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Nadia Amanzougaghene, Florence Fenollar, Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Mahamadou S Sissoko, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods...
2017: PloS One
Rina Tilak, Rajesh Kunwar, P K Tyagi, Anurag Khera, R K Joshi, Urmila B Wankhade
BACKGROUND: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Juan C Quintero V, Luis E Paternina T, Alexander Uribe Y, Carlos Muskus, Marylin Hidalgo, Juliana Gil, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos G, Lisardo Osorio Q, Carlos Rojas A
Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ivana Baráková, Markéta Derdáková, Diana Selyemová, Michal Chvostáč, Eva Špitalská, Fausta Rosso, Margherita Collini, Roberto Rosà, Valentina Tagliapietra, Matteo Girardi, Claudio Ramponi, Heidi C Hauffe, Annapaola Rizzoli
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes spp. ticks removed from wildlife, domestic animals and humans in the Province of Trento (northern Italy) in order to better understand their ecology and provide public health professionals with an updated list of pathogens which should be considered during their diagnostic procedures after a tick bite. During 2011-2012, 848 feeding ticks at all life stages (adults, nymphs and larvae) from various hosts (wild ungulates, birds and rodents; domestic sheep, dogs and humans) were collected...
September 1, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Zhijun Yu, Rongrong Wang, Ningxin Li, Chunmian Zhang, Jingze Liu
The Tibetan tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis is widely distributed in the Tibetan Plateau, and is recognized as one of the primary parasites affecting domestic and wild animals. No information is available on its microbial diversity. In the current study, the microbiomes in H. tibetensis were explored using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Results indicate that a total of 28 phyla and 38 genera were characterized from this tick, and most of the microbes were classified in the phylum Proteobacteria. Female and male H...
September 8, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Magalie René-Martellet, Guillaume Minard, Raphael Massot, Van Tran Van, Claire Valiente Moro, Luc Chabanne, Patrick Mavingui
BACKGROUND: Ticks of the group Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) are distributed worldwide and are major pathogen vectors of both dogs and humans. Previous phylogenetic reconstructions have suggested the existence of two main lineages within this group, "Tropical" and "Temperate". Symbiotic interactions contribute to vector development, survival, reproduction and competence. The diversity of microbial communities associated with different populations of R. sanguineus (s.l.) remains poorly characterized, however, this knowledge will aid in future studies of hosts-microbiota-pathogen interactions...
September 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Isis C Prado, Mônica E T A Chino, Antonia L Dos Santos, André L A Souza, Luciano G Pinho, Elba R S Lemos, Salvatore G De-Simone
Spotted fever is a rare acute and multisystemic febrile infectious disease with a mortality rate of ≥50% without adequate antibiotic treatment, and in diagnosed and treated cases, of approximately 2.5%. Currently, the applied test to diagnose this disease is the indirect immunofluorescence reaction, however two samples of paired sera are necessary to confirm the diagnosis, since using only one sample may allow for confusion with cross reactions. OmpA is an outer membrane protein present in the R. rickettsia, the etiological agent of spotted fever, able to activate dendritic and macrophage cells...
August 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ghazaleh Bagheri, Jeremy D Lehner, Jianmin Zhong
Ixodes pacificus is a host of many bacteria including Rickettsia species phylotypes G021 and G022. As part of the overall goal of understanding interactions of phylotypes with their tick host, this study focused on molecular detection of rickettsiae in ovarian and midgut tissue of I. pacificus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR, and ultrastructural analysis. Of three embedding media (Technovit 8100, Unicryl, and paraffin) tested for generating thin sections, tissues embedded in paraffin resulted in the visualization of bacteria with low autofluorescence in FISH...
August 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Georgia Titcomb, Brian F Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Lauren Henson, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M Pringle, Todd M Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G Campana, Robert C Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S Young
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Peifa Yu, Zhijie Liu, Qingli Niu, Jifei Yang, Mirza Omar Abdallah, Ze Chen, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Although tick-borne pathogens have been widely reported in ticks in China, there is little information available on the prevalence of information in Hyalomma ticks from cattle. This study aims to determine the occurrence of pathogens in Hyalomma anatolicum collected from cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma bovis were identified, whereas DNA of Ehrlichia species and an Anaplasma platys-like pathogen were also detected...
September 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ewa Gajda, Joanna Hildebrand, Hein Sprong, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Elena Claudia Coipan
BACKGROUND: Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacteria. They are transmitted via arthropod vectors, which transmit the bacteria between animals and occasionally to humans. So far, much research has been conducted to indicate reservoir hosts for these microorganisms, but our knowledge is still non-exhaustive. Therefore, this survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild-living small rodents from south-western Poland. RESULTS: In total, 337 samples (193 from spleen and 144 from blood) obtained from 193 wild-living rodents: Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, and Myodes glareolus were tested by qPCR for Rickettsia spp...
