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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431853/transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-health-care-worker-gowns-and-gloves-during-care-of-residents-in-veterans-affairs-nursing-homes
#1
Lisa Pineles, Daniel J Morgan, Alison Lydecker, J Kristie Johnson, John D Sorkin, Patricia Langenberg, Natalia Blanco, Alan Lesse, John Sellick, Kalpana Gupta, Luci Leykum, Jose Cadena, Nickie Lepcha, Mary-Claire Roghmann
BACKGROUND: This was an observational study designed to estimate the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission to gowns and gloves worn by health care workers (HCWs) interacting with Veterans Affairs Community Living Center (VA nursing home) residents to inform MRSA prevention policies. METHODS: Participants included residents and HCWs from 7 VA nursing homes in 4 states and Washington, DC. Residents were cultured for MRSA at the anterior nares, perianal skin, and wound (if present)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428772/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-close-human-contacts-in-south-african-dairy-herds-genetic-diversity-and-inter-species-host-transmission
#2
Tracy Schmidt, Marleen M Kock, Marthie M Ehlers
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421166/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-spp
#3
REVIEW
An Hotterbeekx, Samir Kumar-Singh, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
The significance of polymicrobial infections is increasingly being recognized especially in a biofilm context wherein multiple bacterial species-including both potential pathogens and members of the commensal flora-communicate, cooperate, and compete with each other. Two important bacterial pathogens that have developed a complex network of evasion, counter-inhibition, and subjugation in their battle for space and nutrients are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Their strain- and environment-specific interactions, for instance in the cystic fibrosis lung or in wound infections, show severe competition that is generally linked to worse patient outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420677/tcup-typing-and-characterization-of-bacteria-using-bottom-up-tandem-mass-spectrometry-proteomics
#4
Fredrik Boulund, Roger Karlsson, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Anna Johnning, Nahid Karami, Omar Al-Bayati, Christina Ahren, Edward R B Moore, Erik Kristiansson
Methods for rapid and reliable microbial identification are essential in modern healthcare. The ability to detect and correctly identify pathogenic species and their resistance phenotype is necessary for accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of infectious diseases. Bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics enables rapid characterization of large parts of the expressed genes of microorganisms. However, the generated data is highly fragmented, making down-stream analyses complex. Here we present TCUP, a new computational method for typing and characterizing bacteria using proteomics data from bottom-up tandem MS...
April 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413115/rate-of-contamination-of-hospital-privacy-curtains-on-a-burns-and-plastic-surgery-ward-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
K Shek, R Patidar, Z Kohja, S Liu, J P Gawaziuk, M Gawthrop, A Kumar, S Logsetty
BACKGROUND: Surfaces in the patient environment may play a role in microbial transmission if they become colonized by bacteria. Patient privacy curtains are one such surface that may pose a high risk for transmission because they are high-contact surfaces, are infrequently cleaned, and healthcare workers are less likely to wash their hands after contacting inanimate objects such as curtains. AIM: To determine the amount and type of bacterial colonization of patient privacy curtains at a regional burns/plastic surgery unit...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411222/effect-of-antimicrobial-and-physical-treatments-on-growth-of-multispecies-staphylococcal-biofilms
#6
Elizabeth J Stewart, David E Payne, Tianhui Maria Ma, J Scott VanEpps, Blaise R Boles, John G Younger, Michael J Solomon
The prevalence and structure of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis within multispecies biofilms was found to depend sensitively on physical environment and antibiotic dosage. Although these species commonly infect similar sites, such as orthopedic implants, little is known about their behavior in multispecies communities, particularly in response to treatment. This research establishes that S. aureus is much more prevalent than S. epidermidis when simultaneously seeded and grown in unstressed conditions (pH = 7, 37°C) in both laboratory and clinical strains...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410834/wearing-id-badges-in-the-operating-room-environment-is-reconsideration-warranted
#7
Matthew H Hogue, Kris P Heilmann, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection and nosocomial infections in general have appropriately undergone increased scrutiny over the last decade. Numerous studies have documented pathogenic bacterial contamination of personal items such as cell phones, pagers, ties, and pens in the hospital setting. It is our understanding that Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires all personnel to wear an identification badge at all times, which includes the operating room environment...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410827/staphylococcus-aureus-surface-contamination-of-mobile-phones-and-presence-of-genetically-identical-strains-on-the-hands-of-nursing-personnel
#8
Akiko Katsuse Kanayama, Hiroshi Takahashi, Sadako Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro Tateda, Akihiro Kaneko, Intetsu Kobayashi
We investigated the genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from mobile phones and palms and fingers of users. Genetically identical isolates were detected from mobile phones and their user and multiple users, which is consistent with mobile phones serving as reservoirs of infection in the health care environment. These findings reinforce the need for hand hygiene prior to patient contact as the most effective intervention for preventing health care-associated infection.
