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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636823/how-bacteria-respond-to-material-stiffness-during-attachment-a-role-of-escherichia-coli-flagellar-motility
#1
Fangchao Song, Megan E Brasch, Hao Wang, James H Henderson, Karen Sauer, Dacheng Ren
Material stiffness has been shown to have potent effects on bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, response to material stiffness by Escherichia coli during attachment was investigated with biofilm assays and cell tracking using the Automated Contour-base Tracking for In Vitro Environments (ACTIVE) computational algorithm. By comparing the movement of E. coli cells attached on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces of different Young's moduli (0.1 and 2...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636585/microbiome-a-potential-component-in-the-origin-of-mental-disorders
#2
George B Stefano, Radek Ptacek, Jiri Raboch, Richard M Kream
It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both positive and negative, as with other intercellular processes. In this specific case, the phenomenal amount of information gained from combined bacterial genome could enhance communication between self and non-self cells...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636560/lipocalin-2-regulates-intestine-bacterial-survival-by-interplaying-with-siderophore-in-a-weaned-piglet-model-of-escherichia-coli-infection
#3
Bing-Xiu Guo, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Zhen-Shun Gan, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636488/workers-exposure-to-bioaerosols-from-three-different-types-of-composting-facilities
#4
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636325/challenges-and-hallmarks-of-establishing-alkylacetylphosphonates-as-probes-of-bacterial-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-synthase
#5
Sara Sanders, Ryan J Vierling, David Bartee, Alicia A DeColli, Mackenzie J Harrison, Joseph L Aklinski, Andrew T Koppisch, Caren L Freel Meyers
1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase catalyzes the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent formation of DXP from pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. DXP is at a metabolic branch point in bacteria, feeding into the methylerythritol phosphate pathway to indispensable isoprenoids and acting as a precursor for biosynthesis of essential cofactors in central metabolism, pyridoxal phosphate and ThDP, the latter of which is also required for DXP synthase catalysis. DXP synthase follows a unique random sequential mechanism and possesses an unusually large active site...
June 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636321/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-lysogenic-bacteriophage-and-metal-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#6
Jianhua Guo, Shu-Hong Gao, Ji Lu, Philip L Bond, Willy Verstraete, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of metal-based nanoparticles results in their continuous release into the environment, leading to potential risks for human health and microbial ecosystems. Although previous studies have indicated that nanoparticles may be toxic to microorganisms, there is a scarcity of data available to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms of inhibitory and biocidal effects of nanoparticles on microorganisms. This study used physiological experiments, microscopy, Live/Dead staining and the genome-wide RNA sequencing to investigate the multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the exposure of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#7
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#8
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634401/ohrr-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-senses-and-responds-to-intracellular-organic-hydroperoxide-stress
#9
Omar A Garnica, Kishore Das, Subramanian Dhandayuthapani
Organic hydroperoxide reductase regulator (OhrR) in bacteria is a sensor for organic hydroperoxide stress and a transcriptional regulator for the enzyme organic hydroperoxide reductase (Ohr). In this study we investigated, using a GFP reporter system, whether Mycobacterium smegmatis OhrR has the ability to sense and respond to intracellular organic hydroperoxide stress. It was observed that M. smegmatis strains bearing the pohr-gfpuv fusion construct were able to express GFP only in the absence of an intact ohrR gene, but not in its presence...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633473/experimental-evolution-and-the-adjustment-of-metabolic-strategies-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#10
Herwig Bachmann, Douwe Molenaar, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Bas Teusink
Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment...
