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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769634/in-vitro-generation-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-pvl-in-clinical-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-its-correlation-with-pvl-variant-clonal-complex-infection-type
#1
Chuanling Zhang, Yuanyu Guo, Xu Chu
The amount of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is diverse among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different geographical regions, and its significance in some infections is disputed. However, data concerning this information in China are limited. Fifty-one lukSF-PV+ methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates gathered from varying infections were used for PVL production using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the quantity was analyzed in correlation with PVL isoform, genetic background of the isolate, and disease category...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#2
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764190/delafloxacin-an-improved-fluoroquinolone-developed-through-advanced-molecular-engineering
#3
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Davide Pecori, Glenn Tillotson
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains...
May 16, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761966/-development-of-a-microenvironment-test-chamber-for-airborne-microbe-research
#4
Ningbo Zhan, Feng Chen, Yaohua Du, Zhi Cheng, Chenyu Li, Jinlong Wu, Taihu Wu
One of the most important environmental cleanliness indicators is airborne microbe. However, the particularity of clean operating environment and controlled experimental environment often leads to the limitation of the airborne microbe research. This paper designed and implemented a microenvironment test chamber for airborne microbe research in normal test conditions. Numerical simulation by Fluent showed that airborne microbes were evenly dispersed in the upper part of test chamber, and had a bottom-up concentration growth distribution...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761039/fine-grained-compositional-analysis-of-port-everglades-inlet-microbiome-using-high-throughput-dna-sequencing
#5
Lauren O'Connell, Song Gao, Donald McCorquodale, Jay Fleisher, Jose V Lopez
Background: Similar to natural rivers, manmade inlets connect inland runoff to the ocean. Port Everglades Inlet (PEI) is a busy cargo and cruise ship port in South Florida, which can act as a source of pollution to surrounding beaches and offshore coral reefs. Understanding the composition and fluctuations of bacterioplankton communities ("microbiomes") in major port inlets is important due to potential impacts on surrounding environments. We hypothesize seasonal microbial fluctuations, which were profiled by high throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760959/molecular-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-libyan-and-syrian-patients-with-war-injuries-in-two-bundeswehr-hospitals-in-germany
#6
Hagen Frickmann, Thomas Köller, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Klaus-Peter Ebert, Martin Müller, Werner Wenzel, Renate Gatzer, Ulrich Schotte, Alfred Binder, Romy Skusa, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Christian Rückert, Bernd Kreikemeyer
Introduction: We assessed the molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant bacteria colonizing or infecting war-injured patients from Libya and Syria who were treated at the Bundeswehr hospitals Hamburg and Westerstede, Germany. Methods: Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative rod-shaped nonfermentative bacteria with resistance against third-generation methoxyimino cephalosporins or carbapenems as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from war-injured patients from Libya and Syria were assessed by molecular typing, i...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760148/bacterial-silver-resistance-gained-by-cooperative-interspecies-redox-behavior
#7
Michael Muller
Silver has emerged as an important therapeutic option for wound infections in recent years due to its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The silver cation (Ag+ ), but not the bulk metal (Ag0 ), is highly toxic for most microorganisms although resistance due to genetic modification or horizontal gene transfer does occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , however, achieves silver resistance by producing the redox active metabolite pyocyanin that reduces Ag+ to non-toxic Ag0 Pyocyanin also possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756075/alterations-in-amino-acid-metabolism-during-growth-by-staphylococcus-aureus-following-exposure-to-h-2-o-2-a-multifactorial-approach
#8
Grace R Murphy, R Hugh Dunstan, Margaret M Macdonald, Johan Gottfries, Tim K Roberts
Temperature and pH are known to vary in a wound site due to the immune response and subsequent healing processes. This study used a multifactorial design to examine the cellular responses of Staphylococcus aureus to hydrogen peroxide (0-100 mM) when bacteria were grown in temperatures of 37 ± 2 °C and pH 7 ± 1, conditions potentially encountered in wound sites. A centroid sample was included in the design which represented the mid-point values of all three environmental parameters (37 °C, pH 7, 50 mM H2 O2 )...
