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Zahra M Clayborne, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Rhonda C Bell, Lianne M Tomfohr-Madsen
Lower neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, even after controlling for individual-level SES. Few studies have empirically assessed potential mechanisms underlying the associations. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine relations between neighbourhood SES and birth outcomes, and (2) explore if maternal weight variables mediated these relations. Data came from a provincial prospective pregnancy cohort study in Canada...
December 29, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Marieke Beckerman, Sheila R van Berkel, Judi Mesman, Lenneke R A Alink
Negative parental attributions are related to parent and family stressors and are thought to be important predictors of subsequent disciplinary actions and, potentially, abusive parenting. We examined if negative parental attributions mediate the relation between daily stressors (i.e., low SES, parenting stress, partner-related stress) parents' own history of child maltreatment, and harsh and abusive parenting. Mothers (n=53) completed a computerized attribution task and reported on daily stressors, their own history of child maltreatment and their discipline strategies...
January 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Shih-Hsien Yang, Su-Feng Chen, Shin Nieh, Chia-Lin Liu, Yaoh-Shiang Lin, Ching-Chih Lee, Fu-Huang Lin
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global pandemic metabolic disorder. In recent years, the amount of medical resources required for the treatment of diabetes has increased as diabetes rates have gradually risen. The combined effects of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES) on DM survival rates are still not clear, especially in patients of working age. In this paper, we aim to analyze the combined effects of neighbourhood and individual SES on DM survival rates in patients of working age in Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Shervin Assari
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes, hypertension, and obesity increase risk of chronic kidney disease and associated mortality. Race and SES differences in the effects of these risk factors are, however, still unknown. Current study aimed to investigate whether or not race and SES alter the effects of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity on mortality due to renal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL), 1986 to 2011, a nationally representative prospective cohort of adults with 25 years of follow up...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Jenny Macfie, Gretchen Kurdziel, Rebecca M Mahan, Stephanie Kors
There is some evidence that maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) adversely affects parenting in infancy, resulting in disorganized attachment, which longitudinally predicts BPD symptoms in adulthood. We examined parenting related to disorganized attachment beyond infancy in offspring of mothers with BPD, when parenting becomes a goal-corrected partnership. We observed puzzle solving in a low socioeconomic status (SES) sample of mothers with BPD and their children ages 4-7, n = 36, and normative comparisons, n = 34...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Gianluca Cafagna, Chiara Seghieri
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the factors that influence short-term mortality and readmission after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) since such outcomes are commonly considered as hospital performance measures. Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the factors contributing to healthcare outcomes after hospitalization for AMI. However, no study has been published on education and 30-day readmission in Europe. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational level and 30-day mortality and readmission among patients hospitalized for AMI in Tuscany (Italy)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Teresa Janevic, Theresa Osypuk, Kristefer Stojanovski, Janko Jankovic, Daniel Gundersen, Maggie Rogers
BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination may increase the risk of low birthweight (LBW), but has not been studied among Roma, the largest minority population in Europe. Moreover, few studies test both institutional and interpersonal forms of racial discrimination on health. Our objective was to examine associations between institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination with LBW, and to test potential mediation by smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: In 2012-2013, Romani women interviewers surveyed 410 Romani women in Serbia and Macedonia...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Insook Lee, Kyung-Sook Bang, Hyojeong Moon, Jieun Kim
PURPOSE: Child obesity has been on the rise and become a worldwide health issue. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is known as an influencing factor for childhood obesity, but relevant studies on a national level are scarce in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of obesity for each age group by parental SES and analyze the trends of changes in weight status using a Korean national cohort dataset. METHODS: In Korea, children are eligible for the National Children Health Examination, a mandatory seven-time health checkup for those aged 4 to 80 months...
December 2016: Asian Nursing Research
Dean A Dudley, Wayne G Cotton, Matthew J Winslade, Bradley J Wright, Kirsten S Jackson, Alexandra M Brown, Vanessa Rock
BACKGROUND: Previous evaluations have supported the link between sun protection policies and improved sun protection behaviours. However these evaluations have relied on self-reported data. METHODS: A cross-sectional design as part of an ongoing 18-month cluster-controlled trial in primary schools (n = 20) was used. Researchers conducted direct observations to record students' hat use and teachers' use of sun protective measures during recess and lunch. Researchers also recorded the volume of sunscreen consumed in each school...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
Palka Kaur Khanuja, Satish Chander Narula, Rajesh Rajput, Rajinder Kumar Sharma, Shikha Tewari
This study aims to investigate the link between glycated hemoglobin and diabetic complications with chronic periodontitis. A total of 207 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (CP) were divided according to tertiles of mean PISA (periodontal inflamed surface area) scores as low, middle and high PISA groups. Simultaneously a group of 67 periodontally healthy individuals (PH) was recruited. Periodontal examinations, including full-mouth assessment of probing depths (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and plaque scores were determined...
