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Ixodes ricinus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807858/host-specificity-pathogen-exposure-and-superinfections-impact-the-distribution-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-genotypes-in-ticks-roe-deer-and-livestock-in-a-fragmented-agricultural-landscape
#1
Amélie Chastagner, Angélique Pion, Hélène Verheyden, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Denis Picot, Valérie Poux, Émilie Bard, Olivier Plantard, Karen D McCoy, Agnes Leblond, Gwenaël Vourc'h, Xavier Bailly
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a bacterial pathogen mainly transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. It infects wild mammals, livestock, and, occasionally, humans. Roe deer are considered to be the major reservoir, but the genotypes they carry differ from those that are found in livestock and humans. Here, we investigated whether roe deer were the main source of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes circulating in questing I. ricinus nymphs in a fragmented agricultural landscape in France. First, we assessed pathogen prevalence in 1837 I...
August 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802273/evidence-for-borrelia-bavariensis-infections-of-ixodes-uriae-within-seabird-colonies-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#2
Hannah J Munro, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799685/ecological-factors-influencing-small-mammal-infection-by-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-in-agricultural-and-forest-landscapes
#3
Grégoire Perez, Suzanne Bastian, Amélie Chastagner, Albert Agoulon, Olivier Plantard, Gwenaël Vourc'h, Alain Butet
Small mammals are key components of numerous tick-borne disease systems, as hosts for immature ticks and pathogen reservoirs. To study the factors influencing tick-borne infection in small mammals, we trapped small mammals and collected questing ticks in spring and autumn in 2012 and 2013 at 24 sites in a 10x15 km rural landscapes (Brittany, France). Tissue samples were screened by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Of the two dominant small mammal species captured, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) had higher prevalence than wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) for both infections, presumably because of specific differences in immunological defenses...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770219/quantifying-the-availability-of-vertebrate-hosts-to-ticks-a-camera-trapping-approach
#4
Tim R Hofmeester, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Patrick A Jansen
The availability of vertebrate hosts is a major determinant of the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems and thus drives disease risk for wildlife, livestock, and humans. However, it remains challenging to quantify the availability of vertebrate hosts in field settings, particularly for medium-sized to large-bodied mammals. Here, we present a method that uses camera traps to quantify the availability of warm-bodied vertebrates to ticks. The approach is to deploy camera traps at questing height at a representative sample of random points across the study area, measure the average photographic capture rate for vertebrate species, and then correct these rates for the effective detection distance...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768603/tick-surveillance-for-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-isolates-in-mongolia-and-japan
#5
Yukie Iwabu-Itoh, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Oyunnomin Naranbaatar, Enkhmandakh Yondonjamts, Kiwa Furuno, Kyunglee Lee, Kozue Sato, Hiroki Kawabata, Nobuhiro Takada, Masako Andoh, Hiroko Kajita, Yosaburo Oikawa, Minoru Nakao, Makoto Ohnishi, Masahisa Watarai, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ken Maeda, Ai Takano
Borrelia miyamotoi, recently recognized as a human pathogenic spirochete, was isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus in northern Mongolia and Honshu Island, a major island in Japan. Although no human B. miyamotoi infections have been reported in Mongolia, the prevalence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from Mongolia is higher than that in ticks from Hokkaido, Japan, where human cases have been reported. Moreover, the multi-locus sequence analysis of cultured isolates revealed that B. miyamotoi isolates in Mongolia belong to the Siberian type, a sequence type that was originally reported from isolates from I...
July 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755284/morphological-anomalies-in-ixodes-ricinus-and-ixodes-inopinatus-collected-from-tick-borne-encephalitis-natural-foci-in-central-europe
#6
Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Malena Bestehorn, Michael Bröker, Johannes Borde, Tomas Molcanyi, Nanna Skaarup Andersen, Martin Pfeffer, Gerhard Dobler
In 2015, 0.02% nymphs displayed anomalies (ectromely) out of the 6744 collected ticks as part of a tick-borne encephalitis program in Germany. In 2016, questing Ixodes ricinus (n = 14,527) and Ixodes inopinatus (n = 75) ticks were collected by flagging as part of a tick-borne encephalitis program in Germany, Slovakia and Denmark. A total of 278 (1.9%) out of 14,602 nymph and adult ticks showed morphological anomalies. The anomalies were divided into general anomalies (body asymmetry) and local anomalies (anomalies of appendages, malformation of capitulum, exoskeleton anomalies and anal groove deformation) with nymphs being the most affected life stage...
