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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932812/comparison-of-the-microbiota-of-older-adults-living-in-nursing-homes-and-the-community
#1
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Lauren Hittle, Robert T DeBoy, Rebecca G Nowak, J Kristie Johnson, Emmanuel F Mongodin
Our objective for this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the anterior nares (nose), posterior pharynx (throat), and skin of the femoral and subclavian areas in older adults from nursing homes and the community. Older adults (≥65 years) without antibiotic use for the past 3 months were recruited from nursing homes (NH; n = 16) and from the community (CB; n = 51). Specimens were taken from nose, throat, and skin sites for culture and bacterial profiling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922412/walker-occupancy-has-an-impact-on-changing-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-an-underground-pedestrian-space-as-small-dust-particles-increased-with-raising-both-temperature-and-humidity
#2
Torahiko Okubo, Takako Osaki, Eriko Nozaki, Akira Uemura, Kouhei Sakai, Mizue Matushita, Junji Matsuo, Shinji Nakamura, Shigeru Kamiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Although human occupancy is a source of airborne bacteria, the role of walkers on bacterial communities in built environments is poorly understood. Therefore, we visualized the impact of walker occupancy combined with other factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, dust particles) on airborne bacterial features in the Sapporo underground pedestrian space in Sapporo, Japan. Air samples (n = 18; 4,800L/each sample) were collected at 8:00 h to 20:00 h on 3 days (regular sampling) and at early morning / late night (5:50 h to 7:50 h / 22:15 h to 24:45 h) on a day (baseline sampling), and the number of CFUs (colony forming units) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and other factors were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918990/long-term-metabolic-persistence-of-gram-positive-bacteria-on-health-care-relevant-plastic
#3
Loree C Heller, Chelsea M Edelblute
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium persist on dry environments and can contribute to organism transmission through contact. These organisms can be monitored on surfaces by culture, molecular methods, or metabolic assays. This study was designed to determine the kinetics of bacterial persistence on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic commonly used in the manufacture of bedrails. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction for genomic DNA was used to confirm the presence of bacteria cells on this plastic irrespective of viability...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917263/fourier-transform-infrared-ftir-spectrophotometry-an-ecofriendly-method-for-the-analysis-of-injectable-daptomycin
#4
Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Daptomycin (DPT) is an important antimicrobial agent used in clinical practice because it is very active against several types of medicinally challenging Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. In addition to concerns about the quality of the analytical methods used in the QC of drugs, there is also concern about the impact of these methods on the environment. The trend toward sustainable consumption is increasingly evident and has forced the pharmaceutical industry to reduce the generation of toxic waste...
September 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916372/tracking-and-controlling-soft-surface-contamination-in-health-care-settings
#5
Jonathan D Sexton, Amanda M Wilson, Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. METHODS: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916044/antibiotic-affinity-strategy-for-bioluminescent-detection-of-viable-gram-positive-bacteria-using-daptomycin-as-recognition-agent
#6
Mengyao Wang, Yue Wu, Yong He, Xiaoxiao Su, Hui Ouyang, Zhifeng Fu
A bioluminescent method was proposed for rapid detection of viable Gram-positive bacteria based on a novel antibiotic-affinity strategy on a magnetic beads (MBs) platform. Daptomycin, a highly efficient lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria, was used as a recognition agent to functionalize MBs. The daptomycin-functionalized MBs showed high capture and concentration efficiency for Gram-positive bacteria due to the strong binding between daptomycin and bacterial cell membrane in the presence of Ca(2+) ion...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911341/rapid-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-related-species-isolated-from-food-environment-cosmetics-a-medical-device-and-clinical-samples-using-the-vitek-ms-microbial-identification-system
#7
Irshad M Sulaiman, Pratik Banerjee, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Nancy Miranda, Steven Simpson, Khalil Kerdahi
Staphylococcus spp. is considered as one of the most common human-pathogenic bacteria, causing illnesses ranging from nonthreatening skin infections to lethal diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and food poisoning. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has increased morbidity and mortality and resulted in a major healthcare burden worldwide. Single and multilocus sequence typing have been extensively used in the identification of Staphylococcus species...
