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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726558/epidemiology-and-clinical-relevance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-intestinal-carriage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Julie Gagnaire, Paul O Verhoeven, Florence Grattard, Josselin Rigaill, Frédéric Lucht, Bruno Pozzetto, Philippe Berthelot, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers
Recent data highlight the importance of screening more than one site for improving the detection of S. aureus colonization. Intestinal carriage is frequently under-investigated and its clinical impact ought to be defined a better way. Areas covered. This review and meta-analysis provide an updated overview of prevalence, characteristics and clinical significance of S. aureus intestinal carriage in different populations, both for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus strains. Expert commentary. Intestinal S...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724560/accurate-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mixtures-utilizing-single-bacterial-duplex-droplet-digital-pcr
#2
Jun Luo, Junhua Li, Hang Yang, Junping Yu, Hongping Wei
Accurate and rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is needed to screen MRSA carriers and improve treatment. The current widely used duplex PCR methods are not able to differentiate MRSA from the co-existence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other methicillin-resistant Staphylococci In this study, we aimed to develop a direct method for accurate and rapid detection of MRSA in clinical samples from open environments, such as nasal swab. The new molecular assay is based on detecting the co-occurrence of nuc and mecA markers in a single bacterial cell by utilizing droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with a chimeric lysin ClyH for cell lysis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710350/environmental-surveillance-identifies-multiple-introductions-of-mrsa-cc398-in-an-equine-veterinary-hospital-in-the-uk-2011-2016
#3
Alessio Bortolami, Nicola J Williams, Catherine M McGowan, Padraig G Kelly, Debra C Archer, Michela Corrò, Gina Pinchbeck, Christine J Saunders, Dorina Timofte
Bacterial environmental and surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance was implemented from 2011-2016 in a UK Equine Referral Veterinary Hospital and identified 81 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. A cluster of MRSA SSIs occurred in early 2016 with the isolates confirmed as ST398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which prompted retrospective analysis of all MRSA isolates obtained from the environment (n = 62), SSIs (n = 13) and hand plates (n = 6) in the past five years...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706213/transmission-of-highly-virulent-community-associated-mrsa-st93-and-livestock-associated-mrsa-st398-between-humans-and-pigs-in-australia
#4
S Sahibzada, S Abraham, G W Coombs, S Pang, M Hernández-Jover, D Jordan, J Heller
Pigs have been recognised as a reservoir of livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in Europe, Asia and North America. However, little is known about the presence and distribution of MRSA in the Australian pig population and pig industry. This study describes the presence, distribution and molecular characteristics of the human adapted Australian CA-MRSA ST93 isolated from pigs, people, and the environment within a piggery. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, DNA microarray, whole genome sequencing, multi locus sequence typing, virulence and resistance gene characterization and phylogenetic analysis...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691287/effects-of-iodine-methionine-on-boar-sperm-quality-during-liquid-storage-at-17%C3%A2-c
#5
Q Fang, J Wang, Y Y Hao, H Li, J X Hu, G S Yang, J H Hu
Microbial environment is one of the important factors that affect the quality of preserved semen. Iodine methionine (IM), participating in the production and activation of metabolic enzymes, is a new type of amino acid chelate. To date, there has been no report to evaluate the effects of IM on boar semen preservation at 17°C. This study was designed to investigate the effects of IM on boar sperm quality and reproductive performance during liquid storage at 17°C and its antibacterial effect. Semen samples collected from six Yorkshire boars were diluted with basic liquid containing different concentrations of IM (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 μM)...
July 9, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691012/staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-differs-among-pig-lineages-and-is-associated-with-the-presence-of-other-staphylococcal-species
#6
Koen M Verstappen, Eveline Willems, Ad C Fluit, Birgitta Duim, Marc Martens, Jaap A Wagenaar
Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer in pigs, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular being a potential health risk to humans. To reduce the exposure to humans, the colonization in pigs should be reduced. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the susceptibility of pig lineages for S. aureus colonization, and if the absence of S. aureus could be associated with the presence or absence of other staphylococcal species. Nasal samples (n = 129) were obtained from seven different pig lineages in the Netherlands, France, and Germany...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687320/vancomycin-induced-biofilm-formation-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-is-associated-with-the-secretion-of-membrane-vesicles
#7
Xinlong He, Fenglai Yuan, Feng Lu, Yinyan Yin, Jun Cao
Chronic burn wound infections caused by Stapyhylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are largely associated with biofilm formation. However, the mechanism by which S. aureus form biofilm in clinical environments is far less understood. In the present study we addressed the association between biofilm formation and membrane vesicle (MV) secretion of S. aureus during vancomycin treatment. A representative methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain BWMR22 obtained from a chronic burn wound was used in this study...
July 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683156/emission-strength-of-airborne-pathogens-during-toilet-flushing
#8
A C K Lai, T F Tan, W S Li, D K M Ip
The flushing of toilets generates contaminated aerosols, the transmission of which may cause the spread of disease, particularly in the immunocompromised or the elderly. This study investigated the emission strength of three types of airborne bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, during toilet flushing in a custom-built toilet under a controlled environment. Flushing was activated by a flushometer operated at two pressure levels, 400 kPa (high pressure [HP]) and 200 kPa (low pressure [LP]), and by a water cistern tank placed 95 cm (high tank [HT]) and 46 cm (low tank [LT]) above the toilet seat...
