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S Santibáñez, A Portillo, A M Palomar, J A Oteo
Rickettsia amblyommatis, formerly named Rickettsia amblyommii and 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is an intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group Rickettsia. It is highly prevalent in Amblyomma americanum and in other Amblyomma spp. throughout the Western Hemisphere. R. amblyommatis has been cultivated in chicken fibroblast, primary embryonated chicken eggs, Vero cells and arthropod-derived cells. Because of the affinity of rickettsiae to invade vascular endothelial cells, we tried to isolate R...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Fayçal Zeroual, Hamza Leulmi, Ahmed Benakhla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Idir Bitam
Using molecular assays, Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of a spotted fever group rickettsia was assessed in 92/325 lice collected on 117 wild boars hunted in the far northeast of Algeria. Overall, 7/92 (7.61%) Haematopinus suis were found positive to R. slovaca. The presence of R. slovaca DNA on H. suis questions about the relationship that may exist between R. slovaca and lice.
January 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Joanna Stańczak, Beata Biernat, Maria Racewicz, Marta Zalewska, Anna Matyjasek
In two surveys conducted in April and May 2013, a total of 1148 unfed ticks belonging to two species, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, were collected by flagging lower vegetation in 15 different localities throughout the Białowieża Primeval Forest (Podlaskie voivodship; north-eastern Poland) and in its buffer zone. In order to establish their infection rate with Rickettsia spp. individual adult ticks and pooled nymphs were tested by real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene. For the further identification of rickettsial species, positive samples were subjected for nested and semi-nested PCR targeting ompA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, followed by sequencing analysis...
December 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Awa Diop, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Rickettsia species are arthropod endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria that can infect mammalian hosts during their obligate intracellular lifecycle, and cause a range of mild to severe diseases in humans. Paradoxically, during their adaptation to a bottleneck lifestyle, rickettsial genomes have undergone an evolution marked by a progressive chromosomic and plasmidic degradation resulting in a genome reduction from 1.5 to 1.1 Mb, with a coding capacity of 69 to 84%. A striking finding of rickettsial genomics has been that the most virulent species had genomes that were drastically reduced and degraded when compared to closely related less virulent or non pathogenic species...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Victor Omballa, Melvin Ochieng, Shirley Lidechi, Juma Bonventure, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: In low-resource settings, empiric case management of febrile illness is routine as a result of limited access to laboratory diagnostics. The use of comprehensive fever syndromic surveillance, with enhanced clinical microbiology, advanced diagnostics and more robust epidemiologic investigation, could enable healthcare providers to offer a differential diagnosis of fever syndrome and more appropriate care and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a year-long exploratory study of fever syndrome among patients ≥ 1 year if age, presenting to clinical settings with an axillary temperature of ≥37...
2017: PloS One
James L Bodnar, Sergio Fitch, Allison Rosati, Jianmin Zhong
Although nonpathogenic bacterial endosymbionts have been shown to contribute to their arthropod host's fitness by supplying them with essential vitamins and amino acids, little is known about the nutritional basis for the symbiotic relationship of endosymbionts in ticks. Our lab has previously reported that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 in Ixodes pacificus carries all five genes for de novo folate synthesis, and that these genes are monophyletic with homologs from other Rickettsia species. In this study, the rickettsial folate synthesis folA gene, coding for dihydrofolate reductase, was PCR amplified, cloned into an expression vector, and overexpressed in E...
December 24, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Fernanda de Toledo Vieira, Igor Cunha Lima Acosta, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Jonas Moraes Filho, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Amália Regina Mar Barbieri, Leandro Egert, Danieli Rankel Fernandes, Fabio Ribeiro Braga, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Reynaldo Dietze
This work aims to identify and quantify the percentage of Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. positive pet dogs, and to identify ticks collected on these animals in the state of Espírito Santo, in the Southeast region of Brazil. The study included 378 dogs, 226 females and 152 males, of various breeds and ages (mean age of 4.1 years). All animals were examined for ticks, and whole blood was collected and processed by conventional PCR protocols for Babesia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Hepatozoon spp...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Michael Y Kosoy, Rebecca J Eisen, Linda A Atiku, Joseph T Mpanga, Karen A Boegler, Russell E Enscore, Kenneth L Gage
Fleas (n = 407) were collected from small mammals trapped inside huts and surroundings of homesteads in five villages within the Arua and Zombo districts of Uganda. The most common flea species were Dinopsyllus lypusus (26%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (50%). Off-host fleas (n = 225) were collected inside huts by using Kilonzo flea traps. The majority of the off-host fleas were Ctenocephalides felis (80%). All fleas were examined for the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia spp. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 fleas, with an overall prevalence of 14%...
November 2017: MSphere
Leonardo Moerbeck, Vinicius F Vizzoni, Stefan V de Oliveira, Robson Cavalcante, Gerlene C B Coelho, Naylê F H Duarte, Marinete Amorim, Gilberto S Gazêta
Amblyomma nodosum ticks were collected from one collared anteater ( Tamandua tetradactyla) in the Caatinga biome, Brazil. From one sample, we isolated a Rickettsia sp. that was phylogenetically close to Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, with 99.9, 100.0, and 99.8% identity for gltA, htrA, and ompA genes, respectively.
