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Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
Adelyn P Tu-Chan, Nikhilesh Natraj, Jason Godlove, Gary Abrams, Karunesh Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Few patients recover full hand dexterity after an acquired brain injury such as stroke. Repetitive somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) is a promising method to promote recovery of hand function. However, studies using SES have largely focused on gross motor function; it remains unclear if it can modulate distal hand functions such as finger individuation. OBJECTIVE: The specific goal of this study was to monitor the effects of SES on individuation as well as on cortical oscillations measured using EEG, with the additional goal of identifying neurophysiological biomarkers...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Veronica C Boland, Richard P Mattick, Hayden McRobbie, Mohammad Siahpush, Ryan J Courtney
BACKGROUND: The social gradient in smoking rates persist with an overrepresentation of smoking and its associated harms concentrated within lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Low-SES smokers are motivated to quit but face multiple barriers when engaging a quit attempt. An understanding of the current treatment service model from the perspectives of treatment-seeking low-SES smokers is needed to inform the design of alternative smoking cessation support services tailored to the needs of low-SES populations...
November 13, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Lindsay L Miller, Hanna C Gustafsson, Jessica Tipsord, Minkyoung Song, Elizabeth Nousen, Nathan Dieckmann, Joel T Nigg
It has been unclear whether an associations of child ADHD with socio-economic disadvantage (SES) could be accounted for by (a) parental ADHD explaining both low SES and child ADHD, and/or (b) the joint overlap of ODD or CD with low SES and ADHD. Study 1 used a community-recruited case-control sample with detailed evaluation of SES indicators, child ADHD, child externalizing, and parent ADHD symptoms (n = 931 children, 521 ADHD, 577 boys, 354 girls) in a path modeling analysis with latent variables. Study 2 evaluated ADHD and externalizing behavior in a regression model using a poverty index for SES, in 70,927 children (48...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Chris Skurka, Deena Kemp, Julie Davydova, James F Thrasher, Sahara Byrne, Amelia Greiner Safi, Rosemary J Avery, Michael C Dorf, Alan D Mathios, Leah Scolere, Jeff Niederdeppe
Introduction: Though the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for the implementation of large graphic warning labels on cigarette boxes (GWLs), the courts have blocked the implementation of 50% labels in the U.S. We conducted an experiment to explore whether changing the size of GWLs is associated with changes in visual attention, negative affect, risk beliefs, and behavioral intentions. Method: We recruited adult smokers (N = 238) and middle-school youth (N = 237) throughout New York state in May 2016...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Abigail Emma Russell, Tamsin Ford, Ginny Russell
PURPOSE: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with socioeconomic status (SES), in that children who grow up in low SES families are at an increased risk of ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. The current study explores whether different levels of ADHD symptoms are associated with prior changes in the SES facet of financial difficulty. METHODS: Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined symptoms of ADHD measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale in relation to parent-reported changes in financial difficulty, grouped into four repeated measures at four time points across childhood; (n = 6416)...
November 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Mohamad Suki, Yaara Leibovici Weissman, Doron Boltin, David Itskoviz, Tsachi Tsadok Perets, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon Cohen, Yaron Niv, Iris Dotan, Haim Leibovitzh, Zohar Levi
BACKGROUND: Data on the association of Helicobacter pylori infection and BMI are conflicting. The fact that both H. pylori infection and BMI are associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) makes this relationship difficult to characterize. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We aimed to evaluate the association between BMI and H. pylori infection after adjusting for multiple covariates. We analyzed a cohort of 235 107 individuals aged 18 years or older, who performed a C urease breath test (C-UBT), from 2007 to 2014...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Paola Friedrich, Elena Itriago, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Karina Ribeiro
Background: Few studies have comparatively assessed differences in the incidence of childhood cancer by race and ethnicity that could inform etiologic research. We aimed to identify disparities in the incidence of pediatric extracranial embryonal tumors by race and ethnicity in the United States using a population-based cancer registry. Methods: Cases of extracranial embryonal tumors among children age 0 to 19 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program 18 (n = 8188)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Robert J Wellman, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Erin K O'Loughlin, Hartley Dutczak, Annie Montreuil, Geetanjali D Datta, Jennifer O'Loughlin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence or co-occurrence of risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and whether SES interacts with risk factors to increase initiation. METHODS: In 2005, 1451 5th grade never smokers (mean age 10.7 years) in Montréal, Canada, provided baseline data, with follow-up in 6th and/or 7th grade (2005-2007). Poisson regression analyses estimated the association between 13 risk factors and initiation...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
Shabnam Omidvar, Afsaneh Bakhtiari, Mojgan Firouzbakht, Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri, Khyrunnisa Begum
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a period of life that is a bridge between childhood and adulthood. India has the world's largest adolescent girl's population, and adolescent girls are an important vulnerable group of population. Perceived health is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in adults and has been an important marker of the health status in population health studies for decades. The aim of the study was to describe adolescent's perception of health and association between some factors such as nutrition status, socioeconomic status (SES), and health status...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Mandy J Maguire, Julie M Schneider, Anna E Middleton, Yvonne Ralph, Michael Lopez, Robert A Ackerman, Alyson D Abel
The relationship between children's slow vocabulary growth and the family's low socioeconomic status (SES) has been well documented. However, previous studies have often focused on infants or preschoolers and primarily used static measures of vocabulary at multiple time points. To date, there is no research investigating whether SES predicts a child's word learning abilities in grade school and, if so, what mediates this relationship. In this study, 68 children aged 8-15 years performed a written word learning from context task that required using the surrounding text to identify the meaning of an unknown word...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Inga Schwabe, Dorret I Boomsma, Stéphanie M van den Berg
Genotype by environment interaction in behavioral traits may be assessed by estimating the proportion of variance that is explained by genetic and environmental influences conditional on a measured moderating variable, such as a known environmental exposure. Behavioral traits of interest are often measured by questionnaires and analyzed as sum scores on the items. However, statistical results on genotype by environment interaction based on sum scores can be biased due to the properties of a scale. This article presents a method that makes it possible to analyze the actually observed (phenotypic) item data rather than a sum score by simultaneously estimating the genetic model and an item response theory (IRT) model...