January 3, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
Pengchao Sun, Nan Zhang, Haiying Hua, Qian Liang, Xuexiao Zhang, Qian Sun, Yongxing Zhao
Submicron emulsions (SEs) is an advanced formulation that possesses good biocompatibility, high loading of hydrophobic drugs, and good stability through autoclave sterilization. To enhance tumor targeting and tumor cell uptake, SEs could be modified with positive charge and targeting moieties. In the present study, three formulations were prepared: Docetaxel-loaded SEs (DocSEs), cationic DocSEs (DocCSEs), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) targeted peptide-RLT (CEKLKEAFRLTRKRGLKLA) modified DocCSEs (RLT-DocCSEs)...
December 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eugenie Pophillat, Rosanna M Rooney, Monique Nesa, Melissa C Davis, Natalie Baughman, Sharinaz Hassan, Robert T Kane
The Aussie Optimism Program: Feelings and Friends (AOP-FF) is a 10 week, universal mental health promotion program based on social/emotional and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based program in preventing and reducing internalizing problems in 6-8 year olds (Years 1-3 in Australia). Year 1-3 students from a low SES primary school (N = 206) were randomly assigned in classes to either an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline and post-test...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rachel Jarvie
OBJECTIVE: to explore the lived experiences of women with co-existing maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy and the post-birth period (<3 months post-birth). DESIGN: A qualitative, sociological design was utilised. Data were collected using a series of sequential in-depth narrative interviews during pregnancy and post-birth and fieldnotes. Cross sectional thematic analysis of the data set was undertaken, alongside the construction/analysis of in-depth biographical longitudinal case profiles of individual participants...
December 13, 2016: Midwifery
Irena Stepanikova, Gabriela R Oates
INTRODUCTION: This study examined how perceived racial privilege and perceived racial discrimination in health care varied with race and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: The sample consisted of white, black, and Native American respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2013) who had sought health care in the past 12 months. Multiple logistic regression models of perceived racial privilege and perceived discrimination were estimated...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Irena Stepanikova, Lori Brand Bateman, Gabriela R Oates
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates social determinants of systemic inflammation, focusing on race, SES, and perceived discrimination. METHODS: Data on 884 white and 170 black participants were obtained from the Survey of Midlife in the U.S., a cross-sectional observational study combining survey measures, anthropometry, and biomarker assay. Data, collected in 2004-2009, were analyzed in 2016. Main outcome measures were fasting blood concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, and E-selectin...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Irene Yang, Lynne A Hall, Kristin Ashford, Sudeshna Paul, Barbara Polivka, S Lee Ridner
BACKGROUND: Low-income, unemployed women with low levels of education are more likely to smoke during pregnancy compared to their higher-income, employed, and well-educated counterparts. The reserve capacity model (RCM) offers a theoretical framework to explain how psychosocial factors may serve as pathways connecting socioeconomic status (SES) to health behaviors. Research supports the link between prenatal smoking and several psychosocial variables such as chronic stressors, depressive symptoms, and social support...
January 2017: Nursing Research
Kathryn Backholer, Sanne A E Peters, Sophie H Bots, Anna Peeters, Rachel R Huxley, Mark Woodward
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but whether its effects are comparable in women and men is unknown. METHODS: PubMed MEDLINE was systematically searched. Studies that reported sex-specific estimates, and associated variability, of the relative risk (RR) for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or CVD according to a marker of SES (education, occupation, income or area of residence), for women and men were included...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Yuvia A Pérez Rico, Valentina Boeva, Allison C Mallory, Angelo Bitetti, Sara Majello, Emmanuel Barillot, Alena Shkumatava
Super-enhancers (SEs) are key transcriptional drivers of cellular, developmental and disease states in mammals, yet the conservational and regulatory features of these enhancer elements in non-mammalian vertebrates are unknown. To define SEs in zebrafish and enable sequence and functional comparisons to mouse and human SEs, we used genome-wide histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) occupancy as a primary SE delineator. Our study determined the set of SEs in pluripotent state cells and adult zebrafish tissues and revealed both similarities and differences between zebrafish and mammalian SEs...
December 13, 2016: Genome Research
Hilde Pape, Thor Norström, Ingeborg Rossow
AIMS: To estimate whether parental socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adolescent drinking, and the degree to which a possible association may be accounted for by various parental factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional Norwegian school survey from 2006 (response rate: 86%). PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 13-14 years (n = 5797), 15-16 years (n = 6613) and 17-18 years (n = 5351), of whom 51% were girls. MEASUREMENTS: Parents' education was our main SES indicator, and we distinguished between low (7%) and middle/high (93%) educational level...
December 11, 2016: Addiction
Elizabeth Dong, Lewei Duan, Bechien U Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States (US). We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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