September 15, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904915/microbiological-surveillance-of-operation-theatres-five-year-retrospective-analysis-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#8
Dipender Kaur Najotra, Aneeta Singh Malhotra, Poonam Slathia, Shivani Raina, Ashok Dhar
INTRODUCTION: Microbiological contamination of air and environment in the operation theaters (OTs) are major risk factor for surgical site and other hospital-associated infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to identify bacterial colonization of surfaces and equipment and to determine the microbial contamination of air in the OTs of a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five years (January 2010-December 2014) retrospective analysis of the data obtained from routine microbiological surveillance of the five OTs of the hospital was done...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#9
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894024/the-synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-novel-bombinin-and-bombinin-h-peptides-from-the-skin-secretion-of%C3%A2-bombina-orientalis
#10
Jie Xiang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw, Lei Wang
Bombinin and bombinin H are two antimicrobial peptide (AMP) families initially discovered from the skin secretion of Bombina that share the same biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs, but have different structures and physicochemical properties. Insight into their possible existing relationship lead us to perform the combination investigations into their anti-infectious activities. In this work, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterisation of two novel AMPs belonging to bombinin and bombinin H families from secretions of Bombina orientalis Their mature peptides (BHL-bombinin and bombinin HL), coded by single open-reading frame (ORF), were chemically synthesised along with an analogue peptide that replaced L-leucine with D-leucine from the 2nd position of the N-terminus (bombinin HD)...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893360/borderline-oxacillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-borsa-a-more-common-problem-than-expected
#11
Maria M Hryniewicz, Katarzyna Garbacz
Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a quite poorly understood and inadequately defined phenotype of methicillin resistance. BORSA strains show low, borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs), with oxacillin MICs typically equal to 1-8 µg ml-1, and in contrast to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), do not have an altered penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a, encoded by the mecA or mecC gene. Their resistance is typically associated with hyperproduction of beta-lactamases or, in some cases, point mutations in PBP genes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892017/biodiversity-of-actinobacteria-from-the-south-pacific-and-the-assessment-of-streptomyces-chemical-diversity-with-metabolic-profiling
#12
Andrés Cumsille, Agustina Undabarrena, Valentina González, Fernanda Claverías, Claudia Rojas, Beatriz Cámara
Recently, bioprospecting in underexplored habitats has gained enhanced focus, since new taxa of marine actinobacteria can be found, and thus possible new metabolites. Actinobacteria are in the foreground due to their versatile production of secondary metabolites that present various biological activities, such as antibacterials, antitumorals and antifungals. Chilean marine ecosystems remain largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. Various culture conditions to enrich the growth of this phylum were used and 232 bacterial strains were isolated...
