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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332945/the-human-skin-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Allyson L Byrd, Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A Segre
Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic environment, also contributes to the adversity that pathogens face when colonizing human skin. Despite this, the skin is colonized by a diverse microbiota. In this Review, we describe amplicon and shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing studies that have been used to assess the taxonomic diversity of microorganisms that are associated with skin from the kingdom to the strain level...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325044/adaptation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-by-the-up-regulation-of-superoxide-dismutase-m-and-iron-scavenging-proteins
#2
Janina Treffon, Desiree Block, Martin Moche, Swantje Reiß, Stephan Fuchs, Susanne Engelmann, Dörte Becher, Lars Langhanki, Alexander Mellmann, Georg Peters, Barbara C Kahl
Staphylococcus aureus represents an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) caused by early and persistent colonization of airways of these patients for extended periods. Although the median predicted survival age of CF patients has increased during the last decade, pulmonary infections are still a challenge.In this study we investigated the adaptation of S. aureus, which was cultured from the airways of an individual CF patient, by comparing the proteome of the first and latest available isolate recovered 13 years apart...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319526/mrsa-in-pig-population
#3
Meldra Ivbule, Edvīns Miklaševičs, Liene Čupāne, Laima Bērziņa, Andris Bāliņš, Anda Valdovska
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is widespread worldwide in different types of animal species and as a zoonosis takes a great risk for human health not only as a food toxicoinfection, but also as a highly resistant pathogen causing serious soft tissue infectious, septicaemia and even death. One of the most affected food-producing animal species is swine in the production of which new antibiotics in big amounts are used more and more continuously, increasing antimicrobial resistance. In this study several commercial pig farms and pigs with different age groups as well as farm workers and samples from environment were examined with the purpose of detecting MRSA prevalence and evaluating antimicrobial resistance...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306007/molecular-discrimination-of-bacillus-cereus-group-species-in-foods-lettuce-spinach-and-kimbap-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr-targeting-groel-and-gyrb
#4
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305156/novel-lipids-with-three-c18-fatty-acid-chains-and-an-amino-acid-head-group-for-ph-responsive-and-sustained-antibiotic-delivery
#5
Mahantesh Jadhav, Rahul S Kalhapure, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Sanil Singh, Tetsuya Kodama, Thirumala Govender
The acidic environment at bacterial infection sites is a potential external stimulus for targeted antibiotic delivery. This paper reports new biocompatible pH-sensitive lipids (PSLs) with three hydrocarbon tails, and a head group with a secondary amine and carboxylate function for site-specific nano delivery of vancomycin (VCM). PSLs formed stable liposomes with mean vesicle diameters and polydispersity indices between 99.38 ± 6.59 nm to 105.60 ± 5.38 nm and 0.161 ± 0.003 to 0.219 ± 0...
January 2, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291459/autochthonous-facility-specific-microbiota-dominates-washed-rind-austrian-hard-cheese-surfaces-and-its-production-environment
#6
Narciso M Quijada, Evelyne Mann, Martin Wagner, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Marta Hernández, Stephan Schmitz-Esser
Cheese ripening involves the succession of complex microbial communities that are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the final products. The food processing environment can act as a source of natural microbial inoculation, especially in traditionally manufactured products. Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB) is an artisanal washed-rind hard cheese produced in the western part of Austria without the addition of external ripening cultures. Here, the composition of the bacterial communities present on VB rinds and on different processing surfaces from two ripening cellars was assessed by near full length 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288777/epidemiology-and-spa-type-diversity-of-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-community-and-healthcare-settings-in-norway
#7
Francesco Di Ruscio, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Kjersti Wik Larssen, Truls Michael Leegaard, Aina E F Moen, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of MRSA during the past decade in Norway, a country with one of the lowest prevalence's and an active "search-and-destroy" policy applied to hospital settings. AIM: To characterize the trends of notification rates of community associated (CA) and healthcare associated (HA) MRSA in Norway and explore the diversity and circulation of MRSA spa-types within and outside healthcare settings. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based study on notified MRSA infections and colonizations in Norway between 2006 and 2015...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285780/axially-decorated-siiv-phthalocyanines-bearing-mannose-or-ammonium-conjugated-siloxanes-comparative-bacterial-labelling-and-photodynamic-inactivation
#8
Malte C Grüner, Silke Niemann, Andreas Faust, Cristian A Strassert
Herein we present a comparative study about the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive model) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative model) employing a neutral and a dicationic axially functionalized SiIV phthalocyanine. Depending on the charge of the siloxane moiety (neutral monosaccharide or cationic ammonium salt), different interactions with the bacteria were observed and a differential photoinactivation was facilitated. The intensity of the fluorescence labelling correlated with the photoinactivation of the two types of bacteria: while the neutral species only significantly affected the Gram-positive cells, we observed that the positively charged photosensitizer interacted both with the Gram-positive and with the Gram-negative models...