July 6, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681289/diversity-and-functional-properties-of-acid-tolerant-bacteria-isolated-from-tea-plantation-soil-of-assam
#9
Gunajit Goswami, Priyadarshini Deka, Pompi Das, Sudipta Sankar Bora, Ramkrishna Samanta, Robin Chandra Boro, Madhumita Barooah
In this study, we report on the bacterial diversity and their functional properties prevalent in tea garden soils of Assam that have low pH (3.8-5.5). Culture-dependent studies and phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria. Further, 70 acid-tolerant bacterial isolates characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach could be grouped to the genus Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevundimonas, Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Aeromonas...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674925/biosorption-of-lead-phosphates-by-lead-tolerant-bacteria-as-a-mechanism-for-lead-immobilization
#10
Viridiana Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús Guzmán-Moreno, Vicente Rodríguez-González, Juan Armando Flores-de la Torre, Rosa María Ramírez-Santoyo, Luz Elena Vidales-Rodríguez
The study of metal-tolerant bacteria is important for bioremediation of contaminated environments and development of green technologies for material synthesis due to their potential to transform toxic metal ions into less toxic compounds by mechanisms such as reduction, oxidation and/or sequestration. In this study, we report the isolation of seven lead-tolerant bacteria from a metal-contaminated site at Zacatecas, México. The bacteria were identified as members of the Staphylococcus and Bacillus genera by microscopic, biochemical and 16S rDNA analyses...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656904/mapping-quorum-sensing-onto-neural-networks-to-understand-collective-decision-making-in-heterogeneous-microbial-communities
#11
Tahir I Yusufaly, James Q Boedicker
Microbial communities frequently communicate via quorum sensing (QS), where cells produce, secrete, and respond to a threshold level of an autoinducer (AI) molecule, thereby modulating gene expression. However, the biology of QS remains incompletely understood in heterogeneous communities, where variant bacterial strains possess distinct QS systems that produce chemically unique AIs. AI molecules bind to 'cognate' receptors, but also to 'non-cognate' receptors found in other strains, resulting in inter-strain crosstalk...
July 19, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655473/keratinocytes-as-sensors-and-central-players-in-the-immune-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-skin
#12
REVIEW
Katharina Bitschar, Christiane Wolz, Bernhard Krismer, Andreas Peschel, Birgit Schittek
Healthy human skin provides an effective mechanical as well as immunologic barrier against pathogenic microorganisms with keratinocytes as the main cell type in the epidermis actively participating and orchestrating the innate immune response of the skin. As constituent of the outermost layer encountering potential pathogens they have to sense signals from the environment and must be able to initiate a differential immune response to harmless commensals and harmful pathogens. Staphylococci are among the most abundant colonizers of the skin: Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis is part of the skin microbiota and ubiquitously colonizes human skin, Staphylococcus aureus is only rarely found on healthy human skin, but frequently colonizes the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648851/the-influence-of-mild-acidity-on-lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-lipid-membrane-physico-chemical-properties-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Reg P Rehal, Helene Marbach, Alasdair T M Hubbard, Anam A Sacranie, Federica Sebastiani, Giovanna Fragneto, Richard D Harvey
The increased biosynthesis of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in Staphylococcus aureus when cultured under conditions of mild acidity and the resultant increased proportion of this lipid in the plasma membrane of the bacterium, alters the physico-chemical properties of lipid bilayers in a manner which is itself dependent upon environmental pH. Clinically relevant strains of S. aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, all exhibited increased lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in response to mild environmental acidity, albeit to differing degrees, from ∼30% to ∼55% total phospholipid...
June 23, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646948/generalized-herd-effects-and-vaccine-evaluation-impact-of-live-influenza-vaccine-on-off-target-bacterial-colonisation
#14
Michael J Mina
Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#15
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#16
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633052/disinfection-efficiencies-of-sage-and-spearmint-essential-oils-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-staphylococcus-aureus-cells-in-comparison-with-sodium-hypochlorite
#17
Dimitrios Vetas, Eleni Dimitropoulou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Efstathios Giaouris
Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630628/staphylococcus-saprophyticus-recovered-from-humans-food-and-recreational-waters-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#19
Viviane Santos de Sousa, Ana Paula de Souza da-Silva, Leif Sorenson, Raphael Paiva Paschoal, Renata Fernandes Rabello, Eloiza Helena Campana, Márcia Soares Pinheiro, Lyssa Oliveira Ferreira Dos Santos, Natacha Martins, Ana Carolina Nunes Botelho, Renata Cristina Picão, Sérgio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza, Lee Woodland Riley, George Sensabaugh, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630071/albumin-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-and-alters-polymicrobial-interactions
#20
Allie Clinton Smith, Anne Rice, Bryan Sutton, Rebecca Gabrilska, Aimee K Wessel, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra P Rumbaugh
Polymicrobial interactions are complex and can influence the course of an infection, as is the case when two or more species exhibit a synergism that produces a disease state not seen with any of the individual species alone. Cell-to-cell signaling is key to many of these interactions, but little is understood about how the host environment influences polymicrobial interactions or signaling between bacteria. Chronic wounds are typically polymicrobial, with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the two most commonly isolated species...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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