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Ixodes ricinus

Artem S Rogovskyy, Igor V Nebogatkin, Glen A Scoles
The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the largest and most densely populated megapolis of Ukraine. Ticks were collected at various recreational areas by flagging during May, the month that showed the highest tick abundance in the past. Sex distribution among I...
October 14, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Roberta Carvalho Basile, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Elenice Mantovani, Virgínia Nazário Bonoldi, Delphim da Graça Macoris, Antonio de Queiroz-Neto
Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Lars Qviller, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Leif Egil Loe, Erling L Meisingset, Atle Mysterud
BACKGROUND: Many wingless ectoparasites have a limited capacity for active movement and are therefore primarily dependent on hitchhiking on their hosts for transportation. The distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus is expected to depend mainly on transportation by hosts and tick subsequent survival in areas where they drop off. In Europe, the most important hosts of adult female I. ricinus are cervids. The extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for I...
October 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jason A Dunlop, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Jens Lehmann, René Hoffmann, Florian Fusseis, Moritz Ehlke, Stefan Zachow, Xianghui Xiao
BACKGROUND: Fossil ticks are extremely rare and Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). RESULTS: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil's referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ana M Palomar, Aránzazu Portillo, Paula Santibáñez, David Mazuelas, Lidia Roncero, Óscar Gutiérrez, José A Oteo
The genus Borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as Lyme disease. Birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. Herein, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of Spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. Nucleic acid extracts from 174 Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), 108 Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzango, 34 Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 17 Ixodes ricinus (L...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Immacolata Iovinella, Liping Ban, Limei Song, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been focused on insects, where most of the proteins involved have been identified. In particular, chemosensing in insects relies on two families of membrane receptors, olfactory/gustatory receptors (ORs/GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), and two classes of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). In other arthropods, such as ticks and mites, only IRs have been identified, while genes encoding for OBPs and CSPs are absent...
September 29, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sándor Hornok, Klaudia Trauttwein, Nóra Takács, Adnan Hodžić, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Jenő Kontschán
The European badger (Meles meles) is a widespread mammal in most countries of the European continent, with increasingly recognized veterinary/medical importance owing to its preferred habitats (including pastures and urban environments), broad spectrum of food items, and role as a game hunting target. However, ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with badgers are only partly known, and most of them have not yet been analysed with molecular biological methods The aim of this study was to perform molecular taxonomic analysis of ticks collected from a road-killed European badger, as well as to molecularly investigate its ticks and blood sample for the presence of Anaplasmataceae and piroplasms...
September 24, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Anna Papa, Katerina Tsioka, Anastasia Kontana, Christos Papadopoulos, Nektarios Giadinis
Ticks collected from goats in northern Greece were tested for the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Among adult ticks, 37 (57.8%) were Rhipicephalus bursa, 11 (17.2%) Dermacentor marginatus, 10 (15.6%) Ixodes ricinus, 3 (4.7%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 2 (3.1%) Haemaphysalis parva; one (1.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. tick was nymph. Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massilae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected in I. ricinus and Rh. bursa ticks. A variety of Coxiella-like endosymbionts were detected in all tick genera tested, forming distinct clades from Coxiella burnetii in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene...
September 23, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Kati Hokynar, Jani J Sormunen, Eero J Vesterinen, Esa K Partio, Thomas Lilley, Veera Timonen, Jaana Panelius, Annamari Ranki, Mirja Puolakkainen
Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively...
August 18, 2016: Microorganisms
Noémie S Becker, Gabriele Margos, Helmut Blum, Stefan Krebs, Alexander Graf, Robert S Lane, Santiago Castillo-Ramírez, Andreas Sing, Volker Fingerle
BACKGROUND: The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex consists of tick-transmitted bacteria and currently comprises approximately 20 named and proposed genospecies some of which are known to cause Lyme Borreliosis. Species have been defined via genetic distances and ecological niches they occupy. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of species of the complex is fundamental to explaining patterns of speciation. This in turn forms a crucial basis to frame testable hypotheses concerning the underlying processes including host and vector adaptations...
