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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#1
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633052/disinfection-efficiencies-of-sage-and-spearmint-essential-oils-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-staphylococcus-aureus-cells-in-comparison-with-sodium-hypochlorite
#2
Dimitrios Vetas, Eleni Dimitropoulou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Efstathios Giaouris
Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630628/staphylococcus-saprophyticus-recovered-from-humans-food-and-recreational-waters-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#4
Viviane Santos de Sousa, Ana Paula de Souza da-Silva, Leif Sorenson, Raphael Paiva Paschoal, Renata Fernandes Rabello, Eloiza Helena Campana, Márcia Soares Pinheiro, Lyssa Oliveira Ferreira Dos Santos, Natacha Martins, Ana Carolina Nunes Botelho, Renata Cristina Picão, Sérgio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza, Lee Woodland Riley, George Sensabaugh, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630071/albumin-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-and-alters-polymicrobial-interactions
#5
Allie Clinton Smith, Anne Rice, Bryan Sutton, Rebecca Gabrilska, Aimee K Wessel, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra P Rumbaugh
Polymicrobial interactions are complex and can influence the course of an infection, as is the case when two or more species exhibit a synergism that produces a disease state not seen with any of the individual species alone. Cell-to-cell signaling is key to many of these interactions, but little is understood about how the host environment influences polymicrobial interactions or signaling between bacteria. Chronic wounds are typically polymicrobial, with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the two most commonly isolated species...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628484/battling-bacterial-infection-with-hexamethylene-diisocyanate-cross-linked-and-cefaclor-loaded-collagen-scaffolds
#6
E K Tsekoura, A L Helling, J G Wall, Y Bayon, D I Zeugolis
Implant infections remain a major healthcare problem due to the prolonged hospitalisation period required to disrupt and treat bacterial biofilm formation, and the need for additional surgery to remove/replace the infected implant, which if not removed in a timely manner may lead to sepsis. Although localised drug administration, via an implanted scaffold, has shown promise in a clinical setting, the ideal scaffold cross-linking (to initially withstand the aggressive infection environment) and drug (to be effective against infection) have yet to be identified...
June 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#7
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623924/in-vitro-physiological-and-antibacterial-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticle-composites-in-simulated-porcine-gastric-and-enteric-fluids
#8
Marina S R Barreto, Cristina T Andrade, Luiz Cláudio R P da Silva, Lúcio M Cabral, Vânia M Flosi Paschoalin, Eduardo M Del Aguila
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in piglets is one of the main causes of animal death after weaning; zinc oxide (ZnO) has been used in high doses for the control of this sickness. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized and immobilized on a chitosan/alginate (CH/SA) complex and investigate the antimicrobial activity and in vitro release profile of zinc (Zn(2+)) from these new compounds. The ZnO nanoparticles composites were prepared and combined with CH/SA or CH/SA and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623341/metabolic-fingerprinting-of-bacteria-by-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#9
Arunima Bhattacharjee, Rupsa Datta, Enrico Gratton, Allon I Hochbaum
Bacterial populations exhibit a range of metabolic states influenced by their environment, intra- and interspecies interactions. The identification of bacterial metabolic states and transitions between them in their native environment promises to elucidate community behavior and stochastic processes, such as antibiotic resistance acquisition. In this work, we employ two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to create a metabolic fingerprint of individual bacteria and populations. FLIM of autofluorescent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), NAD(P)H, has been previously exploited for label-free metabolic imaging of mammalian cells...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621439/cloning-and-functional-identification-of-moricins-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#10
X-F Xia, Y Li, X-Q Yu, J-H Lin, S-Y Li, Q Li, M-S You
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small-molecule peptides that play crucial roles in insect innate immune responses. To better understand the function of AMPs in Plutella xylostella, one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables, three full-length cDNAs encoding moricins were cloned from Pl. xylostella. Two variants of the moricin named PxMor2 and PxMor3 were heterologously expressed and purified. A secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism demonstrated that the two peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the membrane-like environment, but in aqueous solution, they were present in random coiled conformation...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620364/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-s-aureus-l-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-spp-detection-in-raw-milk-with-pre-enrichment
#11
Tian Ding, Yuanjie Suo, Zhaohuan Zhang, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Yong Zhao
This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water) in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 10(2) CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617524/high-prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-a-university-environment-in-thailand
#12
Rathanin Seng, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Wassana Chatdumrong, Sutthirat Sitthisak
The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617193/are-contact-precautions-ethically-justifiable-in-contemporary-hospital-care