December 29, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273721/topographical-diversity-of-common-skin-microflora-and-its-association-with-skin-environment-type-an-observational-study-in-chinese-women
#9
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260003/why-sensitive-bacteria-are-resistant-to-hospital-infection-control
#10
Esther van Kleef, Nantasit Luangasanatip, Marc J Bonten, Ben S Cooper
BACKGROUND: Large reductions in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile have been observed in response to multifaceted hospital-based interventions. Reductions in antibiotic-sensitive strains have been smaller or non-existent. It has been argued that since infection control measures, such as hand hygiene, should affect resistant and sensitive strains equally, observed changes must have largely resulted from other factors, including changes in antibiotic use...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258203/cleavage-and-structural-transitions-during-maturation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteriophage-80%C3%AE-and-sapi1-capsids
#11
James L Kizziah, Keith A Manning, Altaira D Dearborn, Erin A Wall, Laura Klenow, Rosanne L L Hill, Michael S Spilman, Scott M Stagg, Gail E Christie, Terje Dokland
In the tailed bacteriophages, DNA is packaged into spherical procapsids, leading to expansion into angular, thin-walled mature capsids. In many cases, this maturation is accompanied by cleavage of the major capsid protein (CP) and other capsid-associated proteins, including the scaffolding protein (SP) that serves as a chaperone for the assembly process. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage 80α is capable of high frequency mobilization of mobile genetic elements called S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), such as SaPI1...
December 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241121/nanotitania-crystals-induced-efficient-photocatalytic-color-degradation-antimicrobial-and-larvicidal-activity
#12
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233892/stable-signal-peptides-and-the-response-to-secretion-stress-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Arryn Craney, Floyd E Romesberg
Protein secretion is essential, but how it is managed is poorly understood. In bacteria, most secreted proteins require release from the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane by type I signal peptidase (SPase), which cleaves the mature protein from its membrane-bound N-terminal signal peptide. As the first step that occurs outside the protected cytoplasmic environment and because insufficient activity can rapidly result in the toxic accumulation of preproteins, the activity of SPase is expected to be closely monitored and perhaps supplemented when insufficient...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231891/bioactive-compounds-produced-by-hypoxylon-fragiforme-against-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#14
Kamila Tomoko Yuyama, Clara Chepkirui, Lucile Wendt, Diana Fortkamp, Marc Stadler, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms...
December 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230259/-nosocomial-urinary-tract-and-surgical-site-infection-rates-in-the-maternity-ward-at-the-general-referral-hospital-in-katuba-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#15
Hendrick Mbutshu Lukuke, Eric Kasamba, Abdulu Mahuridi, Roger Ngatu Nlandu, Suganuma Narufumi, Abel Ntambue Mukengeshayi, Vicky Malou, Michel Makoutode, Françoise Malonga Kaj
Introduction: In Intertropical Africa hospitalized patients are exposed to a risk of nosocomial infections. The dearth of published data on this subject limits the descriptive analysis of the situation. This study aimed to determine the incidence, the germs responsible for these infections and the risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal study from 1 October 2014 to 1 January 2015...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230205/bacterial-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-interactions-in-co-culture-by-gwas-taking-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-as-an-example
#16
Xiaoqing He, Yi Jin, Meixia Ye, Nan Chen, Jing Zhu, Jingqi Wang, Libo Jiang, Rongling Wu
How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227495/fluorescence-activated-droplet-sorting-of-lipolytic-microorganisms-using-a-compact-optical-system
#17
Yuxin Qiao, Xiaoyan Zhao, Jun Zhu, Ran Tu, Libing Dong, Li Wang, Zhiyang Dong, Qinhong Wang, Wenbin Du
Lipases are ubiquitous enzymes of great physiological significance that have been used extensively in multiple industries. Environmental microorganisms are a major source for the discovery of novel lipases with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity. However, current plate-based screening of lipase-producing strains is time consuming, labour intensive and inefficient. In this study, we developed an ultra-high throughput screening pipeline for lipase-producing strains based on fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) using a compact optical system that could be easily set up in an alignment-free manner...
December 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#18
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#19
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218041/mrp-antiporters-have-important-roles-in-diverse-bacteria-and-archaea
#20
REVIEW
Masahiro Ito, Masato Morino, Terry A Krulwich
Mrp (Multiple resistance and pH) antiporter was identified as a gene complementing an alkaline-sensitive mutant strain of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans C-125 in 1990. At that time, there was no example of a multi-subunit type Na+/H+ antiporter comprising six or seven hydrophobic proteins, and it was newly designated as the monovalent cation: proton antiporter-3 (CPA3) family in the classification of transporters. The Mrp antiporter is broadly distributed among bacteria and archaea, not only in alkaliphiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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