May 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753135/daptomycin-and-vancomycin-heteroresistance-revealed-among-cc5-sccmecii-mrsa-clone-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-treatment-alternatives
#9
Jessica Baleiro Okado, Juliana Sposto Avaca-Crusca, Alexandre Lima Oliveira, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca Dabul, Ilana Lopes Baratella da Cunha Camargo
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to clinical treatment. Besides high resistance, presence of heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and heterogeneous daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus (hDNSSA) in the hospital environment are underestimated and associated with treatment failure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate a MRSA dissemination in a Brazilian hospital and to evaluate the efficacy of some treatment options in vitro...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737262/design-of-bactericidal-peptides-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Jenniffer Cruz, Paola Rondon, Rodrigo Torres, Mauricio Urquiza, Fanny Guzman, Claudio Alvarez, Maria Angeles Abengozar, Daniel A Sierra, Luis Rivas, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Claudia Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides are on the first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms of many living beings. These compounds are considered natural antibiotics that can overcome bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Due to this characteristic, new peptides with improved properties are quite appealing for designing new strategies for fighting pathogenic bacteria Methods: Sixteen designed peptides were synthesized using Fmoc chemistry; five of them are new cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) designed using a genetic algorithm that optimizes the antibacterial activity based on selected physicochemical descriptors and 11 analog peptides derived from these five peptides were designed and constructed by single amino acid substitutions...
May 8, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729917/microbial-community-structure-and-distribution-in-the-air-of-a-powdered-infant-formula-factory-based-on-cultivation-and-high-throughput-sequence-methods
#11
Shuang Wu, Yujun Jiang, Binbin Lou, Jing Feng, Yanhong Zhou, Ling Guo, Stephen J Forsythe, Chaoxin Man
The air in a powdered infant formula (PIF) factory is a potential transfer medium for microorganisms. In this study, air samples from 6 main processing areas, almost covering the whole PIF processing line and 1 outdoor location, were collected from a PIF manufacturing plant during the winter and summer periods. A cultivation-based and an Illumina (San Diego, CA) high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing method was used to investigate the community structures and distributions of bacteria in the air. High microbial diversity (25 genera, 56 species), with a dominant community including Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Kocuria, was found by the cultivation-based method...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728390/unprotonated-short-chain-alkylamines-inhibit-staphylolytic-activity-of-lysostaphin-in-a-wall-teichoic-acid-dependent-manner
#12
Xia Wu, Seok Joon Kwon, Domyoung Kim, Jian Zha, Mauricio Mora-Pale, Jonathan S Dordick
Lysostaphin (Lst) is a potent bacteriolytic enzyme that kills Staphylococcus aureus , a common bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. With high activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms, Lst has the potential to be used in industrial products, such as commercial cleansers, for decontamination. However, Lst is inhibited in the presence of monoethanolamine (MEA), a chemical widely used in cleaning solutions and pharmaceuticals, and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we examined the cell binding and killing capabilities of Lst against S...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726892/environmental-panels-as-a-proxy-for-nursing-facility-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aure-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization
#13
Marco Cassone, Julia Mantey, Mary Beth Perri, Kristen Gibson, Bonnie Lansing, Sara McNamara, Payal K Patel, Vincent C C Cheng, Maroya S Walters, Nimalie D Stone, Marcus J Zervos, Lona Mody
Background: Most nursing facilities (NFs) lack methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surveillance programs due to limited resources and high costs. We investigated the utility of environmental screening of high-touch surfaces in patient rooms as a way to circumvent these challenges. Methods: We compared MRSA and VRE culture data from high-touch surfaces in patients' rooms (14450 samples from 6 NFs) and ranked each site's performance in predicting patient colonization (7413 samples)...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724270/enterotoxin-gene-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-humans-and-the-environment
#14
Nathita Phumthanakorn, Punpichaya Fungwithaya, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Nuvee Prapasarakul
PURPOSE: This study aimed to detect and identify staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains from different sources, and to investigate the relationship between their sequence types (STs) and SE gene patterns. METHODOLOGY: The profiles of 17 SE genes in 93 MRSP strains isolated from dogs (n=43), humans (n=18) and the environment (n=32) were detected by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse the clonal relatedness between the molecular type and SE gene profiles...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723730/target-oriented-photofunctional-nanoparticles-topfns-for-selective-photodynamic-inactivation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#15