June 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633052/disinfection-efficiencies-of-sage-and-spearmint-essential-oils-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-staphylococcus-aureus-cells-in-comparison-with-sodium-hypochlorite
#11
Dimitrios Vetas, Eleni Dimitropoulou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Efstathios Giaouris
Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632895/genome-mining-reveals-high-incidence-of-putative-lipopeptide-biosynthesis-nrps-pks-clusters-containing-fatty-acyl-amp-ligase-genes-in-biofilm-forming-cyanobacteria
#12
Tomáš Galica, Pavel Hrouzek, Jan Mareš
Cyanobacterial lipopeptides exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal bioactivities with potential for use in pharmaceutical research. However, due to their haemolytic activity and cytotoxic effects against human cells, they may pose a health issue if produced in substantial amounts in the environment. In bacteria, lipopeptides can be synthesized via several well-evidenced mechanisms. In one of them, fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) initiates the biosynthesis by activation of a fatty acyl residue. We have performed a bioinformatic survey of the cyanobacterial genomic information available in the public databases for the presence of FAAL-containing non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase (NRPS/PKS) biosynthetic clusters, as a genetic basis for lipopeptide biosynthesis...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632790/diversity-structure-of-culturable-bacteria-isolated-from-the-fildes-peninsula-king-george-island-antarctica-a-phylogenetic-analysis-perspective
#13
Gerardo González-Rocha, Gabriel Muñoz-Cartes, Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Celia A Lima, Mariana Domínguez-Yévenes, Helia Bello-Toledo, Cristián E Hernández
It has been proposed that Antarctic environments select microorganisms with unique biochemical adaptations, based on the tenet 'Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' by Baas-Becking. However, this is a hypothesis that has not been extensively evaluated. This study evaluated the fundamental prediction contained in this hypothesis-in the sense that species are structured in the landscape according to their local habitats-, using as study model the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable bacteria of Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#14
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631499/the-microbial-contamination-and-the-presence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-water-and-on-the-surfaces-of-public-recreation-water-facilities
#15
Karmen Godič Torkar, Mirjana Dražetić
The microbiological quality of bathing water and the surfaces of the surrounding pool platforms of two pools was estimated. ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water and surface samples were also studied. The water samples were satisfactory in 31 (86.1 %) out of 36 cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Escherichia coli were identified in only 2 (5.5 %) cases. There were no correlations between the HPC and number of enterobacteria in the pool water and those found in the surface samples...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631363/experimental-evolution-of-bacillus-subtilis
#16
REVIEW
Daniel R Zeigler, Wayne L Nicholson
The endospore-forming bacteria have persisted on earth perhaps 3Ga, leveraging the flexibility of their distinctive lifestyle to adapt to a remarkably wide range of environments. This process of adaptation can be investigated through the simple but powerful technique of laboratory evolution. Evolved strains can be analyzed by whole genome sequencing and an array of omics technologies. The intensively studied, genetically tractable endospore-former, Bacillus subtilis, is an ideal subject for laboratory evolution experiments...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631116/environmental-factors-and-zoonotic-pathogen-ecology-in-urban-exploiter-species
#17
REVIEW
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea H Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630803/putative-archaeal-viruses-from-the-mesopelagic-ocean
#18
Dean R Vik, Simon Roux, Jennifer R Brum, Ben Bolduc, Joanne B Emerson, Cory C Padilla, Frank J Stewart, Matthew B Sullivan
Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630130/how-a-genetically-stable-extremophile-evolves-modes-of-genome-diversification-in-the-archaeon-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#19
Dominic Mao, Dennis W Grogan
In order to analyze in molecular terms how Sulfolobus genomes diverge, damage-induced mutations and natural polymorphisms (PMs) were identified in laboratory constructs and wild-type isolates, respectively, of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Among wild-type isolates drawn from one local population, pairwise nucleotide divergence averaged 4 x 10(-6), which is about 0.15% of the corresponding divergence reported for Sulfolobus islandicus The most variable features of wild-type S. acidocaldarius genomes were homopolymer (mononucleotide) tracts and longer tandem repeats, consistent with the spontaneous mutations that occur under laboratory conditions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630071/albumin-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-and-alters-polymicrobial-interactions
#20
Allie Clinton Smith, Anne Rice, Bryan Sutton, Rebecca Gabrilska, Aimee K Wessel, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra P Rumbaugh
Polymicrobial interactions are complex and can influence the course of an infection, as is the case when two or more species exhibit a synergism that produces a disease state not seen with any of the individual species alone. Cell-to-cell signaling is key to many of these interactions, but little is understood about how the host environment influences polymicrobial interactions or signaling between bacteria. Chronic wounds are typically polymicrobial, with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the two most commonly isolated species...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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