September 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Katherina Brokordt, Roxana González, William Farías, Federico E Winkler, Karin B Lohrmann
Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sarah Benabdi, François Peurois, Agata Nawrotek, Jahnavi Chikireddy, Tatiana Cañeque, Takao Yamori, Isamu Shiina, Yoshimi Ohashi, Shingo Dan, Raphaël Rodriguez, Jacqueline Cherfils, Mahel Zeghouf
Arf GTPases and their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ArfGEFs) are major regulators of membrane traffic and organelle structure in cells. They are associated with a variety of diseases and are thus attractive therapeutic targets for inhibition by small molecules. Several inhibitors of unrelated chemical structures have been discovered, which have shown their potential in dissecting molecular pathways and blocking disease-related functions. However, their specificity across the ArfGEF family has remained elusive...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry
Mohammad Y Abdad, Rita Abou Abdallah, Khalid El Karkouri, Mamadou Beye, John Stenos, Helen Owen, Nathan Unsworth, Ian Robertson, Stuart D Blacksell, Thi-Tien Nguyen, Claude Nappez, Didier Raoult, Stan Fenwick, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
A rickettsial organism harboured by Amblyomma triguttatum ticks on Barrow Island, Western Australia, was discovered after reports of possible rickettsiosis among local workers. Subsequent isolation of this rickettsia (strain BWI-1) in cell culture and analysis of its phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic relationships with type strains of Rickettsia species with standing in nomenclature suggested that it was sufficiently divergent to warrant its classification as a new species. Multiple gene comparison of strain BWI-1 revealed degrees of sequence similarity with Rickettsia raoultii, its closest relative, of 99...
September 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ana Marcília Matsimbe, Vlademiro Magaia, Gustavo Seron Sanches, Luís Neves, Emília Noormahomed, Sandra Antunes, Ana Domingos
Ticks are ectoparasites that can act as vectors of a large number of pathogens in wild and domestic animals, pets, and occasionally humans. The global threat of emerging or re-emerging tick-borne diseases supports the need for research focused in the zoonotic transmission, especially in countries like Mozambique where rural populations are in close contact with domestic animals. The present study aims to: (1) identify tick species infesting cattle from Monapo and Nacala Porto, districts of Nampula province, Mozambique; and (2) investigate the presence of pathogens in the collected ticks...
August 30, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
B Sallay, T Vaculová, M Derdáková, V Rusňáková Tarageľová, E Špitalská, Ľ Škultéty
Spotted fever and typhus-related diseases caused by rickettsiae, Lyme borreliosis induced by spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferii sensu lato complex, and Q fever evoked by Coxiella burnetii, are important zoonoses occurring worldwide. In order to study the pathogenesis of these infections, the efficacy of vaccines from the perspective of protection against the pathogens, pathogen - pathogen interactions during co-infections or pathogen-vector-host interrelationship, a suitable animal model should be established...
2017: Acta Virologica
Liberata Gualtieri, Francesco Nugnes, Anna G Nappo, Marco Gebiola, Umberto Bernardo
The incidence of horizontal transmission as a route for spreading symbiont infections is still being debated, but a common view is that horizontal transfers require intimate between-species relationships. Here we study a system that meets ideal requirements for horizontal transmission: the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa and its parasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These wasps belong to the same subfamily, spend most of their lives inside the same minute gall and are both infected by Rickettsia, a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infects several arthropods, sometimes manipulating their reproduction, like inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis in L...
July 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sean P Riley, Ludovic Pruneau, Juan J Martinez
The lifecycle of Rickettsia rickettsii includes infection of both mammalian and arthropod hosts, with each environment presenting distinct challenges to survival. As such, these pathogens likely have distinctive transcriptional strategies for infection of each host. Herein, we report the utilization of next generation sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatic analysis techniques to examine the global transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii within an infected animal, and to compare that data to transcription in tissue culture...
2017: PloS One
N F Chowdhury, S K Paul, M S Aung, M A Hossain, F Ahamed, S Ahmed, N Haque, S A Nasreen, S I Khan, S M M Rahman, A S M M Rahman, F Ferdouse, R Ahmed, S M Sultan, M U Ahmed, N Urushibara, N Kobayashi
From July 2015 to December 2016, the presence of rickettsial pathogens was investigated for 414 patients with unknown fever in eight places in all the divisions of Bangladesh. Rickettsia felis was identified in blood samples from all the regions (overall detection rate, 19.6%), suggesting nationwide prevalence of R. felis infections.
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
Fredy Arvey Rivera-Páez, Bruno Rodrigues Sampieri, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Renata da Silva Matos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias
Among tick species, members of the subfamily Amblyomminae have received special attention, since they serve as vectors for pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. and display cryptic species complexes that make their taxonomical classification challenging. Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma maculatum, and other species of the genus Amblyomma have shown a long history of taxonomic controversies. Spermiotaxonomy has proved to be a valuable tool in the solution of systematic conflicts in Metazoa that can aid molecular and external morphological analyses in ticks and, overall, provide more robust analyses and results...
August 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
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