Kang-Kyun Wang, Eon Pil Shin, Hye-Jin Lee, Seung-Jin Jung, Jeong-Wook Hwang, Il Heo, Jong-Ho Kim, Min-Kyu Oh, Yong-Rok Kim
To inactivate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with minimum damage to host cells and tissue, target-oriented photofunctional nanoparticles (TOPFNs) were fabricated and characterized. MRSA is a predominant infective pathogen even in hospital and non-hospital environments due to its ability to develop high levels of resistance to several classes of antibiotics through various pathways. To solve this major problem, photodynamic inactivation (PDI) method applies to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720968/biosynthetic-potential-of-bioactive-streptomycetes-isolated-from-arid-region-of-the-thar-desert-rajasthan-india
#16
Meeta Masand, Kunjukrishnan Kamalakshi Sivakala, Ekta Menghani, Thangathurai Thinesh, Rangasamy Anandham, Gaurav Sharma, Natesan Sivakumar, Solomon R D Jebakumar, Polpass Arul Jose
Acquisition of Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces from previously underexplored habitats and the exploration of their biosynthetic potential have gained much attention in the rejuvenated antibiotics search programs. Herein, we isolated some Streptomyces strains, from an arid region of the Great Indian Thar Desert, which possess an ability to produce novel bioactive compounds. Twenty-one morphologically distinctive strains differing in their aerial and substrate mycelium were isolated by employing a stamping method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720707/implant-infections-adhesion-biofilm-formation-and-immune-evasion
#17
REVIEW
Carla Renata Arciola, Davide Campoccia, Lucio Montanaro
Medical device-associated infections account for a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections. A variety of opportunistic pathogens can cause implant infections, depending on the type of the implant and on the anatomical site of implantation. The success of these versatile pathogens depends on rapid adhesion to virtually all biomaterial surfaces and survival in the hostile host environment. Biofilm formation on implant surfaces shelters the bacteria and encourages persistence of infection. Furthermore, implant-infecting bacteria can elude innate and adaptive host defences as well as biocides and antibiotic chemotherapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716844/genetic-assessment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-underreported-locality-ambulatory-care-clinic
#18
Matthew F Lawrance, Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, John Deichen, Michael Deichen, James Schaus, Alexander M Cole, Christopher L Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has strong association with anthropogenic environments. This association has not been well supported by use of genetic tools. The aim of this study was to phylogenetically relate numerous isolates from three environments - NCBI samples from hospitals, a community, and a previously unexplored healthcare environment: an ambulatory care clinic (ACC). METHODS: This study incorporated hospital samples from NCBI, a community database from the University of Central Florida (UCF), and newly added samples taken from employees of an ambulatory care clinic located at UCF...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705426/potential-probiotic-characterization-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-from-traditional-chinese-highland-barley-wine-and-application-for-room-temperature-storage-drinkable-yogurt
#19
Su Chen, Lin Chen, Lie Chen, Xueliang Ren, Hongjuan Ge, Baolei Li, Guanghui Ma, Xueqin Ke, Jun Zhu, Li Li, Yuhong Feng, Yanjun Li
The aim of this study was to select probiotic strains that could be used in drinkable yogurt to yield viable cells following storage at room temperature (RT). The uniquely high altitude conditions in Tibet and the alcoholic environment of certain products, such as the highland barley wine homemade in Tibet, may induce unusual characteristics of microbial strains. A total of 27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade highland barley wines. One strain, Lactobacillus reuteri WHH1689, demonstrated no ability for lactose utilization, exhibited a high survival rate during storage at RT in drinkable yogurts, and produced very weak post-acidification...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698808/rapid-highly-sensitive-detection-of-gram-negative-bacteria-with-lipopolysaccharide-based-disposable-aptasensor
#20
Jian Zhang, Rania Oueslati, Cheng Cheng, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen, Raul Almeida, Jayne Wu
Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common microorganisms in the environment. Their differential detection and recognition from Gram-positive bacteria has been attracting much attention over the years. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model, we demonstrated on-site detection of Gram-negative bacteria by an AC electrokinetics-based capacitive sensing method using commercial microelectrodes functionalized with an aptamer specific to lipopolysaccharides. Dielectrophoresis effect was utilized to enrich viable bacteria to the microelectrodes rapidly, achieving a detection limit of 102 cells/mL within a 30 s' response time...
April 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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