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403894/antibiotic-resistant-airborne-bacteria-and-their-multidrug-resistance-pattern-at-university-teaching-referral-hospital-in-south-ethiopia
#9
Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon, Fiseha Wada Wadilo, Amsalu Amache Arota, Yishak Leka Abraham
BACKGROUND: Hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. This study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo university teaching and referral Hospital. Indoor air samples were collected by using passive air sampling method...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402712/investigation-of-a-staphylococcal-food-poisoning-outbreak-from-a-chantilly-cream-dessert-in-umbria-italy
#10
Laura Ercoli, Silvia Gallina, Yacine Nia, Frédéric Auvray, Sara Primavilla, Fabrizia Guidi, Benedetta Pierucci, Catia Graziotti, Lucia Decastelli, Stefania Scuota
On August 28, 2015, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred in Umbria, Italy, affecting 24 of the 42 customers who had dinner at a local restaurant. About 3 h after ingesting a variety of foods, the customers manifested gastrointestinal symptoms. Within 24 h of notification from the hospital emergency department, Sanitary Inspectors of the local Public Health Unit performed an epidemiological investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the customers. Food and environmental samples were collected...
April 12, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401747/dynamics-of-mono-and-dual-species-biofilm-formation-and-interactions-between-staphylococcus-aureus-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#11
Jitka Makovcova, Vladimir Babak, Pavel Kulich, Josef Masek, Michal Slany, Lenka Cincarova
Microorganisms are not commonly found in the planktonic state but predominantly form dual- and multispecies biofilms in almost all natural environments. Bacteria in multispecies biofilms cooperate, compete or have neutral interactions according to the involved species. Here, the development of mono- and dual-species biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, potentially pathogenic Raoultella planticola and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli over the course of 24, 48 and 72 h was studied...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400528/within-host-evolution-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-during-chronic-infection-of-seven-australasian-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#12
Linda T Viberg, Derek S Sarovich, Timothy J Kidd, James B Geake, Scott C Bell, Bart J Currie, Erin P Price
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive lung function decline. CF patients are at an increased risk of respiratory infections, including those by the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Here, we compared the genomes of B. pseudomallei isolates collected between ~4 and 55 months apart from seven chronically infected CF patients. Overall, the B. pseudomallei strains showed evolutionary patterns similar to those of other chronic infections, including emergence of antibiotic resistance, genome reduction, and deleterious mutations in genes involved in virulence, metabolism, environmental survival, and cell wall components...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398350/swimming-bacteria-promote-dispersal-of-non-motile-staphylococcal-species
#13
Tahoura Samad, Nicole Billings, Alona Birjiniuk, Thomas Crouzier, Patrick S Doyle, Katharina Ribbeck
Swimming motility is considered a beneficial trait among bacterial species as it enables movement across fluid environments and augments invasion of tissues within the host. However, non-swimming bacteria also flourish in fluid habitats, but how they effectively spread and colonize distant ecological niches remains unclear. We show that non-motile staphylococci can gain motility by hitchhiking on swimming bacteria, leading to extended and directed motion with increased velocity. This phoretic interaction was observed between Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and P...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394942/evidence-for-the-evolutionary-steps-leading-to-meca-mediated-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-in-staphylococci
#14
Joana Rolo, Peder Worning, Jesper Boye Nielsen, Rita Sobral, Rory Bowden, Ons Bouchami, Peter Damborg, Luca Guardabassi, Vincent Perreten, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Hermínia de Lencastre, Maria Miragaia
The epidemiologically most important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with mecA-an acquired gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) with low affinity to virtually all β-lactams. The introduction of mecA into the S. aureus chromosome has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemics, responsible for high rates of mortality worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the origin and evolution of mecA. Different mecA homologues have been identified in species belonging to the Staphylococcus sciuri group representing the most primitive staphylococci...
