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staphylococcus environment

Jonathan B Gillespie, Michelle Maclean, Martin J Given, Mark P Wilson, Martin D Judd, Igor V Timoshkin, Scott J MacGregor
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates possible advantages in pulsed over continuous 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light for bacterial inactivation and energy efficiency. BACKGROUND: Alternative nonantibiotic methods of disinfection and infection control have become of significant interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of systems using 405-nm LEDs for continuous disinfection of the clinical environment, and also for potential treatment of contaminated wounds...
October 19, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Carolyn R Schaeffer, Tra-My N Hoang, Craig M Sudbeck, Malik Alawi, Isaiah E Tolo, D Ashley Robinson, Alexander R Horswill, Holger Rohde, Paul D Fey
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections, including those of intravascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and orthopedic implants. Multiple biofilm matrix molecules with heterogeneous characteristics have been identified, including proteinaceous, polysaccharide, and nucleic acid factors. Two of the best-studied components in S. epidermidis include accumulation-associated protein (Aap) and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), produced by the enzymatic products of the icaADBC operon...
September 2016: MSphere
Salwa Mansur Ali, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Seng-Kai Ong, Muhammad Raza Shah, Ayaz Anwar, Peter J Heard, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances...
October 14, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Reinhild Feuerstein, Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Taj Azarian, Nizar F Maraqa, Robert L Cook, Judith A Johnson, Christine Bailey, Sarah Wheeler, David Nolan, Mobeen H Rathore, J Glenn Morris, Marco Salemi
Despite infection prevention efforts, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients remain at risk of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Modes of transmission for healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) MRSA remain poorly understood and may vary by genotype, hindering the development of effective prevention and control strategies. From 2008-2010, all patients admitted to a level III NICU were screened for MRSA colonization, and all available isolates were spa-typed...
2016: PloS One
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, David Andes, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
: Biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving fungi and bacteria, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and tend to be challenging to treat. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus specifically are considered leading opportunistic fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on catheters and indwelling medical devices. However, the impact of mixed-species biofilm growth on therapy remains largely understudied...
October 11, 2016: MBio
He Zhang, Yantian Ma, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
EmrAB operon is known for multidrug resistance in bacteria and yet has not been reported related to heavy metal resistance or antibiotics/heavy metal co-resistance. Strain Staphylococcus aureus LZ-01 which was isolated from industrial wastewater discharging site can co-resist to 6 mM Cr(VI) and 0.75 mg/ml ampicillin. Transcriptome data showed that an emrAB operon was upregulated (1.29-folds for emrA, 2.14-folds for emrB) under 0.4 mM Cr(VI) treatment. Quantitative PCR results revealed that this operon was upregulated (1...
2016: SpringerPlus
Ewan M Harrison, Catherine Ludden, Hayley J Brodrick, Beth Blane, Gráinne Brennan, Dearbháile Morris, Francesc Coll, Sandra Reuter, Nicholas M Brown, Mark A Holmes, Brian O'Connell, Julian Parkhill, M Estee Török, Martin Cormican, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCF) are potential reservoirs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), control of which may reduce MRSA transmission and infection elsewhere in the healthcare system. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been used successfully to understand MRSA epidemiology and transmission in hospitals and has the potential to identify transmission between these and LTCF. METHODS: Two prospective observational studies of MRSA carriage were conducted in LTCF in England and Ireland...
October 3, 2016: Genome Medicine
Claire Morvan, David Halpern, Gérald Kénanian, Constantin Hays, Jamila Anba-Mondoloni, Sophie Brinster, Sean Kennedy, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Gilles Lamberet, Karine Gloux, Alexandra Gruss
The bacterial pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis, FASII, is a target for development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs. This strategy is based on previous reports indicating that self-synthesized fatty acids appear to be indispensable for Staphylococcus aureus growth and virulence, although other bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to compensate FASII inhibition. Here we report that staphylococci can become resistant to the FASII-targeted inhibitor triclosan via high frequency mutations in fabD, one of the FASII genes...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Azul Zorzoli, James P Grayczyk, Francis Alonzo
To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Gilles Salvat, Marie Guyot, Juliette Protino
AIM: "Label Rouge" broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Initially the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as S. aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010 to Salmonella in the environment of live birds...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maira P de Carvalho, Giuseppe Gulotta, Matheus W do Amaral, Heinrich Lünsdorf, Florenz Sasse, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Pathogens embedded in biofilms are involved in many infections and are very difficult to treat with antibiotics because of higher resistance compared to planktonic cells. Therefore, new approaches for their control are urgently needed. One way to search for biofilm dispersing compounds is to look at defense strategies of organisms exposed to wet environments, which makes them prone to biofilm infections. It is reasonable to assume that mushrooms have developed mechanisms to control biofilms on their sporocarps (fruiting bodies)...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Özgün C O Umu, Christine Bäuerl, Marije Oostindjer, Phillip B Pope, Pablo E Hernández, Gaspar Pérez-Martínez, Dzung B Diep
Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties...