#13
Joanna Harris, Kenneth Walsh, Susan Dodds
Hospital infection control practices known as Contact Precautions are recommended for the management of people with pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. BACKGROUND: The patient is isolated, and staff are required to wear gloves, and a gown or apron when providing care. A notice is displayed to remind staff of these requirements and an 'alert' message is placed in the patient's medical record. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss and explore whether practices used in hospitals to reduce the transmission of endemic antibiotic-resistant organisms are ethically justified in today's healthcare environment in the developed world...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611495/antibacterial-anticancer-and-neuroprotective-activities-of-rare-actinobacteria-from-mangrove-forest-soils
#14
Adzzie-Shazleen Azman, Iekhsan Othman, Chee-Mun Fang, Kok-Gan Chan, Bey-Hing Goh, Learn-Han Lee
Mangrove is a complex ecosystem that contains diverse microbial communities, including rare actinobacteria with great potential to produce bioactive compounds. To date, bioactive compounds extracted from mangrove rare actinobacteria have demonstrated diverse biological activities. The discovery of three novel rare actinobacteria by polyphasic approach, namely Microbacterium mangrovi MUSC 115(T), Sinomonas humi MUSC 117(T) and Monashia flava MUSC 78(T) from mangrove soils at Tanjung Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia have led to the screening on antibacterial, anticancer and neuroprotective activities...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610916/the-rhizoferrin-biosynthetic-gene-in-the-fungal-pathogen-rhizopus-delemar-is-a-novel-member-of-the-nis-gene-family
#15
Cassandra S Carroll, Clark L Grieve, Indu Murugathasan, Andrew J Bennet, Clarissa M Czekster, Huanting Lui, James Naismith, Margo M Moore
Iron is essential for growth and in low iron environments such as serum many bacteria and fungi secrete ferric iron-chelating molecules called siderophores. All fungi produce hydroxamate siderophores with the exception of Mucorales fungi, which secrete rhizoferrin, a polycarboxylate siderophore. Here we investigated the biosynthesis of rhizoferrin by the opportunistic human pathogen, Rhizopus delemar. We searched the genome of R. delemar 99-880 for a homologue of the bacterial NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) protein, SfnaD that is involved in biosynthesis of staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600315/rna-based-amplicon-sequencing-highlights-the-impact-of-the-processing-technology-on-microbiota-composition-of-artisanal-and-industrial-pdo-lard-d-arnad
#16
Ilario Ferrocino, Alberto Bellio, Angelo Romano, Guerrino Macori, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Lucia Decastelli, Luca Cocolin
"Valle d'Aosta Lard d'Arnad" is a protected designation of origin (PDO) product produced from fat of the shoulder and back of heavy pigs. Its manufacturing process can be very diverse, especially regarding the maturation temperature and the NaCl concentrationused for the brine, thereby the main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of those parameters on the microbiota developed during curing and ripening. Three farms producing Lard d'Arnad were selected. Two plants, reflecting the industrial process characterized either by low maturation temperature (plant A [10% NaCl; 2°C]) or by using a low NaCl concentrations (plant B [2...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589274/green-synthesis-and-characterization-of-gold-and-silver-nanoparticles-using-mussaenda-glabrata-leaf-extract-and-their-environmental-applications-to-dye-degradation
#17
Sijo Francis, Siby Joseph, Ebey P Koshy, Beena Mathew
Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587316/bacteria-from-animals-as-a-pool-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#18
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Argudín, Ariane Deplano, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Magali Dodémont, Amelie Heinrichs, Olivier Denis, Claire Nonhoff, Sandrine Roisin
Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586721/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-the-metabolites-isolated-from-the-culture-of-the-mangrove-derived-endophytic-fungus-eurotium-chevalieri-kufa-0006
#19
War War May Zin, Suradet Buttachon, Tida Dethoup, José A Pereira, Luís Gales, Ângela Inácio, Paulo M Costa, Michael Lee, Nazim Sekeroglu, Artur M S Silva, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
Five previously undescribed metabolites, including acetylquestinol, two prenylated indole 3-carbaldehyde derivatives, an anthranilic acid derivative and an isochromone derivative, were isolated, in addition to eleven known compounds: palmitic acid, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, emodin, physcion, questin, questinol, (11S, 14R)-cyclo(tryptophylvalyl), preechinulin, neoechinulin E, echinulin and eurocristatine, from the culture of the endophytic fungus Eurotium chevalieri KUFA 0006. The structures of the previously undescribed compounds were established based on an extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis as well as HRMS and IR data...
June 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585158/properties-of-probiotics-kocuria-sm1-and-rhodococcus-sm2-isolated-from-fish-guts
#20
S M Sharifuzzaman, Hafizur Rahman, Dawn A Austin, B Austin
This study characterized probiotics Kocuria SM1 and Rhodococcus SM2, which were recovered from the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). The cultures were Gram-positive, non-motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative cocci or rods. Cell multiplication of SM1 and SM2 was observed at 4-37 °C (45 °C for SM1), in 0-20% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 2-11. The viability was not affected when exposed to pepsin at pH 2.0 and 3.0, and pancreatin at pH 8.0. Neither isolates were chrome azurol S-positive for siderophore production...
June 5, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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