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Xingxing Dong, Xiaohong Wang, Xingchun Chen, Zhiyun Yan, Jing Cheng, Liangliang Gao, Yuan Liu, Jinquan Li
Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal and a pathogenic bacterium, causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals with a high impact on public health and the livestock industry. The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of S. aureus in foods. In this study, we obtained 25 S. aureus isolates from 39 crayfish samples in Hubei, China. PCR was applied for detection of presence of virulence and methicillin resistance genes in the pathogen genome. The result revealed that all of the 25 S...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Yuejuan Cao, Rongqing Li, Yangchun Li, Tao Zhang, Nan Wu, Jianyan Zhang, Zhaozeng Guo
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common disease with serious mortality and morbidity, worldwide. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and construct a transcription factor-gene regulatory network to further study the early diagnosis of AMI. METHODS: The integrated analysis of publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus datasets of AMI was performed. Differentially expressed genes were identified between AMI and normal blood samples...
July 26, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Zahid Iqbal, Mohamed N Seleem, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Lingli Huang, Haihong Hao, Zonghui Yuan
Several studies have been conducted to check the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals and animal-derived food products but limited data are available regarding their virulence and associated gene expression profile. In the present study, antibiotic resistance and virulence of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus animal isolates were determined in vitro by agar dilution, biofilm formation, adhesion, invasion and intracellular survivability assays. In addition, the pathogenicity of these isolates was examined in a murine model of S...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bryce T Fukunaga, Wesley K Sumida, Deborah A Taira, James W Davis, Todd B Seto
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in almost half of all deaths caused by antibiotic resistant organisms. Current evidence suggests that MRSA infections are associated with antibiotic use. This study examined state-level data to determine whether outpatient antibiotic use was associated with hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report was used to obtain HA-MRSA infection rates...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Joshua Freeman, Louise Dawson, Deborah Jowitt, Margo White, Hayley Callard, Christine Sieczkowski, Ron Kuriyan, Sally Roberts
AIM: To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. METHOD: HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement...
October 14, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Arnold L Demain, Evan Martens
We are pleased to dedicate this paper to Dr Julian E Davies. Julian is a giant among microbial biochemists. He began his professional career as an organic chemistry PhD student at Nottingham University, moved on to a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, then became a lecturer at the University of Manchester, followed by a fellowship in microbial biochemistry at Harvard Medical School. In 1965, he studied genetics at the Pasteur Institute, and 2 years later joined the University of Wisconsin in the Department of Biochemistry...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Trudy M Wassenaar, David W Ussery, Hanne Ingmer
Resistance of Staphylococcus species to quaternary ammonium compounds, frequently used as disinfectants and biocides, can be attributed to qac genes. Most qac gene products belong to the Small Multidrug Resistant (SMR) protein family, and are often encoded by rolling-circle (RC) replicating plasmids. Four classes of SMR-type qac gene families have been described in Staphylococcus species: qacC, qacG, qacJ, and qacH. Within their class, these genes are highly conserved, but qacC genes are extremely conserved, although they are found in variable plasmid backgrounds...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haodi Dong, Yue Lv, Deming Zhao, Paul Barrow, Xiangmei Zhou
Human tuberculosis remains a huge global public health problem with an estimated 1/3rd of the population being infected. Defensins are antibacterial cationic peptides produced by a number of cell types, most notably neutrophil granulocytes and epithelial cells. All three defensin types (α-, β-, and θ-defensins) have antibacterial activities, mainly through bacterial membrane permeabilization. Defensins are effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria and are active both intra- and extracellularly...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Jorge Pinheiro, Olga Reis, Ana Vieira, Ines M Moura, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Filipe Carvalho, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Bacterial pathogenicity deeply depends on the ability to secrete virulence factors that bind specific targets on host cells and manipulate host responses. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that remains a serious public health concern. To transport proteins across its cell envelope, this facultative intracellular pathogen engages a set of specialized secretion systems. Here we show that L. monocytogenes EGDe uses a specialized secretion system, named ESX-1, to secrete EsxA, a homologue of the virulence determinants ESAT-6 and EsxA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Virulence
Julia P Bünter, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Simon Rüegg, Annamari Heikinheimo, Nicole Borel, Sophia Johler
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and a major public health concern worldwide. During the last decade, MRSA of CC398 have emerged as important colonizers of livestock. These strains also represent an increasing cause of human infections. A recent study reporting a new dominant spa type among MRSA from Finish fattening pigs (CC398/t2741) identified a strain lacking both the global virulence regulator gene locus agr and the adhesion gene fnbB...