2016: BMC Genomics
Joanna Stańczak, Beata Biernat, Anna Matyjasek, Maria Racewicz, Marta Zalewska, Daria Lewandowska
Ixodid ticks are important vectors of a variety of bacterial and protozoan pathogens which cause infections in humans. In this study, altogether 1041 questing Ixodes ricinus (n = 305) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 736), sympatrically occurring in Kampinos National Park (KPN), central-east Poland, were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 27.5 % for I. ricinus and 42.8 % for D. reticulatus. Sequencing analysis showed that the first tick species was exclusively infected with R...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Alicja Gryczyńska, Renata Welc-Falęciak
Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Martin Glatz, Terry Means, Josef Haas, Allen C Steere, Robert R Müllegger
Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines, and leukocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick bite skin lesions (<24 h of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Heather Kenney, Meghan Hermance, Saravanan Thangamani, Alexander G Pletnev
Tick-borne viruses include medically important zoonotic pathogens that can cause life-threatening diseases. Unlike mosquito-borne viruses, whose impact can be restrained via mosquito population control programs, for tick-borne viruses only vaccination remains the reliable means of disease prevention. For live vaccine viruses a concern exists, that spillovers from viremic vaccinees could result in introduction of genetically modified viruses into sustainable tick-vertebrate host transmission cycle in nature...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bhabesh Ronghang, Bishnupada Roy
UNLABELLED: To explore the seasonal prevalence of tick infections in mithun (Bos frontalis) and yak (B. grunniens) a study was conducted in Papum Pare district, Kurung-Kumey district and West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh, India from December 2012 to November 2014. Adult ticks were collected from both the animals during the month of December 2012 to November 2014. Ectoparasites were identified on the basis of their morpho-anatomical features observed through light microscope. A total of nine different species of ectoparasites recovered belong to the family Ixodidae are Rhipicephalus (B...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
Nina Król, Dorota Kiewra, Elżbieta Lonc, Bartłomiej Janaczyk, Anna Chodorowska-Skubiszewska, Michał Dzięcioł, Mateusz Gola, Robert Gruszka, Ewa Jackowska-Szlachcic, Magdalena Jagiełło, Szczepan Kawski, Zbigniew Łukaszewski, Piotr Mizgalski, Tatiana Narajowska, Justyna Niedzielska, Marcin Noczyński, Małgorzata Rudkowska, Dariusz Rzepka, Katarzyna Samulska, Michał Senze, Piotr Sieczko, Arkadiusz Silny, Anna Staniewska, Janusz Stańczyk, Wojciech Stańczyk, Magdalena Stasiak, Marek Włodarczyk, Szymon Zimniak
UNLABELLED: Tests performed in 2013 and 2014 revealed the occurrence of three tick species parasitizing pet cats and dogs in the Wrocław Agglomeration. In total, 1,455 tick specimens were removed from 931 hosts (760 dogs and 171 cats) in 18 veterinary clinics. The dominant tick species was Ixodes ricinus (n=1272; 87.4%), followed by I. hexagonus (n=137; 9.4%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=46; 3.2%). Females were the most often collected development stage among I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, and nymphs among I...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
Grzegorz Karbowiak, Beata Biernat, Joanna Stańczak, Tomasz Szewczyk, Joanna Werszko
UNLABELLED: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks are the most important vector for Rickettsia spp. in Central Europe. Ticks sustain rickettsial transmission cycles transovarially and transstadially, it makes enable the rickettsial circulation in the tick population in the absence of vertebrate competent reservoir. Rickettsia helvetica is transmitted by I. ricinus tick; the highest rates of infection are noted in adult females, lower in males and in nymphs. All tick developmental stages apart males are able to infect mammal hosts and humans...
2016: Annals of Parasitology
James J Valdés, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Radek Sima, Philip T Butterill, Daniel Růžek, Patricia A Nuttall
Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified...
2016: Scientific Reports
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