December 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jonas Kissenkötter, Sören Hansen, Susanne Böhlken-Fascher, George Ademowo, Oladapo Elijah Oyinloye, Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Gerhard Dobler, Dennis Tappe, Pranav Patel, Claus-Peter Czerny, Ahmed Abd El Wahed
Rickettsioses are zoonotic vector-transmitted bacterial infections leading to flu-like symptoms and can progress to severe illness in humans. The gold standard for diagnosis of rickettsial infections is the indirect immunofluorescence assay, a serological method which is not suitable for pathogen identification during the acute phase of the disease. Therefore, several real-time PCR assays were developed. These assays are very sensitive, but require high-equipped laboratories and well-trained personnel. Hence, in this study, a rapid point-of-need detection method was developed to detect all Rickettsia species...
December 16, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Artem Rogovskyy, Maliha Batool, David C Gillis, Patricia J Holman, Igor V Nebogatkin, Yuliya V Rogovska, Maksym S Rogovskyy
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. LB is the most prevalent vector-borne illness in Ukraine, but current data on the prevalence of LB pathogens in their tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, are lacking. I. ricinus ticks may also carry Borrelia miyamotoi, an emerging relapsing fever group spirochete that has been implicated in human illness. Despite its zoonotic potential, the prevalence of B. miyamotoi in ticks has not been examined in Ukraine. Similarly, data on the prevalence of other important tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp...
December 15, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Sandra Patricia Kalil, Rafael Diego da Rosa, Janaína Capelli-Peixoto, Paula Cristiane Pohl, Pedro Lagerblad de Oliveira, Andrea Cristina Fogaça, Sirlei Daffre
BACKGROUND: It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved in the control of pathogens and microbiota in insects. However, the knowledge of the role of ROS and RNS in tick-pathogen and tick-microbiota interactions is limited. Here, we evaluated the immune-related redox metabolism of the embryonic cell line BME26 from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus in response to Anaplasma marginale infection. METHODS: A high-throughput qPCR approach was used to determine the expression profile of 16 genes encoding proteins involved in either production or detoxification of ROS and RNS in response to different microbial challenges...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Leandro Tana-Hernández, Katherine Navarrete-Arroyo, Jorge Ron-Román, Armando Reyna-Bello, María Augusta Chávez-Larrea
BACKGROUND: Bovine anaplasmosis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is caused by a bacterium named Anaplasma marginale, and represents an economic problem for cattle farmers due to the losses it generates, such as: mortalities, reduced production, quarantine measures, treatments and control of vectors. The method most often used to diagnose this haemotrophic bacterium is direct examination on blood smear, which sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to other methods such as PCR...
December 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Ewa Chrostek, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Gregory D D Hurst, Grant L Hughes
Experimental evidence is accumulating that endosymbionts of phytophagous insects may transmit horizontally via plants. Intracellular symbionts known for manipulating insect reproduction and altering fitness (Rickettsia, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and bacterial parasite of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus) have been found to travel from infected insects into plants. Other insects, either of the same or different species can acquire the symbiont from the plant through feeding, and in some cases transfer it to their progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mary H Straub, Austin N Roy, Amanda Martin, Kathleen E Sholty, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley
California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias) species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors...
2017: PloS One
Jan Šlapeta, Andrea Lawrence, Michael P Reichel
Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%)...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
Danielle I Rock, Andrew H Smith, Jonah Joffe, Amie Albertus, Narayan Wong, Michael O'Connor, Kerry M Oliver, Jacob A Russell
Animal-associated microbiomes are often comprised of structured, multi-species communities, with particular microbes showing trends of co-occurrence or exclusion. Such structure suggests variable community stability, or variable costs and benefits-possibilities with implications for symbiont-driven host adaptation. In this study, we performed systematic screening for maternally transmitted, facultative endosymbionts of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Sampling across six locales, with up to five years of collection in each, netted significant and consistent trends of community structure...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Eliane Esteves, Sandra R Maruyama, Rebeca Kawahara, André Fujita, Larissa A Martins, Adne A Righi, Francisco B Costa, Giuseppe Palmisano, Marcelo B Labruna, Anderson Sá-Nunes, José M C Ribeiro, Andréa C Fogaça
Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogenic microorganisms to their vertebrate hosts. Amblyomma sculptum is vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most lethal rickettsiosis that affects humans. It is known that the transmission of pathogens by ticks is mainly associated with the physiology of the feeding process. Pathogens that are acquired with the blood meal must first colonize the tick gut and later the salivary glands (SG) in order to be transmitted during a subsequent blood feeding via saliva...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jade Wulff, Judith Margolin, Nana E Coleman, Gail Demmler-Harrison, Fong Lam, Mona D Shah
We discuss a child with severe thrombocytopenia and mild anemia admitted to the Hematology service who quickly deteriorated to a life-threatening state. However, once rickettsial disease was considered in the differential diagnosis and empiric doxycycline begun, she quickly and fully recovered. A diagnostic panel, including Rickettsia typhi serology, confirmed the diagnosis of murine typhus but this occurred weeks after she had recovered. Given the potential severity of rickettsial diseases and the ease of modern travel across geographic borders, hematology-oncology providers everywhere must consider rickettsial diseases in their differential diagnosis of critically ill children and begin empiric therapy with doxycycline promptly...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
E Lashnits, M Correa, B C Hegarty, A Birkenheuer, E B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of Bartonella species seroepidemiology in dogs may aid clinical decision making and enhance current understanding of naturally occurring arthropod vector transmission of this pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic groups in which Bartonella exposure may be more likely, describe spatiotemporal variations in Bartonella seroreactivity, and examine co-exposures to other canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD). ANIMALS: A total of 15,451 serology specimens from dogs in North America were submitted to the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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