October 5, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Jasmine Chong, Chelsea Caya, Simon Lévesque, Caroline Quach
CONTEXT: NICUs in the province of Québec have seen an increase in hVICoNS, detected in the clinical laboratory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of hVICoNS on the course of infection, and to determine the prevalence of hVICoNS sepsis in the NICU. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed from 1 January 1980 to 1 July 2016. Both observational and interventional studies were considered eligible if they provided data on hVICoNS in the NICU population...
2016: PloS One
Zhibo Jiang, Xuan Lei, Minghua Chen, Bingya Jiang, Linzhuan Wu, Xuexia Zhang, Zhihui Zheng, Xinxin Hu, Xuefu You, Shuyi Si, Lifei Wang, Bin Hong
Norvancomycin (NVCM) is widely used in China to treat bacterial infections of Gram-positive cocci and bacilli, especially infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study is a chemical investigation of the drug substance of NVCM, and led to the identification, by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS, of three as yet undescribed impurities, one D-O-E ring expanded NVCM analog (1) and two derivatives of NVCM lacking sugars (2, 3).The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 5 October 2016; doi:10...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Bente Olesen, Jacob Anhøj, Kenneth Palle Rasmussen, Kåre Mølbak, Marianne Voldstedlund
BACKGROUND: Although the timely isolation of patients is an essential intervention to limit spread of drug-resistant bacteria, information about the colonization status is often unavailable or lost when patients are readmitted or transferred between hospitals. Therefore, carriers of drug resistant bacteria are not recognized sufficiently early, and proper and timely isolation precautions are not taken. Consequently, resistant bacteria of public health concerns including vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can spread epidemically...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Haibo Tan, Hongxin Liu, Liyun Zhao, Yao Yuan, Bailin Li, Yueming Jiang, Liang Gong, Shengxiang Qiu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to global public health, because it exhibits resistance to existing antibiotics and therefore high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study, twenty-one natural product-based acylphloroglucinol congeners were synthesized, which possessed different side chains. Antibacterial screening against MRSA strains revealed that acyl moiety tailoring is a prerequisite for the antibacterial activity. Moreover, the lipophilicity, rather than the magnitude of the hydrophobic acyl tail dominates variability in activity potency...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Etinosa O Igbinosa, Abeni Beshiru, Lucy U Akporehe, Faith E Oviasogie, Owen O Igbinosa
The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nabanita Mukherjee, Irshad M Sulaiman, Pratik Banerjee
Indoor skin-contact surfaces of public fitness centers may serve as reservoirs of potential human transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRSA of clonal complex 59 lineage harboring a variety of extracellular toxin genes from surface swab samples collected from inanimate surfaces of fitness centers in the Memphis metropolitan area, Tennessee. Our findings underscore the role of inanimate surfaces as potential sources of transmission of MDR MRSA strains with considerable genetic diversity...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Geoffrey Omuse, Kristien Nel Van Zyl, Kim Hoek, Shima Abdulgader, Samuel Kariuki, Andrew Whitelaw, Gunturu Revathi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown to vary across different countries. In order to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA in a setting, it is important to define its population structure using molecular tools as different clones have been found to predominate in certain geographical locations...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Kyungmin Huh, Doo Ryeon Chung
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become an important threat to public health in the Asia-Pacific region, which is characterized by a large population and relatively insufficient resources. Better understanding on the current status of CA-MRSA in the region is of paramount importance. Areas covered: This article reviews the published literatures on the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, colonization, and hospital spread of CA-MRSA. Expert commentary: The burden of CA-MRSA has been increasing in the past two decades...
November 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mohamad G Fakih, Boguslow Skierczynski, Angelo Bufalino, Clariecia Groves, Phillip Roberts, Michelle Heavens, Ann Hendrich, Ziad Haydar
BACKGROUND: The standardized infection ratio (SIR) evaluates individual publicly reported health care-associated infections, but it may not assess overall performance. METHODS: We piloted an infection composite score (ICS) in 82 hospitals of a single health system. The ICS is a combined score for central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, colon and abdominal hysterectomy surgical site infections, and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infections...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
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