September 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888869/development-of-a-set-of-multiplex-pcrs-for-detection-of-genes-encoding-cell-wall-associated-proteins-in-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-humans-and-the-environment
#13
Nathita Phumthanakorn, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius commonly colonizes the skin of dogs, whilst nasal carriage may occur in humans who are in contact with dogs or the environment of veterinary hospitals. Genes encoding cell wall-associated (CWA) proteins have been described in Staphylococcus aureus but knowledge of their occurrence in S. pseudintermedius is still limited. The aim of the study was to develop a method to detect S. pseudintermedius surface protein genes (sps) encoding CWA proteins, and to examine the distribution of the genes in isolates from different sources...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887986/biomineralized-diamond-like-carbon-films-with-incorporated-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-improved-bioactivity-properties-and-reduced-biofilm-formation
#14
F S Lopes, J R Oliveira, J Milani, L D Oliveira, J P B Machado, V J Trava-Airoldi, A O Lobo, F R Marciano
Recently, the development of coatings to protect biomedical alloys from oxidation, passivation and to reduce the ability for a bacterial biofilm to form after implantation has emerged. Diamond-like carbon films are commonly used for implanted medical due to their physical and chemical characteristics, showing good interactions with the biological environment. However, these properties can be significantly improved when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are included, especially to enhance the bactericidal properties of the films...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886688/regulating-bacterial-virulence-with-rna
#15
Juan J Quereda, Pascale Cossart
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulating virulence have been identified in most pathogens. This review discusses RNA-mediated mechanisms exploited by bacterial pathogens to successfully infect and colonize their hosts. It discusses the most representative RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms employed by two intracellular [Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)] and two extracellular (Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial pathogens. We review the RNA-mediated regulators (e...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885829/membrane-active-amphipathic-peptide-wrl3-with-in-vitro-antibiofilmcapability-and-in-vivo-efficacy-in-treating-mrsa-burn-wound-infections
#16
Zhi Ma, Jinzhi Han, Bingxue Chang, Ling Gao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Haizhen Zhao, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent in hospitals, clinics, and the community. MRSA can cause significant and even lethal infections, especially in skin burn wounds. The currently available topical agents have largely failed to eliminate MRSA infections due to resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new and effective approaches for treating MRSA. Here, we show that a novel engineered amphipathic peptide, WRL3, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA, even in the presence of various salts or serum...
September 8, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873396/a-mouse-mastitis-model-to-study-the-effects-of-the-intramammary-infusion-of-a-food-grade-lactococcus-lactis-strain
#17
Cristina Camperio, Federica Armas, Elena Biasibetti, Paolo Frassanito, Carlo Giovannelli, Liliana Spuria, Claudia D'Agostino, Sabrina Tait, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Cinzia Marianelli
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms in the dairy industry and has "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status. L. lactis belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is encountered in a wide range of environments. Recently, the use of the intramammary infusion of a live culture of LAB has been investigated as a new antibiotic alternative for treating mastitis in dairy ruminants. Controversial results are described in literature regarding its efficacy and safety. In this study we conducted in-depth investigation of the mammary gland immune response induced by intramammary inoculum of a live culture of L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862669/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-recreational-waters-and-beach-sand-in-eastern-cape-province-of-south-africa
#18
Olufemi Emmanuel Akanbi, Henry Akum Njom, Justine Fri, Anthony C Otigbu, Anna M Clarke
Background: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to commonly used antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial-resistant determinants in nature, and the marine environment may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study determined the antibiotic sensitivity profile of S.aureus isolated from selected beach water and intertidal beach sand in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine beach sand and water samples were obtained from 10 beaches from April 2015 to April 2016...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860868/feline-transmitted-staphylococcal-hyicus-endophthalmitis-after-clear-lens-extraction-a-case-report
#19
Shih-Chun Chao, Chia-Yi Lee, Chan-Wei Nien, Shih-Hao Tzeng, Hung-Yu Lin
BACKGROUND: Postoperative endophthalmitis is a dreaded postsurgery complication which may lead to legal blindness. In addition to typical risk factors, some minor episodes may also lead to the occurrence of endophthalmitis. The purpose of the current study was to report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus hyicus in a patient with a contact history of felines. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Taiwanese female who had a history of contact with felines due to her occupation had received clear lens extraction surgery of the left eye on July 10, 2015...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859149/biofilm-formation-of-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-mr-cons-isolated-from-community-and-hospital-environments
#20
Rathanin Seng, Thawatchai Kitti, Rapee Thummeepak, Phattaraporn Kongthai, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Surat Wannalerdsakun, Sutthirat Sitthisak
Methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) are the major cause of infectious diseases because of their potential ability to form biofilm and colonize the community or hospital environments. This study was designed to investigate the biofilm producing ability, and the presence of mecA, icaAD, bap and fnbA genes in MR-CoNS isolates. The MR-CoNS used in this study were isolated from various samples of community environment and five wards of hospital environments, using mannitol salt agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin...
2017: PloS One
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