April 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378043/defining-motility-in-the-staphylococci
#15
REVIEW
Eric J G Pollitt, Stephen P Diggle
The ability of bacteria to move is critical for their survival in diverse environments and multiple ways have evolved to achieve this. Two forms of motility have recently been described for Staphylococcus aureus, an organism previously considered to be non-motile. One form is called spreading, which is a type of sliding motility and the second form involves comet formation, which has many observable characteristics associated with gliding motility. Darting motility has also been observed in Staphylococcus epidermidis...
April 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373644/modeling-nosocomial-infections-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-with-environment-contamination
#16
Lei Wang, Shigui Ruan
In this work, we investigate the role of environmental contamination on the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus or staph, because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. Both deterministic and stochastic models are constructed to describe the transmission characteristics of MRSA in hospital setting...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373201/evolutionary-origin-of-the-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-sccmec
#17
Joana Rolo, Peder Worning, Jesper Boye Nielsen, Rory Bowden, Ons Bouchami, Peter Damborg, Luca Guardabassi, Vincent Perreten, Alexander Tomasz, Henrik Westh, Hermínia de Lencastre, Maria Miragaia
Several lines of evidence indicate that the most primitive staphylococcal species, the Staphylococcus sciuri group, were involved in the first stages of evolution of SCCmec - the genetic element carrying the β-lactam resistance gene mecA. However, many steps are still missing from this evolutionary history. In particular, it is not known how mecA was incorporated into the mobile element SCC prior to dissemination among Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic staphylococcal species.To gain insights into the possible contribution of several species of the Staphylococcussciuri group to the assembly of SCCmec, we sequenced the genomes of 106 isolates, comprising S...
April 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373038/presence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-the-residents-and-environments-of-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan
#18
Chun-Ming Lee, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Min-Chi Lu, Ling-Fang Wang, Tsai-Ling Tsai, Mei-Yu Kang, Yi-Ni Jan, Yi-Ting Lo, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hui Tseng, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the residents and environments of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Taiwan. METHODS: We prospectively investigated the distribution of MDROs in residents of six LTCFs and their environments from January 2015 to December 2015 (intervention period). Active surveillance of colonization of MDROs was performed by culturing rectal and nasal swab samples every 3 months for the residents: 63, 79, and 73 in the first, second, and third surveillance investigations, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369562/resistance-gene-transfer-induction-of-transducing-phage-by-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antimicrobials-is-not-correlated-to-induction-of-lytic-phage
#19
Kinga I Stanczak-Mrozek, Ken G Laing, Jodi A Lindsay
Objectives: Horizontal gene transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes between clinical isolates via transduction is poorly understood. MRSA are opportunistic pathogens resistant to all classes of antimicrobial agents but currently no strains are fully drug resistant. AMR gene transfer between Staphylococcus aureus isolates is predominantly due to generalized transduction via endogenous bacteriophage, and recent studies have suggested transfer is elevated during host colonization...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363962/mechanisms-for-pseudoalteromonas-piscicida-induced-killing-of-vibrios-and-other-bacterial-pathogens
#20
Gary P Richards, Michael A Watson, David S Needleman, Joseph Uknalis, E Fidelma Boyd, Johnna P Fay
Pseudoalteromonas piscicida are Gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found in the marine environment. Three strains of pigmented P. piscicida were isolated from seawater and partially characterized by inhibition studies, electron microscopy, and proteolytic enzyme production. Growth inhibition and death occurred around colonies of P. piscicida on lawns of the naturally-occurring marine pathogens Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Photobacterium damselae and Shewanella algae Inhibition also occurred on lawns of Staphylococcus aureus, but not on Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
March 31, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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