors shaping microbial community composition. Recent advances in genome annotation and systems biology now allow us to semiautomatically reconstruct genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) of microorganisms based on their genome sequence1 . Next, growth of these models in a defined metabolic environment can be predicted in silico, mechanistically linking the metabolic fluxes of individual microbial populations to the community dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"