2016: PloS One
Cristiana Pontes, Marta Alves, Catarina Santos, Maria H Ribeiro, Lídia Gonçalves, Ana F Bettencourt, Isabel A C Ribeiro
Given the impact of biofilms in health care environment and the increasing antibiotic resistance and/or tolerance, new strategies for preventing that occurrence in medical devices are obligatory. Thus, biomaterials surface functionalization with active compounds can be a valuable approach. In the present study the ability of the biosurfactants sophorolipids to prevent biofilms formation on silicone rubber aimed for medical catheters was investigated. Sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola, identified by HPLC-MS/MS were used to cover silicone and surface characterization was evaluated through contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
William H DePas, Ruth Starwalt-Lee, Lindsey Van Sambeek, Sripriya Ravindra Kumar, Viviana Gradinaru, Dianne K Newman
: Physiological resistance to antibiotics confounds the treatment of many chronic bacterial infections, motivating researchers to identify novel therapeutic approaches. To do this effectively, an understanding of how microbes survive in vivo is needed. Though much can be inferred from bulk approaches to characterizing complex environments, essential information can be lost if spatial organization is not preserved. Here, we introduce a tissue-clearing technique, termed MiPACT, designed to retain and visualize bacteria with associated proteins and nucleic acids in situ on various spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: MBio
John H Thurston, Necia M Hunter, Kenneth A Cornell
Photoactive films derived from nanostructured samples of metal-free, intermediate band gap semiconductor graphitic carbon nitride (ns-g-C3N4) have been synthesized and characterized for their particle properties and antimicrobial activity. Physical characterization reveals that these materials are composed of discrete nanoparticles whose dimensions range from 200 nm to 700 nm. Investigation of the photochemical reactivity of ns-g-C3N4 using coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3-CCA) indicates that this material produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible radiation...
2016: RSC Advances
C A Burnham, Patrick G Hogan, Meghan A Wallace, Elena Deych, William Shannon, David K Warren, Stephanie A Fritz
Topical antimicrobials are often employed for decolonization and infection prevention and may alter the endogenous microbiota of the skin. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community, richness, and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and intensive care unit (ICU) patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. We enrolled 15 adults at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Community subjects (n=8) underwent a 5-day decolonization protocol (twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily dilute bleach water baths) and ICU patients (n=7) received daily chlorhexidine baths...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A C Fluit, M D Jansen, T Bosch, W T M Jansen, L Schouls, M J Jonker, C H E Boel
The distinct epidemiology of original hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and early community-associated MRSA is largely unexplained. S. aureus carries either 5 or 6 rRNA operon copies. Evidence is provided for a scenario in which MRSA has adapted to the hospital environment by rRNA operon loss (6 to 5 copies) due to antibiotic pressure. Early CA-MRSA in contrast results from wild-type MSSA that acquired mecA without loss of a rRNA operon. Of the HA-MRSA isolates (n=77) 67...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sandhya Nair, Srividya Desai, Nethravathi Poonacha, Aradhana Vipra, Umender Sharma
P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein comprising a cell wall-degrading enzymatic region and a Staphylococcus-specific binding region, which possesses specific and potent bactericidal activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of S. aureus To explore P128's ability to kill S. aureus in a range of environments relevant to clinical infection, we investigated the anti-S. aureus activity of P128 alone and in combination with the standard of care antibiotics on planktonic and biofilm-embedded cells. P128 was found to have potent anti-biofilm activity on pre-formed S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Run Fan, Dexi Li, Yang Wang, Tao He, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
A total of 57 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and 475 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) collected from pigs in the Guangdong province of China in 2014 were investigated for the presence of the novel oxazolidinone-phenicol resistance gene optrA The optrA gene was detected in 6.9% (n=33) of the MRCoNS, all of which were MR-Staphylococcus sciuri, but in none of the MRSA. Five optrA-carrying MR-S. sciuri also harbored the multiresistance gene cfr Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing of the 33 optrA-carrying MR-S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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