November 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Suvi Määttä, Hanna Konttinen, Ari Haukkala, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Eva Roos
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations of parental socioeconomic status (SES) with preschoolers' objectively measured sedentary time (SED) over the course of a week and with parent-reported children's screen and reading times at home as indicators of sedentary behaviours (SB). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: In years 2015 and 2016 in Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 864 children, aged 3-6 years, with their parents...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
Sara Lena Schröder, Astrid Fink, Laura Hoffmann, Nadine Schumann, Olaf Martin, Stefan Frantz, Matthias Richter
Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD)-related morbidity and mortality are well explored. However, less is known about the causes of inequalities in CHD treatment. In this qualitative study, we explored socioeconomic differences in the pathways to diagnosis of CHD. Methods: The data originated from 38 semi-structured interviews with older CHD patients, aged 59-80 years, conducted at the university hospital in Halle, Germany, between November 2014 and April 2015...
October 31, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Tormod Bøe, Anna Sofia Serlachius, Børge Sivertsen, Keith J Petrie, Mari Hysing
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have documented that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mental health problems in children. One proposed pathway for this association has been differential exposure to accumulated risk factors in children of lower SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of exposure to negative life events and family stress and to examine the direct and interactive association between lower SES and exposure to life events and family stress in relation with mental health problems...
October 31, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Rebecca E Ritte, Paul Lawton, Jaquelyne T Hughes, Federica Barzi, Alex Brown, Phillip Mills, Wendy Hoy, Kerin O'Dea, Alan Cass, Louise Maple-Brown
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between individual-level markers of disadvantage, renal function and cardio-metabolic risk within an Indigenous population characterised by a heavy burden of chronic kidney disease and disadvantage. DESIGN: Using data from 20 Indigenous communities across Australia, an aggregate socio-economic status (SES) score was created from individual-level socio-economic variables reported by participants...
October 31, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
Karen E Lasser, Lisa M Quintiliani, Ve Truong, Ziming Xuan, Jennifer Murillo, Cheryl Jean, Lori Pbert
Importance: While the proportion of adults who smoke cigarettes has declined substantially in the past decade, socioeconomic disparities in cigarette smoking remain. Few interventions have targeted low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority smokers in primary care settings. Objective: To evaluate a multicomponent intervention to promote smoking cessation among low-SES and minority smokers. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this prospective, unblinded, randomized clinical trial conducted between May 1, 2015, and September 4, 2017, adults 18 years and older who spoke English, smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day in the past week, were contemplating or preparing to quit smoking, and had a primary care clinician were recruited from general internal medicine and family medicine practices at 1 large safety-net hospital in Boston, Massachusetts...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Patricia Simon, Deepa R Camenga, Grace Kong, Christian M Connell, Meghan E Morean, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent polytobacco use profiles (including e-cigarettes and blunts). METHODS: Adolescents (N = 1932) completed surveys conducted in 2014 in 3 Connecticut high schools. Within a Latent Class Analysis (LCA) framework, logistic regressions examined associations between SES and polytobacco use profiles comprising never, ever, and current e-cigarette, blunt, cigarette, cigar, cigarillo, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Mitchell J Callan, Hyunji Kim, Ana I Gheorghiu, William J Matthews
We propose that personal relative deprivation (PRD)-the belief that one is worse off than similar others-plays a key role in the link between social class and prosociality. Across multiple samples and measures (total N = 2,233), people higher in PRD were less inclined to help others. When considered in isolation, neither objective nor subjective socioeconomic status (SES) was meaningfully associated with prosociality. However, because people who believe themselves to be at the top of the socioeconomic hierarchy are typically low in PRD, these variables act as mutual suppressors-the predictive validity of both is enhanced when they are considered simultaneously, revealing that both higher subjective SES and higher PRD are associated with lower prosociality...
August 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
Judith C Koops, Aart C Liefbroer, Anne H Gauthier
In the US, growing up with parents with a low socio-economic status (SES) has been shown to increase the chance of having a birth outside marriage. However, less is known about the influence of parental SES in other Western countries. The current paper examines the association between parental educational attainment with the partnership context at first birth in 16 European and North American countries, by differentiating births within marriage, within cohabitation, or while being single. Moreover, we test whether the association between parental education and partnership context at childbirth changes over cohorts and whether its influence changes when controlling for own educational attainment...
2017: European Journal of Population
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