July 28, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724731/cascading-effects-of-predator-activity-on-tick-borne-disease-risk
#7
Tim R Hofmeester, Patrick A Jansen, Hendrikus J Wijnen, Elena C Coipan, Manoj Fonville, Herbert H T Prins, Hein Sprong, Sipke E van Wieren
Predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (DIN)-an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk-by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. We investigated this possible indirect effect of predators by comparing data from 20 forest plots across the Netherlands that varied in predator abundance. In each plot, we measured the density of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs (DON), DIN for three pathogens, rodent density, the tick burden on rodents and the activity of mammalian predators...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717323/epidemiological-study-of-tick-infestation-in-buffalo-of-various-regions-of-district-khairpur-pakistan
#8
Farzana Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Tahmeena Fakhur Nissa, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammed Asif Arain, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Farman Ali Siyal, Sarfraz Ali Fazlani
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions) were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714333/-borrelia-miyamotoi-a-recently-identified-human-pathogenic-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-spirochete
#9
Sándor Szekeres, András Lakos, Gábor Földvári
Borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. This pathogen is different from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. Over 50 patients have been described worldwide with Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. Our knowledge about Borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distribution in different habitats and also the mechanism of the infection is limited...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697801/interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-control-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-by-murine-neutrophil-granulocytes
#10
Kathrin Gussmann, Susanne Kirschnek, Friederike D von Loewenich
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. It replicates in neutrophils and elicits febrile disease in humans and animals. Because of its striking tropism for neutrophils, A. phagocytophilum has been used as a model organism to study the immune response against obligate intracellular pathogens. In mice, the control of A. phagocytophilum in the early phase of infection is dependent on natural killer cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
July 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693561/goats-as-sentinel-hosts-for-the-detection-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-risk-areas-in-the-canton-of-valais-switzerland
#11
Nadia Rieille, Christine Klaus, Donata Hoffmann, Olivier Péter, Maarten J Voordouw
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an important tick-borne disease in Europe. Detection of the TBE virus (TBEV) in local populations of Ixodes ricinus ticks is the most reliable proof that a given area is at risk for TBE, but this approach is time-consuming and expensive. A cheaper and simpler approach is to use immunology-based methods to screen vertebrate hosts for TBEV-specific antibodies and subsequently test the tick populations at locations with seropositive animals. RESULTS: The purpose of the present study was to use goats as sentinel animals to identify new risk areas for TBE in the canton of Valais in Switzerland...
July 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690096/modeling-the-effects-of-variable-feeding-patterns-of-larval-ticks-on-the-transmission-of-borrelia-lusitaniae-and-borrelia-afzelii
#12
Luca Ferreri, Silvia Perazzo, Ezio Venturino, Mario Giacobini, Luigi Bertolotti, Alessandro Mannelli
Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in Europe. B. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving Ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. The transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease. In this study, a set of difference equations simplifying the complex interaction between vectors and their hosts (competent and not for Borrelia) is built to gain insights into conditions underlying the dominance of B...
July 6, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684041/five-cases-of-vector-borne-francisella-tularensis-holarctica-infections-in-south-western-germany-and-genetic-diversity
#13
Johannes P Borde, Sabine Zange, Markus H Antwerpen, Enrico Georgi, Heiner von Buttlar, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease in Germany. Francisella tularensis has been isolated previously from ticks in southern Germany underscoring the importance of ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in tularemia transmission, but there have been only few reports from this region with single cases or small case series of tick-borne transmissions of tularemia. We report five cases of non-game animal associated tularemia diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 in southwestern Germany - Baden-Wuerttemberg. Our case series and molecular typing (MLVA) results add published clinical experience to this underdiagnosed disease and consolidate previous findings regarding tick-borne transmission of tularemia and phylogenetic diversity in Germany...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676905/babesia-theileria-and-hepatozoon-species-in-ticks-infesting-animal-hosts-in-romania
#14
Martin O Andersson, Conny Tolf, Paula Tamba, Mircea Stefanache, Gabriel Radbea, Franz Rubel, Jonas Waldenström, Gerhard Dobler, Lidia Chițimia-Dobler
Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR...
August 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662690/comparative-efficacy-of-a-new-spot-on-combination-product-containing-selamectin-and-sarolaner-stronghold%C3%A2-plus-versus-fluralaner-bravecto%C3%A2-against-induced-infestations-with-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-on-cats
#15
Thomas Geurden, Stasia Borowski, Magda Wozniakiewicz, Vickie King, Josephus Fourie, Julian Liebenberg
BACKGROUND: Ticks are increasingly reported on cats worldwide, with Ixodes ricinus being a relevant species across Europe and in near by areas of North Africa and the Middle East. Yet there are few acaracidal products with proven efficacy approved for use in cats. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new spot-on formulation containing selamectin and sarolaner with a topical application of fluralaner (Bravecto®) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on cats. To that end, twenty-four (24) cats were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups...
June 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654319/partial-characterization-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-isolates-from-ticks-of-southern-ukraine
#16
Oksana O Yurchenko, Dmytro O Dubina, Nataliya O Vynograd, Jean-Paul Gonzalez
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle...
August 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648772/clinical-outbreak-of-babesiosis-caused-by-babesia-capreoli-in-captive-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus-tarandus-in-the-netherlands
#17
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Hein Sprong, Els M Broens, Marja J L Kik
From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647128/seasonal-dynamics-of-adult-dermacentor-reticulatus-in-a-peri-urban-park-in-southern-europe
#18
Emanuela Olivieri, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Fabrizia Veronesi, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Studies on the human-biting pathogen vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus have been scarce in southern Europe. The aims of the present study were to determine the abundance of these ticks in a peri-urban park in northern Italy, describe the seasonal activity of D. reticulatus and examine the correlation between tick occurrence and environmental factors. Ticks were collected monthly from April 2015 to May 2016 using both dragging and flagging techniques. Various climatic variables (mean temperature, relative humidity and evapotranspiration for the collection dates; and 30-day moving averages preceding each collection date were calculated for rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and saturation deficit) also were recorded...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631117/multi-criteria-decision-analysis-to-model-ixodes-ricinus-habitat-suitability
#19
Raphaël Rousseau, Guy McGrath, Barry J McMahon, Sophie O Vanwambeke
Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them)...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620590/functional-redundancy-and-ecological-innovation-shape-the-circulation-of-tick-transmitted-pathogens
#20
Agustín Estrada-Peña, José de la Fuente, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
Ticks are vectors of pathogens affecting human and animal health worldwide. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary interactions between ticks, hosts, and pathogens are largely unknown. Here, we integrated a framework to evaluate the associations of the tick Ixodes ricinus with its hosts and environmental niches that impact pathogen circulation. The analysis of tick-hosts association suggested that mammals and lizards were the ancestral hosts of this tick species, and that a leap to Aves occurred around 120 M years ago...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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